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I 


NYPL 


RESEARCH 


UBRAR|ES 


33433  08192330 


HISTORY 


OF 


Cottonwood  and  Watonwan  Counties 

Minnesota 

THEIR  PEOPLE,  INDUSTRIES  AND  INSTITUTIONS 


JOHN  A.   BROWN 

Editor-in-Chief 


With  Biographical  Sketches  of  Representative  Citizens  and 
Genealogical  Records  of  Many  of  the  Old  Families 


VOLUME  I 


ILLUSTRATED 


1916 

B.  F.  BOWEN   &   COMPANY,  Inc. 

Indianapolis,  Indiana 


THE  Nj 


DEDICATION 

To  those  whose  hands  planted  the  first  homes  in  Cottonwood  and 
Watonwan  counties;  whose  love  of  religion  and  education  established  the 
first  churches  and  schools;  whose  desire  for  good  government  led  to  th< 
organization  of  civil  townships  and  the  selection  of  worthy  public  official'-; 
whose  wish  for  material  prosperity  has  caused  the  building  of  mills  and 
factories  and  the  opening  of  virgin  tracts  of  land  to  cultivation — to  those 
who  are  gone,  as  well  as  to  the  many  pioneers  still  living,  is  this  record 
of  their  achievements  dedicated. 


PUBLISHERS'  PREFACE 


All  life  and  achievement  is  evolution;  present  wisdom  comes  from  past 
experience,  and  present  commercial  prosperity  has  come  only  from  past  exer- 
tion and  sacrifice.  The  deeds  and  motives  of  the  men  who  have  gone  before 
have  been  instrumental  in  shaping  the  destinies  of  later  communities  and 
states.  The  development  of  a  new  country  was  at  once  a  task  and  a  privi- 
lege. It  required  great  courage,  sacrifice  and  privation.  Compare  the  pres- 
ent conditions  of  the  people  of  Cottonwood  and  Watonwan  counties,  Minne- 
sota, with  what  they  were  five  decades  ago.  From  a  trackless  wilderness 
and  virgin  land,  they  have  come  to  be  centers  of  prosperity  and  civilization, 
with  millions  of  wealth,  systems  of  railways,  educational  and  religious  insti- 
tutions, varied  industries  and  immense  agricultural  and  dairy  interests.  I 
any  thinking  person  be  insensible  to  the  fascination  of  the  study  which  dis- 
closes the  aspirations  and  efforts  of  the  early  pioneers  who  so  strongly  laid 
the  foundation  upon  which  has  been  reared  the  magnificent  prosperity  of 
later  davs?  To  perpetuate  the  story  of  these  people  and  to  trace  and  record 
the  social,  religious,  educational,  political  and  industrial  progress  of  the  com- 
munity from  its  first  inception,  is  the  function  of  the  local  historian.  \ 
sincere  purpose  to  preserve  facts  and  personal  memoirs  that  are  deserving 
of  perpetuation,  and  which  unite  the  present  to  the  past,  is  the  motive  for 
the  present  publication.  The  publishers  desire  to  extend  their  thanks  to 
those  who  have  so  faithfully  labored  to  this  end.  Thanks  are  also  due  to 
the  citizens  of  Cottonwood  and  Watonwan  counties  for  the  uniform  kind- 
ness with  which  they  have  regarded  this  undertaking,  and  for  their  many 
services  rendered  in  the  gaining  of  necessary  information. 

In  placing  the  "History  of  Cottonwood  and  Watonwan  Counl 
Minnesota,"  before  the  citizens,  the  publishers  can  conscientiously  claim  that 
they  have  carried  out  the  plan  as  outlined  in  the  prospectus.  Every  bio- 
graphical sketch  in  the  work  has  been  submitted  to  the  party  interested,  for 
correction,  and  therefore  any  error  of  fact,  if  there  be  any,  is  solely  due  to 
the  person  for  whom  the  sketch  was  prepared.  Confident  that  our  effort  to 
please  will  fully  meet  the  approbation  of  the  public,  we  are, 

Respectfully, 

HE  PUBLISH!  R 


CONTENTS 

VOLUME  I 


COTTONWOOD  COUNTY 

CHAPTER    I— RELATED    STATE    HISTORY ii 

A  portion  of  Minnesota  Originally  Included  in   Louisiana   Purchase — Indian 

Cessions    and    Treaties — Territorial    Government    Established — I s — 

Governor  Alexander  Ramsey — First  Territorial  Legislature— The  Historic 
Council  with  the  Indians  at  Traverse  des  Sioux — The  Treaty — Indian 
Hunters  Cause  Trouble — Townsite  Speculation — Constitutional  Convention — 
First  State  Legislature — Admission  of  Minnesota  as  a  State — Aid  to  Rail- 
roads— Financial  Stringency — Unrest  Among  the  Indians — Massacre  of 
1862 — Punishment  of  the  Indians — Subsequent  Treaties — A  Period  of  Rapid 
Development — Trouble  Because  of  the  Stair  Issue  of  Railroad  Bonds-  Settle- 
ment of  the  Question  and  Activity  in  Railroad  Building — I  '  rul- 
ing Interests — Population  Statistics — Military  Record— Nami  G  ihy — 
Area — Rivers — Lakes — Elevations — Climate — Chronological  History  of  the 
State. 

CHAPTER  II— GEOLOGY,  TOPOGRAPHY  AND   NATURAL   FEATURES..    59 

Situation — Area — Natural  Drainage — Streams — Lakes  —  Topography  —  Dis- 
tances— Altitudes — Soil — Timber — Geological  Structure — Water  Falls  and 
Cascades — Drift  and  Contour — Moraines — Boulders  and   Pebbles— Peat. 

CHAPTER  III— PIONEER  SETTLEMENT — 79 

"Dutch  Charlie" — First  Settlers — Struggles  of  the   Pioneers      V\ 
73 — Old  Settlers'  Association — Early   Hardships  of  a  Mail   Carrier. 

CHAPTER  IV— ORGANIZATION  OF  O                 IfOOD  O  -    90 

Creation    of — Area — Lakes — Soil — The    Two    "Sto  nty 

Government — Xo  Hard  County-seat   Contests — County's  Condition   in  1884 — 
Organization    of    the    County — Fir                      —Assessed     Valuation 
Commissioners'  Proceedings — First  I  i                                                              miums— 
Grasshopper  Appropriations— Taxes  in   1877 — Court    House    Buildini 

Locations   for   County   Offices— County  Jail— Caring   for   th(     P<  ian 

Thistle  Pest— County  Officers'  Fees  in  1909— Tax  Levy  for  1916  -ity 
Finances,  July  1,  1916— County  Officials,  1916—  County  an.! 


CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER    V— COUNTY   AND    STATE    REPRESENTATION 110 

Presidential  Vote  in  Cottonwood  County — State  Senators — State  Repre- 
sentatives— County  Auditors — County  Treasurers — Sheriffs — Registers  of 
Deeds — Probate  Judges — County  Commissioners. 

CHAPTER  VI— TOWNSHIPS   OF  COTTONWOOD   COUNTY 114 

Civil  Subdivisions — The  Townships  of  Germantown,  Amboy,  Amo,  Ann, 
Carson,  Dale,  Delton,  Great  Bend,  Highwater,  Lakeside,  Midway,  Mountain 
Lake,  Rose  Hill,  Selma,  Springfield,  Southbrook,  Storden,  Westbrook— 
Villages  of  Jeffers,  Delft,  Bingham  Lake,  Mountain  Lake,  Storden  and 
Westbrook. 

CHAPTER  VII— AGRICULTURAL  INTERESTS 194 

Fortunate  Situation  of  Minnesota — Crop  Failures  Rare  in  Cottonwood 
County — Poultry  Show — Early  and  Present  Stock  Farms — The  Creamery 
Industry — Agricultural  Societies — Farm  Names — Agricultural  Statistics — 
Columbian  Exposition  Premium — Stock  Men  of  1908. 

CHAPTER  VIII— SECRET  AND   BENEVOLENT  SOCIETIES 205 

Ancient  ^ree  and  Accepted  Masons — Royal  Arch  Masons — Order  of  the 
Eastern  Star — Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows — Daughters  of  Rebekah — 
Ancient  Order  of  United  Workmen — Modern  Woodmen  of  America — Royal 
Neighbors  of  America — Modern  Brotherhood  of  America — Sons  of  Norway — 
Daughters  of  Norway — Knights  of  Columbus — -Patrons  of  Husbandry. 

CHAPTER   IX— PHYSICIANS   AND   SURGEONS 218 

First  Physician  in  Cottonwood  County— Past  and  Present  Physicians — 
Silas  D.  Allen. 

CHAPTER   X— NEWSPAPERS 223 

Papers,  Past  and  Present,  Published  at  Windom,  Westbrook,  Jeffers  and 
Mountain  Lake. 

CHAPTER  XI— RELIGIOUS  DENOMINATIONS 226 

Methodist  Episcopal  Churches — Presbyterian  Churches — Baptist  Churches — 
Danish  Baptist  Churches — Mission  Band — Evangelical  Lutheran  Churches — 
Dowie  Zionists  —  Lutheran  Churches  —  Mennon-ite  Church  —  Catholic 
Churches — Episcopal  Church. 

CHAPTER   XII— BENCH    AND    BAR 241 

Pioneer  Lawyers — Others  of  a  Later  Day — Members  of  the  Bar  in  1916 — 
Court  Officers. 

CHAPTER  XIII— EDUCATIONAL  INTERESTS.. 244 

Sterling  Type  of  Pioneer  Settlers — Early  Educational  Conditions  and  the 
Improvements  Which  Have  Followed  Through  the  Years — The  Great 
Bend  School  House  and  Its  Destruction — Early  School  Districts — An  Early 
School — Early  School  Teachers — First  School  House  in  the  County — Schools 
at  Bingham  Lake,  Storden,  Jeffers,  Westbrook,  Windom  City  and  Mountain 


CONTENTS. 

Lake — Rural  School  Commencements — Salaries  Paid  County  Superintendents 
— School  Lands — County  Superintendent's  Report  for  1915 — An  Early  School 
Superintendent. 

CHAPTER  XIV— BANKS  AXD    BANKING 267 

Little  Demand  for  Banks  in  Pioneer  Days — Poverty  of  Marly  Days  Changed 
to  Prosperity  and  Full  Bank  Accounts — Banks  at  Windom,  Jeffers,  Storden, 
Mountain  Lake,  Westbrook,  Bingham  Lake  and  Delft — Recapitulation. 

CHAPTER  XV—  RAILROADS  AND  TRANSPORTATION 277 

Railroads  in  Cottonwood  County  Early  in  Its  History — The  "Currie" 
and  Other  Lines  Which   Have   Been   Constructed   in  the  County. 

CHAPTER   XVI— MILITARY   MATTERS 280 

Grand  Army  of  the  Republic— Woman's  Relief  Corps— Helped  in  Capture  of 
Jeff  Davis— "We  Are  Growing  Old,  John"  -Soldiers  Who  Pledged  Their 
Votes  to  Grant  and  Wilson — Spanish-American   War  Soldiers. 

CHAPTER  XVII— CITY  OF  WINDOM 287 

Name — Population — Windom  as  Viewed  in  1893 — First  Events — Commercial 
Interests,  1S72  and  1882 — Postofhce — Municipal  History— Waterworks — 
Library — Ferry — First  Elevator — Ruse   Hospital — Industries — Removal   oi 

Old   Landmark — The   Old  "Lock-up" — Commercial    Interests   in    191 m- 

mercialt     Clubs — The     Tourist      Club— Woman's      Literary      Club— Win. I 
Pioneers — Windom's  Greatest  Fire. 

CHAPTER   XVIII— REMINISCENCES -  305 

Pioneer  Days  in  Great   Bend —Blizzard  of  1873. 

CHAPTER  XIX— MISCELLANEOUS  TOPICS  AND   INCIDENTS 311 

Immigration  Association — Population  Statistics — Nationality  of  Population — 
Village     Plats — Platted    Cemeteries — Altitudes — Market     Q  Grass- 

hopper Plague — Storm  of  1873 — The  Cyclones  of  1903  and  1908 — Snow  Storm 
of  iggl — Hay  Burned — A  Prairie  Blizzard  of  1873 — Fivc-Y.  ai  ( ,i  assln.ppi-r 
Scourge — Burning  Hay  for  Fuel — Railroad  Wreck  at  Windom  Mountain 
Lake  Wreck— "The  Old  Ox  Team." 


WATONWAN  COUNTY 

CHAPTER  I— GEOLOGY  OF   WATONWAN   COUNTY 

Situation— Area— Surface     Features— Natural     Draii  raphy— Ele- 

vations— Soil— Timber—  Geological  Structure— Lakes— Boulders  and  Gravel- 
Building  Stone— Peat. 

CHAPTER  II— INDIAN   HISTORY  AND  TREATIES 

Treaty    of   Traverse    des    Sioux— Indian    Characters— Captivity 

Juni— Causes   Leading  to   the    Indian    Massacre   of   1862— First    Art    of    \ 


CONTENTS. 

lence — Reminiscences  of  the  Little  Crow  Uprising — The  Government  Not 
Guiltless — Punishment  of  the  Sioux — Pensioners  of  the  Sioux  Uprising — 
Story  of  the  Xew  Ulm  Massacre — Indians'  Last  Raid  in  This  Section — In- 
dians and  Their  Peculiar  Customs — The  Versatile  Indian — Incidents  Con- 
nected With  the   Indian  War. 

CHAPTER   III— THE   FIRST   SETTLEMENTS 376 

The  Pioneer  Band — Early  Deeds  and  Land  Transfers — Timber  Claims- 
School  Lands — Early  Miscellaneous  Deeds — Settlement  Notes — First  Set- 
tlers in  the   County. 

CHAPTER   IV— ORGANIZATION  AND   COUNTY   GOVERNMENT 381 

Creation  and  Organization — Name — Area — County  Commissioners'  Proceed- 
ings— First  Militia  Officers — Troubles  of  a  Treasurer — County  Finances, 
1870 — County  Expenses,  1877 — Aid  to  Farmers  Who  Suffered  From  the 
Grasshopper  Scourge — Relocating  the  County  Seat — County  Official  Paper — 
Salaries  and  Bonds  of  County  Officers,  188-1 — Court  House  History — Jail — 
Caring  for  the  Poor — County  Finances,  1897  and  1915 — Assessed  Valuation, 
1880,  1890  and  1916— Number  of  Buildings  Assessed  in  1894 — Treasury 
Burglarized — Drainage. 

CHAPTER  V— COUNTY   AND  STATE   REPRESENTATION 410 

Presidential  Vote — State  Senators — State  Representatives — County  Com- 
missioners— County  Auditors — County  Treasurers — -Registers  of  Deeds — 
Sheriffs — Clerks  of  the  District  Court — County  Attorneys — Court  Commis- 
sioners— Coroners — Probate  Judges — School  Examiners  and  County  Super- 
intendent— County   Surveyors. 

(II  \i'TKR   VI— TOWNSHIPS  OF  WATONWAN   COUNTY 419 

Townships  of  Adrian,  Antrim,  Butterfield,  Fieldon,  Long  Lake.  Madelia, 
Nelson,  Odin,  Riverside.  Rosendale.  South  Branch.  St.  James— Villages  of 
Darfur,  Lewisville,  Butterfield,  Ormsby,  Madelia,  Odin,  LaSalle  and  Grogan. 

(II  U'TLR   VII— CITY  OF  ST.  JAMES 467 

Name — Platted — Early  Conditions — First  Events — Winter  of  1870-1 — St. 
James  in  1885-6 — Municipal  History — Fire  Department — Societies — Commer- 
cial Club — Public  Library — Business  Men's  Association — Sanitarium — Long 
Lake   Park — Industries — Commercial    Interests.   1(>1(> — Miscellaneous   Items 

CHAPTER    VIII— CHURCHES 480 

Methodist  Episcopal  Churches — Evangelical  Lutheran  Churches — Presby- 
terian Churches — Christian  Church — Church  of  Christ — Episcopal  Churches — 
Norwegian  Lutheran  Churches— Swedish  Lutheran  Churches — Mennonite 
Churches — Baptist   Churches — Catholic  Churches. 

CHAPTER   IX— EDUCATIONAL    INTERESTS 503 

Present  School  System  of  the  State— School  Lands — Schools  of  1875— First 
Schools  in  Watonwan  County— St.  James  Public  Schools  — Rosendale  Town- 
ship Schools  and  the  Schools  at  Odin,  Darfur,  Lewisville,  Ormsby  and  Butter- 


CONTENTS. 

field— Present  School  Statistics— High  and  Graded  Schools— School  lions,' 
Locations — Early  School  Scandal. 

CHAPTER  X— THE  BENCH  AXD  BAR 513 

Requirements  for  Admission  to  Practice  Law  in  Minnesota — List  of  Attor- 
neys in  This  County — Present  Members  of  the  Bar. 

CHAPTER  XI— PHYSICIANS  01    THE   COUNTY 516 

Hardships  and  Poor  Recompense  of  Early  Doctors — List  of  Registered 
Physicians — Other  Doctors  Who  Have-  Practiced  in  the  County — Watonwan 
County  Medical  Society — Early   Physicians'  Fees. 

CHAPTER    XII— NEWSPAPERS 521 

Power  of  the  Press — First  Paper  in  the  County — Papers,   Last   and   Presi 
at   Madelia,   St.  James,   Butterfield. 

CHAPTER  XIII— BANKS  AND   BANKING 525 

Character  of  Banks — First  Bank  in  Watonwan  County — Banks  at  Madelia, 
St.  James,  Odin,  Lewisville,    Butterfield,  Ormsby,   LaSalle  and    Darfur. 

CHAPTER   XIV— FRATERNAL  AXD    CIVIC  ORGANIZATIONS 532 

Ancient  Free  and  Accepted  Masons — Order  of  the  I  asti  rti  Mar — Independent 
Order  of  Odd  Fellows — Daughters  of  Rcbekah — Knights  of  Pythias — Modern 
Woodmen  of  America — Royal  Neighbors  of  America — Modern  brother- 
hood of  America — Brotherhood  of  Railway  Trainmen — Catholic  Order  "i 
Foresters — Grand   Army   of   the    Republic. 

CHAPTER    XV— RAILROADS    AXD   TRANSPORTATION     541 

Transformation  in  Local  Conditions  Through  Advent  of  Railroads — Brief 
.Description    of    the    Various    Railroads    Which     Have     Entered     Watonwan 

County. 

CHAPTER   XVI— MILITARY    HISTORY . 546 

Many  Veterans   of   the    <  i\il    War   in    This   County — The   Spanish-American 

War. 

CHAPTER  XVII— AGRICULTURE,  STOCK-RAISING,   ETC.  

Watonwan,    Purely    an    -Agricultural     District — Creami  ck     Farms — 

Improvement    in    Stock-raising    Methods — Farm    Nami  '    Elgin 

Colony — County  Eair  Societies— An  Early  llorsr  and  Cattli  Fair— Dairy 
Statistics — Creamery  Companies. 

CHAPTER   XVIII— Ml   I'M  RS   AXD   OUT!      1  - 

Murder  of  Lais  Johnson— Thi    Goblinski  Quadruple  Murder— Killing  of  ; 
Jacobson— Suicide— The     Younger      Brothers     and     the      Northfield      Bi 

Robbery. 

CHAPTER   XIX— SIDELIGHTS 

Population    of    the    County— Population    by    Townships— Altitudes    of 


CONTENTS. 

County — Village  Plattings — Spelling  School  in  Pioneer  Days — Old  Settlers' 
Reunion  at  Madelia,  1875 — "Song  for  the  Old  Settlers" — Great  Storms — 
Advantages  of  Watonwan  County — Court  House  Corner-stone  Laying — 
Growth  of  Watonwan  County — Grasshoppers — Birds  and  Wild  Animals. 

CHAPTER  XX— REMINISCENCES 583 

Interesting  Review  of  Early  Events  and  Conditions  by  Alexander  Swanson — 
The  First  House  in  Adrian  Township — Transportation  Troubles — Privations 
of  Pioneers — How  the  Children  Helped — Tribute  to  Pioneer  Heroes — The 
Grasshopper  Plague — Lack  of  Amusements  in  Early  Days — Early  Market 
Prices — Tools  and  Machinery. 

CHAPTER   XXI— MISCELLANEOUS    ITEMS 392 

Market  Quotations — Anti-Horse  Thief  Association — The  Prohibition  Ques- 
tion— Local  Option  Vote  in  1915 — Russian  Thistle  Day. 


HISTORICAL  INDEX 

VOLUME  I 


COTTONWOOD  COUNTY 


A 

Agricultural  Interests 194 

Agricultural  Societies 19S 

Allen,   Silas   D.   221 

Altitudes  in  the  County 63 

Altitudes   in   the   State   49 

Amboy  Township — 

Altitude     64 

Area    114 

Assessed  Valuation 96 

Boundaries   117 

Character    of    Citizens    118 

Drainage      59 

Grasshopper  Loss  315 

Land  Entries 118 

Organization      118 

Population    117,  312 

Settlement    118 

Topography     62 

Amo   Township — ■ 

Altitude     64 

Area    114 

Assessed  Valuation 96 

Grasshopper  Loss 315 

Groves    123 

Lakes    60 

Land   Entries 123 

Location    122 

Xante    Changed    123 

Organization    123 

Peat    77 

Population    122,  312 

Settlers    123 

Topography   

Ancient   Free  and  Accepted    Masons  205 


\.ncien1   Order  of  United   Workmen  210 
Ann   Township — 

Altitude      64 

a    114 

Assessed   Valuation 96 

Boundaries   126 

Drainage    59 

Grasshopper   I  oss  315 

drives    , 127 

Land  Entries  127 

Organization    

Population  127.  312 

Settlement    127 

Topography  

Ana   of   the   County 59 

\.-r.i  of  the  State 47 

Assessed  Valuation  of  '  ounty  96 

Attorneys 241 

Auditors,  County HI 

B 

iks 

<  hurches  230 



Bench  and  Bar 241 

B lenl    Societies   

Bingham  Lake — 

Altitude  

97 

B      ks 2P 

I ;'' 

rches  

Creamery 198 

ttion    154 

Lodges    213 


HISTORICAL   INDEX. 


Bingham    Lake — Com. 

Pioneer  Business  Men 155 

Platted  313 

Population    312 

Postoffice    154 

Schools    247 

Tile   Factory   155 

Blizzard    of    1873 305 

Boulders    76 

Boundaries  of  County 91 

C 

Carson  Township — 

Altitude    64 

Area   114 

Assessed  Valuation 96 

Grasshopper   Loss   315 

Lakes   60 

Land  Entries 130 

Land  Values 130 

Location    1.50 

Organization    130 

Population 130,  312 

Settlement 130 

Topography   62 

Catholic  Churches 238 

Cattle   202 

Cattle  Breeding 196 

Cemetery  Plats 313 

Chronological  History  of  Minnesota     50 

Churches   226 

Climate   of   Minnesota 49 

Commissioners,  County 112 

Commissioners'  Districts,  First 97 

Constitution  of  State 39 

Corn   202 

County  Auditors 111 

County  Commissioners  112 

County  Commissioners'  Proceedings     97 

County   Finances,    1916   107 

County  Government   93 

County   Offices   103 

County  Officers'  Fees,  1909 ... _  107 

County  Officials,   hirst 95 

County  Officials,  1916 108 

County    Representation  110 

County   Roads  108 

County-seat    Contests    94 

County  Scats 103 


County   Superintendents'   Salaries 260 

County   Treasurers   111 

Court,   First  Term   of 95 

Court    House   History   102 

Court   Officers,    1916 243 

Creameries   197,  202,  203,  204 

Creation  of  County 90 

Cyclones   316 


H 


Dairy   Interests     .  .       197,  202, 

203, 

204 

Dale  Township — 

Altitude 

64 

114 

Assessed  Valuation  _  _       -     . 

96 

Lakes      _                         _         . 

60, 

101 

Land    Entries 

134 

Location _                 _   _ 

1  11 

Organization              .   . 

1  14 

Population                       _     _ 

134 

312 

Settlement 

114 

6? 

Danish     Baptist    Church 

232 

Daughters   of  Norway 

215 

209 

Delft- 

Bank 

?75 

Fire   . 

111 

130, 

133, 

131 

Platted        ..     . 

111 

Delton  Township — 

Altitude  _     

(.4 

Area                                ...          _   . 

114 

Assessed  Valuation       _  . 

96 

117 

1  17 

Land    Entries    

137 

<  Irganization —  . 

137 

Population 

117 

312 

Settlement     - 

1.17 

6? 

District    Appointments,    First — 

98 

Diversified  Farming  Interests-  . 

46 

218 

Dowie  Zionists 

235 

S9 

Drift    Glacial  - 

71 

..79, 

145 

HISTORICAL   INDEX. 


E 

Early   School    Districts 245 

Eastern  Star,  Order  of  the 206 

Education    244 

Educational    Statistics    261 

Episcopal   Church   239 

Evangelical  Lutheran  Churches 233 

F 

Fair  Associations 198 

Farm  Animals 202 

Farm   Xames   200 

Farm  Statistics 202 

Farming  Interests,   Diversified 46 

Farming   Methods   104 

First    Physicians    218 

Fraternal  Orders  205 

G 

Geography  of   the   State 47 

Geology  of  the  County 59 

Georgetown    Township    123 

German  Evan.  Luth.  Trinity  Church  235 
Germantown  Township — 

Altitude o4 

Area    1 14 

Assessed  Valuation 96 

Boundaries   114 

Drainage   59 

Grasshopper  Loss 315 

Land  Entries  115 

Natural  Features  il4 

Organization    115 

Population  115,  312 

Settlement    115 

Soil    - 114 

Topography 62 

Glacial   Drift   -     71 

Grains,   Production   of 202 

Grand  Army  of  the  Republic 280 

Granges  217 

Grant  and   Wilson   Voters 284 

Grasshopper    Appropriations    101 

Grasshopper  Plague 314,  323 

Great  Bend  School  House 244,  265 

Great   Bend  Township — 

Altitude   64 

Area    114 


liroat    Bend    Township— font. 

Assessed  Valuation  96 

Boundaries   140 

Land   Kntries 141 

Organization    140 

Peat    77 

Pioneer   Days   305 

Poor    Farm    105 

Population  140,  312 

Schools    — 244 

Settlement    141 

Topography   62 

Growth    of   the    State 44 

H 

Hardships  of  a  Mail  Carrier 88 

Hay   2H2 

Hay  Burned  321 

Highwater  Township — 

Altitude  64 

Area    114 

^ssi  ssed    Valuation    96 

Boundaries   145 

Drainage  59 

"Dutch   Charlie"  145 

Lakes    60 

I  and  Entries 14d 

Natural   Features 145 

Organization    1  -4' • 

Population  140.  312 

Settlement    146 

Topography   62 

Horse  Breeding  195 

Horses   

I 

Immigration  Association 311 

Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows 

Indian    Hunters.  Trouble   with 37 

an    Treaties    33 

Indian    t'nrrst - - 

J 

Jail    

Jeffers — 

in 97 

Banks  

Business  Interests  1-1 


HISTORICAL   INDEX. 


Jeffers — Cont. 

Churches 229.  234,  239 

Early  Growth 119 

Fires  120 

Creamery    — . 121 

Location  119,  121 

Lodges   212,  214 

Municipal  History 120 

Newspapers    223 

Officials  120 

Platted   313 

Population    312 

Postoffice    120 

Schools    248 

K 

Knights    of    Columbus 216 

L 

Lakes  of  Minnesota   48 

Lakes   of  the   County 60,  90 

Lakeside-  Township — 

Altitude   64 

Area    114 

Assessed    Valuation    96 

Boundaries   150 

Lakes 60,  150 

Land    Entries    ISO 

Organization    ISO 

Peat  150,  312 

Schools    245 

Settlement 245 

Topography '62 

Lawyers    241 

Live   Stock  Statistics 202 

Lodges  205 

Lutheran  Churches 236 

M 

Market    Quotations   314 

Masonic  Order 205 

Massacre  of  1862 42 

Medical    Profession 218 

Mennonite   Church 236 

Methodist    Episcopal    Churches 227 

Midway  Township — 

Altitude 64 

Area    114 


Midway  Township — Cont. 

Assessed    Valuation    96 

Land  Entries 157 

Location    156 

Population 157,  312 

Schools    246 

Settlement    157 

Topography    62 

Military    Matters    280 

Military  Record  of  State 46 

Miscellaneous  Topics 311 

Mission   Band  233 

Modern   Brotherhood  of  America 2i4" 

Modern   Woodmen   of  America 211 

Moraines   74 

Mountain   Lake — 

Altitude   63 

Assessed  Valuation 97 

Banks   272,   275 

Business    Interests    167 

Business   Men   159 

Churches 229,  235,  236 

Commercial   Club 161 

Early  Growth   159 

Fire   Department    162 

Fires 163 

Grange  217 

Industries    162 

Lighting   System    162 

Lodges 210,  212,  217 

Mennonite    Hospital   161 

Municipal    History    160 

Name    159 

Newspapers    225 

Officials 160 

Peat    76 

Musicians    ' 160 

Platted 159,  313 

Population    312 

Postoffice    160 

Schools  246,  258 

Settlement     160 

Railroad   Wreck   326 

Mountain    Lake  Township — 

Utitude  64 

\rra     •_ 114 

Assessed    Valuation    96 

Boundaries  164 

I  and   Entries  164 

Location    163 


HISTORICAL  INDEX. 


Mountain    Lake    Township — Cont. 

Name   163 

Organization   164 

Population 164,  312 

Schools    245 

Settlement    164 

Soil    163 

Topography 62 

N 

Name  of  the  State 47 

Nationality    of    Population 312 

Natural   Drainage   59 

Newspapers    -, 223 

Norwegian   Evan.   Luth.   Church 233 

Norwegian  United  Evan.  Luth.  Ch._  235 

O 

Oats    202 

Odd  Fellows   208 

Officials    from    the    County 110 

Old   Settlers'  Association 83 

Order  of  the  Eastern  Star 206 

Organization   of   County 90,  95 

P 

Patrons   of   Husbandry 21" 

Peat    76 

Physicians    218 

Pioneer  Settlement 79 

Pioneers,  Struggles  of 80 

Plats 313 

Poor,   Caring  for  the 105 

Population  of  the   State 46 

Population  Statistics 311 

Potatoes    202 

Poultry  Show 195 

Prairie   Blizzard  321 

Prentiss,  William 264 

Presbyterian   Churches    ^29 

Presidential  Vote 110 

Press,  the  223 

Probate  Judges 112 

R 

Railroad    Bonds   39 

Railroad  Wrecks  325 


Railroads 277 

Rebekahs 209 

Registers    of   Deeds 112 

R<  lated    State    History 33 

Religious   Societies    226 

Reminiscences 305 

Representatives    111 

Rivers  of  the  County 59 

Rivers  of  the  State 48 

Roads 108 

Rose  Hill  Township — 

Altitude   63 

Area   114 

Assessed    Valuation    96 

Boundaries   168 

Churches  236 

Drainage  59 

Lakes 60,   168 

Land  Entries 169 

Location   ">8 

Organization    169 

Population 169,  312 

Settlement    "'9 

Topography 62 

Royal  Arch   Masons 

Royal  Neighbors  of  America 213 

Rural  School  Commencements 

Russian   Thistle    106 

Rye   202 

S 

Scandinavian    Evan.    Luth.   Church. 

School   Districts   -'45 

School  House,  First  in  Countj  247 

School   Lands  261 

ool    Statistics    261 

Schools    244 

Secret   Societies   205 

Selma  Township — 

Altitude o4 

Area    ----  1 14 

sseil  Valuation 

Land   Entries 171 

Location    170 

mization    —  170 

lation 170.  312 

Settlement 171 

phy  

Senators,  State  HO 


HISTORICAL   INDEX. 


Sheep    202 

Sheriffs    H2 

Sioux   Indians,  Murders  by 43 

Situation  of  the  County 59 

Soil 64,  90 

Soldiers'   Monument   281 

Sons   of   Norway 215 

Southbrook  Township — 

Altitude 64 

Area    114 

Assessed  Valuation 96 

Boundaries   176 

Grasshopper   Loss  315 

Lakes  61 

Land  Entries 176 

Location 176 

Natural  Features 176 

Organization   176 

Peat    78 

Population 176,  312 

Settlement    176 

Topography 62 

Spanish-American    War    286 

Springfield  Township — 

Altitude  64 

Area    --  114 

Assessed  Valuation 96 

Grasshopper  Loss 315 

Land  Entries 173 

Location    172 

Natural   Features 172 

Organization   173 

Peat    : 78 

Population  173,  312 

Schools 245 

Settlement    173 

Topography    63 

State  Constitution  39 

State  Representatives 111 

State  Roads 108 

State    Senators   110 

Stock  Farms  195 

"Stolen"  Townships  91 

Storden — 

Banks   271,   275 

Business  Interests 183 

Business   Men,   Early 183 

Creamery 198 

First   Events   182 

Land  Values  183 


Storden — Cont. 

Location    182 

Lodges    212 

Platted   182,  313 

Postoflke    183 

Schools    247 

Storden  Township — 

Altitude  64 

Area    114 

Assessed  Valuation 96 

Boundaries   179 

Drainage  59 

Lakes   60 

Land    Entries    ISO 

Location    179 

Natural  Features 180 

Organization    180 

Population 180,  312 

Settlement    '- 180 

Topography 62 

Storm  of  1873 316 

Swine  202 


T 

Tax    Levy,    1916-17 107 

Taxes  in   1877 101 

Teachers,    Early    School 246 

Territorial    Government    34 

"The  Old  Ox  Team" 326 

Timber   64,  65 

Topography  of  the  County 61 

Town-site  Speculation 38 

Townships  of  the   County 114 

Transportation   277 

Traverse  des  Sioux  Treaty 35 

Treasurers,  County HI 

Treaties  with  Indians 33 

Tree   Premiums   101 

Trees    65 


U 


United  Workmen,  Order  of 210 


Village  Plats  313 


HISTORICAL  INDEX. 


W 

Water-falls 69 

"We  Are  Growing  Old,  John" 283 

Wcstbrook — 

Assessed  Valuation 97,  193 

Banks   273,  276 

Beginning  of 1S7 

Business    Interests    191 

Churches   231,  233,  236,  238 

Early  Business   Men 187 

Fair,    Street    191 

Improvements 190 

Incorporation    189 

Location    193 

Lodges 207,  211,  213,  214 

Newspapers    223 

Officials,  First 189 

Officials,  Present    191 

Old  Settlement 1S7 

Park   193 

Platted   187,  313 

Population    312 

Postoffice    191 

Public    Improvements    191 

Railroad  Interests 188,  190 

Schools 248 

Street   Fairs   191 

Waterworks    190 

Westbrook   Township — 

Altitude  64 

Area    1 14 

Assessed  Valuation 96 

Drainage   59 

Lakes 60,  184 

Land  Entries 185 

Location    184 

Xatural  Features 184 

Organization   185 

Population 184,  312 

Schools    245 

Settlement    185 

Topography 62 


\\  heat    202 

Windom — 
Altitude   63,  314 

Assessed  Valuation 97 

Banks   267,  275 

Business  Interests,  1872 290 

Business    Interests,    1882 290 

Business    Interests,   1916 299 

Lodges 205,  208,  211,  213,  -'15.  280 

Churches 227,  220,  230,  233,  235, 

-'38,  239 

Commercial    Clubs    301 

County   Seat   287 

Creamery    203 

Fair    Grounds    199 

.     Ferry    295 

Fires  302 

First   Buildings 287 

First    Events   289 

Hospital     296 

In    1893   287 

Industries 296 

Library    294 

Lodges 205,  208,  211,  213,  215.  280 

Municipal    History    292 

Name    297 

Newspapers    223 

Physicians    218 

Pioneers    302 

Platted   313 

Population  287.  312 

Postoffice    291 

Poultry  Show  I" 

Railroad   Wreck 325 

Schools    

Sii  nation   90 

Tourist   Club 301 

Waterworks   

Woman's   Literary  Club 302 

Winter   of    1872-3 81 

Woman's   Relief  Corps  21  1 

Woodmen  <>f  America,  Modern 211 


HISTORICAL  INDEX. 


WATONWAN  COUNTY 


Adrian  Township — 

Altitude 329, 

Assessed   Valuation    

Boundaries   

Buildings  Assessed,  1894 

Created    

Lakes    

Land  Entries 

Location    

Organization    

Population    

School   Houses  

Settlement    

Vote  on  Bond  Issue 

Agricultural    Societies    

Agriculture    

Aid   to   Farmers 

Altitudes    

Ancient  Free  and  Accepted  Masons 

Anti-Horse   Thief   Association 

Antrim  Township — 

Altitude    329, 

Assessed  Valuation  

Boundaries  ~ . 

Buildings   Assessed,    1894 

Creation  of 

Lakes   

Land  Entries 

Location   

Name    

Organization    

Population    423, 

School   Houses  

Settlement    

Vote   on   Bond   Issue 

Area  of  the  County 327 

Assessed  Valuation  Rates,  1875 

Assessed  Valuations 

Attorneys    

Auditors,    County    


572 

406 

419 

406 

389 

419 

420 

419 

419 
570 
510 
420 
403 
551 
548 
392 
571 
532 
592 

571 
406 
423 
406 
386 
32S 
423 
423 
423 
423 
570 
.  510 
.  423 
.  403 
381 
390 
406 
513 
414 


Benevolent   Societies   532 

Birds    582 

Bond    Issues    40- 

Boulders    __ 33- 

Bounty  to  Soldiers 385 

Brotherhood  of  Railway  Trainmen..  538 

Building  Stone 333 

Buildings   Assessed  in   1894 406 

Butterfield — 

Altitude 328,  571 

Assessed  Valuation 406 

Banks   529 

Business    Interests    428 

Churches   483,  491 

Commercial    Club    4_9 

Fires 4«-9 

Improvements     429 

Incorporation    4-9 

Lodges     •"13-"' 

Municipal    History    429 

Newspapers   5-4 

Officials,    First    429 

Platted   428,  572 

Population    428 

Postoffice    428 

Presidents  of 4-9 

Schools    509 

Vote  on  Bond  Issue 403 

Butterfield  Township — 

Altitude    320,  572 

\„,i    4-7 

Assessed  Valuation 406 

Buildings   Assessed,    1894 406 

Churches   487,  491 

Creation    of   

Land    Entries    

Location    

Organ  i  /at  ion    

Population 427.  570 

School     Houses    510 

Settlement    4_\ 

Vote  on  Bond  Issue 403 


427 

426 
427 


B 

Banks    525 

Baptist   Churches  .__■ 492 

Bench   and    Bar    513 


Captivity   of   Benedict   Juni 336 

Catholic  Churches 493 


HISTORICAL   INDEX. 


Catholic  Order  of  Foresters 539 

Christian  Church  4S6 

Church  of  Christ  486 

Churches 480 

Clerks   of   the    District    Court 415 

Commissioners,    County,  List  of 412 

Coroners   416 

Count}-   Attorneys   416 

County   Auditors   414 

County  Commissioners,  List  of 412 

County  Commissioners,  Proceedings  381 

County  Fairs 551 

County    Finances,    1868 386 

County   Finances,    1870 388 

County    Finances,    1874 390 

County    Finances,    1897 404 

County    Finances,    1915 405 

County    Government    381 

County  Medical  Society 519 

County  Officers'  Salaries  and  Bonds  398 

County  Officials,  First 381 

County    Representation   410 

County   Seat,   Locating  the 394 

County   Superintendents    417 

County  Surveyors   417 

County   Treasurers   414 

County  Treasury  Robbed 407 

Court  Commissioners 416 

Court  House  Corner-stone  Laying —  577 

Court   House    History 399 

Creameries 548,  553 

Customs   of   Indians 370 

D 

Dairy   Statistics   553 

Darfur — 

Assessed  Valuation 406 

Bank  531 

Business  Interests 422 

Churches  484,  491 

Improvements 422 

Incorporation    422 

Officials,  First 422 

Platted    422.  S72 

President  of 422 

Schools   508 

Daughters   of   Rebekah   534 

Deeds,  Early 376 

Dexter   Township    389 


Doctors  516 

Doctors'  Fees 520 

Dodd,   Captain,   Death  of 359 

Drainage   407 

Drainage  of  the  County 327 

Drewsville  Township  388 

Drift   330 

E 

Early  Conditions  43(> 

Early  Transportation  Troubles 584 

Eastern  Star,  Order  of 533 

Echols    572 

Education    503 

Elgin  Colony 551 

Episcopal   Church    487 

Evangelical    Lutheran    Churches 482 

Execution   of   Indian    Murders 364 

F 

Farm    Names    550 

Farmers   Mutual   Fire   Ins.   Co 

Farming   Interests 548 

Ferry-boat   Fees  388 

Million  Township — 

Altitude    329,  571 

430 

Assessed  Valuation 406 

Buildings  Assessed,  1894 406 

lion  of 386 

Lakes   328 

Land  Entries 430 

Organization    430 

Population   430,   570 

School   Houses 510 

Settlement    430 

Vote  on   Bond   Issue  403 

First   County    Officers   381 

Firsl    House,   the   583 

Firsl   Settlements 376,  380 

Foresters,  Catholic  Order  of 539 

Fraternal   Orders  532 

G 

Geology    ^-' 

Glacial  Drift — 

Graded  Schools - - 


HISTORICAL   INDEX. 


Grand  Army  of  the  Republic 539 

Grasshopper   Plague    580,  589 

Grasshopper  Relief 392 

Gravel 332 

Grogan 462,  572 

Growth  of  Watonwan  County 579 

H 

High  Schools 509 

House,  the  First 583 

I 

Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows-  533 
Indian  Character 334 

Indian  History    334 

Indian  Massacre   of   1862,   Causes  of  344 

Indian  Traders,  Schemes  of 347 

Indian  Treaties 334 

Indian  Violence 351 

Indians,  Last  Raid  of 370 

Indians,  Their  Peculiar  Customs 370 

J 

Jail 403 

Juni,    Benedict,   Captivity   of 336 

K 
Knights  of  Pythias 534 

L 

Lakes 327,  331 

Land   Transfers,   Early   376 

LaSalle — 

Bank 529 

Business  Interests 459 

Lodge    537 

Platted    459,  572 

Postoffice 460 

Lawyers    513 

Lewisvillc — 

Assessed  Valuation 406 

Banks  S29 

Business  Interests 426 

Churches 486 

Improvements  425 

Incorporation    425 


Lewisville — Cont. 

Lawyers    515 

Location    425 

Lodges    336 

Officials,    First    425 

Platted    425,  572 

Population    426 

Postoffice 425 

Presidents  of 425 

Schools s08 

Libraries   504 

Little  Crow  Uprising 353 

Local  Option  Vote,  1915 594 

Lodges    532 

Long   Lake   Township —     * 

Altitude    329,  572 

Area   431 

Assessed  Valuation 406 

Boundaries 431 

Buildings  Assessed,  1894 406 

Churches    488.  490 

Creation    of   386 

Indian  Atrocities   433 

Johnson    Murder    556 

Lakes 328,  431 

Land  Entries  432 

Norwegian  Settlement 437 

Organization   431 

Population   431,  570 

School  Houses   510 

Settlement    432 

Vote  on   Bond   Issue   403 

M 
Madelia — ■ 

Altitude    328,  571 

Assessed    Valuation    406 

Banks    525 

Buildings   Assessed,   1894   406 

Business    Interests,    1885   447 

Business   Interests,   1916 449 

Business    Men's    Association 451 

Churches 480,  483,  485,  486,  487,  492 

Commercial   Club 450 

County    Seat    394 

Creamery    553 

Early   Business   Interests   444 

Fires   449 

Incorporation    448 


HISTORICAL   INDEX. 


Madclia — Cont. 

Indian   Scare  444 

Lawyers    515 

Location   443 

Lodges  533,  535,  536,  539 

Mill  448 

Municipal    History    448 

Name   443 

Newspapers   521 

Officials 448 

Platted    443,  572 

Population    570 

Postoffice    444 

Schools    505 

Vote  on  Bond  Issue 403 

Madelia   Township — 

Altitude    329,  571 

Area    439 

Assessed    Valuation    406 

Buildings    Assessed,    1894 406 

Lakes    327,  440 

Land  Entries 440 

Location   439 

Population    440,  570 

Railroad  Interests 440 

School  Houses  510 

Settlement    440 

Streams  440 

Vote  on  Bond  Issue 403 

Markets,    Early   591,  592 

Masonic    Order    532 

Massacre   at   New  LTlm 369 

Medical   History 516 

Medical   Society  ?19 

Mennonite    Churches    491' 

Methodist  Episcopal  Churches 480 

Military    History   546 

Militia,  First  Officers 384 

Modern   Brotherhood  of  America 537 

Modern   Woodmen  of  America 535 

Murders  556 

N 

Name  of  the  County 381 

Nationality  of  Population 571 

Natural  Drainage  327 

Nelson  Township — 

Altitude    . 329,  572 

Area    451 


Nelson    Township — Cont. 

Assessed    Valuation    406 

Buildings   Assessed,  1894  406 

Land    Entries    452 

Location   451 

Name    452 

Organization    452 

Population    451.  570 

School   Houses 510 

Settlement    452 

Vote  on  Bond  Issue 403 

New    Ulm,  Defense  of 355 

New  Ulm  Massacre   369 

Newspapers    521 

North    Branch   Township   389 

Northfield  Bank  Robbery 560 

Norwegian    Lutheran    Churches 487 

Norwegian  Settlers 437 

O 

Odd   Fellows  533 

Odin- 
Assessed  Valuation 406 

Banks   528 

Business  Interests 457 

Creamery    457 

Improvements    456 

Location    I   6 

Lodges  ^17 

Officials  456 

Platted    456,  ?71 

I'd]. illation    456 

Postoffice    

Schools ' 

Odin   Township — 

Altitude    32'*.  572 

--sed  Valuation 

Boundaries  453 

Buildings  Assessed,  1894 406 

Creation  of -  389 

Lakes 328,  453 

Land    Kntries    — 454 

Location   45.1 

( Organization    453 

Population    453.  570 

School   Houses  51" 

lament    454 

Vote  on    Bond   Issue  403 

Wild    Birds    -  45.5 


HISTORICAL   INDEX. 


Officials,   First   County   381 

Old   Settlers'   Reunion 573 

Order  of  the  Eastern  Star 533 

Organization  of  the  County 381 

Ormsby — 

Assessed  Valuation 406 

Banks  529 

Business   Interests 439 

Fire    Protection    439 

Location    439 

Municipal  History 439 

Name    439 

Officials,  First 439 

Platted   439,  572 

Presidents  of 439 

Schools    508 

Outrages  556 

P 

Peat    333 

Pensioners   of  Sioux  Uprising 369 

Physicians    516 

Pioneer  Days,  Story  of 461 

Pioneer   Heroes   588 

Pioneers,  Privations  of 586 

Plattings   572 

Poor,  Care  for  the 403 

Population  of  the   County 570 

Presbyterian    Churches   485 

Presidential  Vote - 410 

Press,   the   521 

Prices,   Early  Market 592 

Privations  of  Pioneers 586 

Probate  Judges 416 

Prohibition    Candidates   418 

Prohibition   Question   593 

R 

Railroads    541 

Rebekahs 534 

Registers  of  Deeds 415 

Religious  Societies 480 

Reminiscences 583 

Representatives    411 

Riverdale   Township — 

Altitude    329,  571 

Area  458 

Assessed  Valuation 406 


Riverdale   Township — Cont. 

Buildings  Assessed,  1894 406 

Creation  of 388 

Land  Entries 458 

Location    458 

Organization   458 

Population 458,  570 

Railroad   Interests 458 

School  Houses 510 

Settlement    458 

Vote  on  Bond  Issue 403 

Rivers    327 

Rosendale  Township — 

Altitude    329,  572 

Assessed  Valuation 406 

Buildings  Assessed,   1894 406 

Churches    4S8 

Creation    of   389 

Lakes   460 

Location    460 

Organization   400 

Pioneer    Days   461 

Population 460,  570 

Railroad   Interests 460 

Schools    507,  510 

Settlement    461 

Vote  on   Bond  Issue  403 

Royal  Neighbors  of  America 536 

Russian   Thistle   594 


St.  James — 

Altitude    328,  571 

Assessed  Valuation 406 

Banks 525 

Buildings  Assessed,   1S94 406 

Business  Interests,   1870 468 

Business   Interests,   1885  468 

Business   Interests,  1916 477 

Business  Men's  Association 473 

Churches 480,  485,  487,  489,  492 

Commercial    Club    472 

County   Seat   396 

Creamery    555 

Fire  Department 471 

First    Events   468 

First    Settlers    468 

Firsl    Store   380 

Home-coming  478 


HISTORICAL  INDEX. 


St.    James — Cont. 

Horse  and  Cattle   Fair 552 

Hospital 474 

Improvements    470 

Incorporation    470 

Industries 475,  479 

Lawyers    515 

Library   473 

Lodges— .472,  532,  534,  535,   537,  539 

Municipal    History    470 

Name 467 

Newspapers    522 

Officials,  First 470 

Officials,  Present 470 

Park   474 

Platted    467,  572 

Population    570 

Railroad   Interests   467,  543 

Sanitarium    474 

Schools    505 

Vote  on   Bond   Issue  403 

St.  James  Township — 

Altitude 329,  572 

Assessed    Valuation    406 

Boundaries  464 

Buildings  Assessed,  1894 406 

Creation  of 388 

Lakes    328,  464 

Land    Entries    465 

Location    464 

Organization   464 

Pioneers 464 

Population    464.  570 

School   Houses  510 

Settlement    464 

Vote  on  Bond  Issue 403 

School  Examiners   417 

School  Lands 379,  504 

School  Statistics    509 

Schools    —  503 

Schools   in   1875   505 

Secret   Societies   532 

Senators,  State 411 

Settlements,    First    376,  380 

Sheriffs    415 

Sioux,  Punishment  of  the 362 

Situation   of   the   County i-7,  381 

Soil  329 

Soldiers'  Bounty 385 

Soldiers  Lodge 350 


"Song  for  the  Old  Settlers" 575 

South   Branch  Township — 

Altitude  329,  572 

Assessed  Valuation 406 

Boundaries    

Building's  Assessed,  1894 406 

Churches  484 

Creation    of   388 

Goblinski    Murder  557 

Lakes   463 

Land  Entries 463 

Location   462 

Organization   463 

Population  463.  570 

School  Houses 510 

Settlement    463 

Vote  on  Bond  Issue 10 

Spanish-American  War 547 

Spelling  School 573 

Springfield    Township    389 

State   Representatives 411 

State    Senators  411 

Stock   Raising  548 

Storms  576 

Streams    327 

Surface  of  the  County 327 

Surveyors,    County    417 

Swedish  Lutheran  Churches 489 

T 

Timber 329 

Timber  Claims    376 

Topography  328 

Townships    of    the    County    -II" 

Traverse  des  Sioux,  Treaty  of 334 

Treasurers,  County  414 

Treaties  with   Indians  334 

V 
Village   Plattings  572 

W 

Wakefield    Township    - 

Wild   Animals   

Woman's   Relief   Corps 540 

Woodmen   of   America,   Modern 

Y 

York  Township 

Younger  Brothers  


BIOGRAPHICAL  INDEX 


VOLUME  II 


A 

Abel,  Frederick 449 

Adrian,  John 189 

Albrecht.  Richard 311 

Anderson,  Albert 180 

Anderson,  Amund 345 

Anderson,    Andrew    H 395 

Anderson,    Bertel   A 267 

Anderson,  C.   H 171 

Anderson,   Carl  C,   D.   V.  S 46 

Anderson,    Charles    483 

Anderson,   Christian   367 

Anderson,    John    A.    399 

Anderson,  Nels 55 

Anderson,   Ole  237 

Anton,    Frank   T 105 

Armstrong,    Moses    K 275 

Arneson,  Theodore  J.  99 

B 

Balzer,    Frank   318 

Balzer,   Jacob    J 144 

Balzer,    Solomon    95 

Beise.  Henry  C,  D.  M.  D 146 

Biel,  Albert    F.   390 

Bill,  James  J. 316 

Bisbee.   John   400 

Bishop,  Carl  R. 414 

Bjoin,  O.  A. 429 

Bolin,  Amel  188 

Bolin,  Charles  W 254 

Bondhus,   Thomas   155 

Bonin,  Ferdinand  370 

Braathun,  C.   O.   219 

Bradley,   George   P. 174 

Brogger,   Eivind   204 


Brog.u;er,  Jacob 283 

Brown,  John  A. 440 

Burley,   Fred   233 

Burton,   William   C.   383 

C 

Cadwell,  Mason  N. 62 

Carpenter,    Frederick    J 107 

Cassem,  T.   P.  456 

Christensen,   Fred   T.   183 

Christenson,   Ole   L 387 

Churchill,  Leroy  C.  369 

Clark,  Willis  J. 70 

Clement,    Berton    F 200 

Collins,  Thomas  C.  i3 

Comnick,   Gottlieb   249 

Cook.  William  A. 4JJ 

Cooley,  Charles  H 448 

Crowley,  Charley  T.  123 

Curtis.   Will   64 

D 

Dammann,   C.   W.  366 

Davies,  James  T.  158 

l)a\  eph     290 

DeGonda,  Anthony   I'.  

Dempsey,  Gerald  426 

Dewar,   Frank   375 

1     ,.ir.    John,    Sr 438 

DeWolf,  Milo  T. -    43 

Doerksen,    Jacob    P 

Drake.   George  

Dryden,    T.    X.    -. - 

Dummett,  William  H. l-'l 

Dyer,  Francis  M.  


BIOGRAPHICAL  INDEX. 


E 

Eichstad,  Emil  H. 455 

Ellingsberg,   Anton   135 

Engeswick,  John  A.   464 

Englin,  John  S. 285 

Englin,   Theo.   225 

Englund,     A.    W 327 

Erickson,     Elof     346 

.Erickson,  Nils  365 

Ewert,  David  45 

F 

Fast,   Herman  J.   187 

Fast,  Jacob  J.  320 

Fast,  John   H.   356 

Fast,  Peter  P.  427 

Fering,  Severt  J.   67 

Fester,  E.  O. 358 

Fisch,   Michael   L.  119 

Flaig,  Arthur  J.   293 

Flitter,  H.  C.  403 

Flogstad,  Martin  H. 245 

Flogstad,   Paul   228 

Foss,  Julius  E. 201 

Foss  Mercantile  Company 201 

Foss,  William  H. 201 

Franz,   Martin  317 

Franz,  Peter  J.  211 

Fredrickson,    August    :__  353 

Friesen,  Abraham   B.  140 

Fuller,  Walter  A.  185 

G 

Gall,  Frank 222 

Gertner,  Gottlieb 203 

Gibbs,    Edson  A.  461 

Gilbertson,   Gustav    E.   71 

Gillam,   Charles   W.  88 

Gillis,  Rev.  Benjamin  C 209 

Gjertson,  John  194 

Glasier,  Jacob   M 347 

Goertzen,   Cornelius   354 

Goostii,    Peter    F.    460 

Graff,  Adolph   465 

Grant,   George   W.   192 

Grant,  John   G.  360 

Grunenwald,    Albert    361 

Gushman,  Leo  A.  118 


Gustafson,  Charles  A. 310 

Gustafson,  John  F.  176 

.       H 

Hage,    Siver    4gi 

Haislet,  Herman   W.  125 

Hale,   Walter   M.   137 

Halvorsen,  Ole  A. 167 

Hammerstad,    Ole    73 

Hammond,  Milton  H. 42 

Hammond,   Hon.  Winfield  S 35 

Hamre,  Andrew  C. 394 

Hansen,  Jens  C. 260 

Hansen,   Severt   74 

Hanson,  Andrew  M. 51 

Hanson,   Henry  E.   120 

Hanson,  Jens  195 

Harbitz,    Monrad    326 

Harper.  Arthur  251 

Hartmann,    Rev.    M.    K 232 

Hasenheyer,  Gottlieb 132 

Haugen.   Hans   A.  453 

Haycraft.     Emery    205 

Hedquist.  Olaf 58 

Heggerston,    E.    E 166 

Henderson,   John    128 

Henderson,   Martin  388 

Hengtgen,    Jacob     131 

Heppner,  John 475 

Hiebert,  Jacob  G. 86 

Hofstad,  Rudolf 350 

Hofstrom,  Charles  O. 371 

Hohenstem,  Otto  E. 76 

Holen,   Soren   208 

Holte.   Even   O.  13S 

Hovden,   Ben  395 

Hoyt.  OK-  I". 551 

Huffman,   John   C.    450 

Hunter,  William  \V.  304 

I 
Iverson,  Iver  O. 234 

J 

Jackson,  Samuel 431 

Jacobsen,   Lars  O.   4(>'> 

Jacobson,   Abraham  256 


BIOGRAPHICAL  INDEX. 


Jacobson,    Gunder    436 

Janzen,  Abraham   54 

Janzen,    David    C.    480 

Jencks.  Perry  M. 382 

Jensen,  Jens  C 321 

Jensen.  Soren  P. 181 

Johnson,  Albert    E. 134 

Johnson,    Gunder    314 

Johnson,  Hon.  J.  E. 52 

Johnson.  John  F.   148 

Judd.   Frank   E.,   D.   V.   S 197 

Juhnke,    William    337 

K 

Kabrick,  O.  A.,  M.  D 410 

Kintzi.  Theodore   90 

Klaras.  Fred  H. 385 

Kleven,  Helge  O. --;,) 

Klocovv,  Frank  D 1'3 

Knudson.    Carl    S.    392 

Knudson,   Elmer   E.  179 

Kobs,   Johann    W.   217 

Kopperud,  John  E.  266 

Krause.  Herman  C. 443 

Krueger,    Kumbert    63 

L 

Laingcn,    Thorsten    P.    298 

Lande,  O.  C.  

Langley,  David   P. n- 

Lantz,   John   A.   

Larkin,  Charles 

Larson.  Lauritz 446 

Leffler,   Lorenz   288 

Leonard.  E.  I 

Leonard,  H.  P. 252 

Le  Tourneau,  George 87 

Lewis.  James 20/ 

Lewis.  Roy  W. 477 

Lien.   Charles   A.   103 

Lindquist,  August   E.  -'} 

Lindquist.   Gustav   

Linscheid.  Jacob  J. 

Lobben,  Jens   L.  ^- 

Loewen,  Henry  F. 

Loewen,    Nic    F.    4 

Loughran,   Barney  424 


Ludemann,  Johann  D. 471 

Lun.lhol.il.    Rev.   Algot  T 


Mc 

rthy,  W.  J.,  M.  D 280 

McCaule'y,   Edward  151 

Md   lean,    Mired  J.  -158 

McLaughlin,  William  W -'74 


M 


Madson,  Mabel   S.  

.Martin.  Henry  A.  330 

ler,  James  S.  333 

Mathisen,  George  W.  

M    ttison,  X.  C. 323 

Mead.  Wallace  E. 65 

Melheim,    Claus    428 

Mertens,  August  W,  

Messenbrink,  Fred  C. 

Meyer,  A.   1'".  ',,•,■', 

ers,    Rev.  John   

Miller,  Michael  P. 

Milligan,   Bert  419 

Minder.  Emil  F. 68 

Minion.  Nathaniel   I'.  272 

ling,   Gustav   —  409 

Mitchell.    Harris   4'3 

Mooi         Ellison  D  213 

Moore,  John    E.   421 

-  4H 

Muller,  Gustav   _- 

Mis  "W7 

N 

Nai  '  ■     I 

Natl  

Nelson,   Christian    N.    

Nelson,   John   -   --       - 

Nelson,  John   E.  "' 

Neufeld 

Nil 

Noble,  David  A  "•' 

.   Frantz   I 


BIOGRAPHICAL  INDEX. 


O 

Offerdal,    Thomas    130 

Olson,   Hilmer   J.   380 

Olson,    Knut    235 

Olson,    Mathias   364 

Olson,  Ole  A.  338 

Olson.   Oluf  T.   247 

Osland,    Ole    363 

Otesa,   O.   A.   193 

Ottum,    Chris    L 442 

P 

Palmer,   U.   H.   384 

Pankow,   Rev.    Erdman   A 216 

Parr,   M.  W.  413 

Paulson,    Samuel    379 

Pedersen,  Christ 97 

Pederson,  George 244 

Pederson,  Iver   I 377 

Pederson,  Lars   P.   264 

Pederson,  Torvel 231 

Pedvin,   John   286 

Perkins,  Judge  Alfred  D. 37 

Peters,  Dietrich   D. 238 

Peters.  Henry  D. 296 

Peterson,  August  E. 398 

Peterson,   Chester   R.   77 

Peterson,    Laurits    268 

Peterson,  William  A. 152 

Pierce,    Charles    B.    142 

Pietz,  H.  R. 294 

Porter,   Matthew  S. 91 

Potter,   Edward  C.  308 

Potter,  William  A. 100 

Prokes,   Rev.    Francis   J 50 

Purrington,   Lewin   M 417 

Q 

Quade,    August    306 

Qucvli,  Andrew  A. 82 

R 

Radtke,  John  F.  240 

Rand,   Alvin   312 

Randall,  John  S. 258 

Rank,   Elmer   E.   175 

Rasche,  Gustav  T.  162 


Rasey,   Elwin  Z.  160 

Ratzlaff,  Benjamin  J. 420 

Reinert,    Ole    303 

Reisdorph,  John  A. 372 

Reisdorph,  Robert  141 

Rolf.  Johan.  D.  D.  S 224 

Rossing,  Anton 165 

Rossing,  William  L. 255 

Roxin,   John   215 

Ruhberg,    Carl    H.    404 

Ruhberg,  Peter  A, 212 

Running,   Amel   78 

Rupp,    Jacob    229 

Rupp,  John   E.   241 

Rydeen,  John 253 

S 

Sanborn.  Benjamin  C. 437 

Sartorius.  William 124 

Savage,  Donald  R.  139 

Savage,  Rev.   Edward 115 

Schaffer,  Arthur  L. 376 

Schmotzer,   Edward   F.   352 

Schroeder,   Frank  106 

Schroeder,    Heinrich    416 

Schroeder,    Louis    E.    4S4 

Schulte,  William 307 

Schultz,  David  D. 324 

Schultz,  Isaac   D.  402 

Schwandt,    George    248 

Scribner,    B.   J.    289 

Seely,  Whalen  D.  56 

Seines,  O.   E.  83 

Senst,    Herman    A.    457 

Senst,     Otto     223 

Shaner,    Charles    H.    199 

Siem,  Nels 407 

Sivertson,   George    P.   127 

Sizcr,    Michael    467 

Skjedser,   Niels   445 

Skrabeck,   Halvor   T.    243 

Sletta,  Alfred 433 

Slctta.  Ole  E. 343 

Smestad.    Edward   E.   191 

Smestad,    Hans    P.    98 

Smith,   Willard  C.  454 

Solete.    Fred    435 

Somers,  John  W. 332 

Sonnesyn,  C.  N. 80 


BIOGRAPHICAL   INDEX. 


Sonnesyn,  J.  K.  111 

Sorensen,   Neal   C.  153 

Stark,  Arthur   O.  261 

Sterrie,  Peter   N.  75 

Stoess,    Dietrich    270 

Story,  Lincoln  L. 341 

Strunk,   Arthur    F.    93 

Sucker,  Adolph   412 

Sulem,  S.   J.   430 

Sullivan,  Edd  T.  118 

Sundt,  Ole  E. 336 

Swain.  W.  S 349 

Swanson,     Alex     168 

Swartz.  Arthur  L. 164 

Swenson,   Gilbert   236 

Swenson,    Henning    L.    263 

Swenson,    Swen    L.    466 

Syverson.  Olans 42.5 

T 

Tackels.    LaMont    H.    279 

Takle,    Jens    474 

Thompson,  Albert   L.  149 

Thompson,  Jesse  O.   57 

Thompson,   Knut   S.   344 

Thompson,  Oscar  J.   157 

Thorkveen,    Rev.    Lars    P 72 

Thome,  James  P. 441 

Thornton.   Col.   John   J 66 

Tibbedeaux,    Tuffiel    40 

Tonnesson.    Thomas    94 


U 
Uhlhorn.  Felix  F. 102 

V 

Va    -tad.   Hans   M. 434 

Villa,   John    E.   96 

Void,   M.  C.   284 

Voshage,  Henry  190 

Voth,   D.  J.  47 

Vought,    Andrew    P.    

W 

Wall.  Jacob   H.  

Walsh,   James   J    265 

Ware.    Mark   C.   169 

Warner,  Andrew  W. !92 

Wenstrom,  Carl  J. 109 

Wenstrom,  Otto  92 

West,    Mrs.    Elizabeth    R 408 

West,  John  C. 393 

Whiting,  Solomon  D. 184 

\\  icklund,  Alfred  J. 85 

Wog,  Daniel  E. 

Woodruff,  Amelias   E. 406 

Y 
Yargi  r,   T.    M.    374 

Z 

Zender,  John  59 

Zi  rider,  John   J.   •    60 


o 

Q 


H 
CO 

O 

a 

« 
5 


o 
o 

7. 

O 

H 

O 

o 


COTTONWOOD  COUNTY 

MINNESOTA 


CHAPTER  I. 


RELATED    STATE    HISTORY. 


The  greater  part,  or  about  two-thirds,  of  the  territory  embraced  within 
the  boundaries  of  Minnesota  was  included  in  the  Louisiana  Purchase,  ceded 
to  the  United  States  by  France  in  1803.  The  remainder  of  this  state,  com- 
prising the  northeastern  third  part,  lying  east  of  the  Mississippi  river,  was 
included  in  the  country  surrendered  from  Great  Britain  by  the  treaty  of 
1783,  at  the  end  of  the  Revolutionary  War.  In  1805  a  grant  of  land  nine 
miles  square,  at  the  confluence  of  the  Mississippi  and  St.  Peter  (now  Min- 
nesota )  rivers,  was  obtained  from  the  Sioux  Indians.  A  military  post  was 
established  on  the  grant  in  1819,  and  in  1820  arrangements  were  made  for 
the  erection  of  a  fort,  which  was  completed  in  1822  and  named  Ft.  Snelling, 
after  the  commanding  officer,  and  the  grant  has  ever  since  been  known 
the  Ft.  Snelling  Reservation.  In  1823  the  first  steamboat  ascended  the 
Mississippi  as  far  as  Ft.  Snelling;  and  annually  thereafter  one  or  two  trips 
of  steamboats  were  made  to  this  isolated  post  for  a  number  of  years. 

This  territory  was  held  by  the  Chippewa  or  Ojibway  and  the  Dakota 
or  Sioux  Indians,  but  adventurous  pioneers  had  penetrated  into  the  coun- 
try along  the  streams  tributary  to  the  Mississippi  river,  and  in  1836  Wis- 
consin territory  was  organized,  comprising  all  the  territory  west  of  Lake 
Michigan,  and  including  within  its  limits  all  the  country  west  of  the  Great 
Lakes  and  north  of  Illinois,  the  west  boundary  of  the  territory  being  the 
Mississippi  river. 

INDIAN  TREATIES. 

In  1837  two  important  treaties  were  made  with  the  native  tribes  of 
Indians.  The  first  one  was  made  by  Gov.  Henry  Dodge,  of  Wisconsin,  with 
the  Ojibwavs,  at  Ft.  Snelling,  on  the  29th  of  July,  of  that  year,  whereby 

(3)' 


34  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

they  ceded  to  the  United  States  all  their  pine  or  agricultural  lands  on  the  St. 
Croix  river  and  its  tributaries. 

On  the  29th  of  September,  of  the  same  year,  at  the  city  of  Washing- 
ton, a  treaty  with  the  Sioux  was  made  by  Joel  R.  Poinsett,  a  special  com- 
missioner representing  the  United  States,  and  about  twenty  chiefs,  accom- 
panied by  Major  Taliaferro,  their  agent,  and  Scott  Campbell,  an  interpreter. 
Through  the  influence  and  by  the  direction  of  Governor  Dodge,  this  delega- 
tion of  chiefs  had  proceeded  to  Washington  for  the  purpose  of  making  this 
treaty,  by  which  the  Dakotas,  or  Sioux,  ceded  to  the  United  States  all  their 
lands  east  of  the  Mississippi  river  and  all  its  islands.  The  Indians  were  to 
receive  as  consideration  for  the  same  $110,000  in  cash,  to  be  divided  among 
the  mixed  bloods,  $90,000  in  payment  of  debts  owing  by  the  tribes,  and 
$300,000  to  be  invested  in  five  per  cent,  stocks,  the  interest  of  which  should 
be  paid  to  them  annually. 

In  1848  Wisconsin  adopted  a  state  constitution,  but  ignored  the  enab- 
ling act,  and  made  the  northern  part  of  the  western  boundary  of  the  state 
along  the  line  of  the  St.  Louis  and  Rum  rivers,  which  was  not  accepted  by 
the  United  States  government,  and  the  boundary  line  from  the  Mississippi 
river  to  Lake  Superior  became  fixed,  as  in  the  enabling  act,  on  the  line  of 
the  St.  Croix  river  and  in  a  direct  line  to  the  mouth  of  the  St.  Louis  river. 

After  the  acceptance  of  the  Wisconsin  constitution,  in  May,  1848,  the 
territory  north  and  west  of  the  St.  Croix  and  Mississippi  rivers  being  prac- 
tical}' without  a  government,  the  Hon.  John  Catlin,  'claiming  to  be  still 
secretary  and  acting  governor  of  Wisconsin  territory,  issued  a  proclama- 
tion for  a  special  election,  to  elect  a  delegate  to  Congress.  The  election 
was  held  on  October  30.  and  Hon.  H.  H.  Sibley  was  chosen  delegate,  and 
after  some  delay  was  admitted  as  such  into  the  Congress  of  the  United 
States. 

TERRITORIAL    GOVERNMENT    ESTABLISHED. 

On  March  3,  1S49,  Congress  passed  an  act  to  establish  (he  territorial 
government  of  Minnesota.  It  fixed  the  seat  of  government  at  St.  Paul, 
and  established  the  southern  boundary  of  the  territory  along  the  north  and 
west  boundary  line  of  the  state  of  Iowa,  from  the  Mississippi  river  to  the 
Missouri  river,  the  western  boundary  through  the  middle  of  the  channel 
of  the  Missouri  river  to  the  mouth  of  the  White  Earth  river,  and  up  the 
middle  of  the  channel  of  the  White  Earth  river  to  the  boundarv  line  between 
the  United  States  and  Great  Britain,  the  northern  boundary  running  thence 
easterly  and  southeasterly  on  the  international  boundary  line  to  Lake  Super- 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  Jtj 

ior,  and  the  eastern  boundary  running-  thence  in  a  straight  line  to  the  north- 
ermost  point  of  the  state  of  Wisconsin,  and  following  the  north  and  west 
boundary  of  said  state  down  the  St.  Croix  and  Mississippi  rivers  to  the 
place  of  beginning.  At  this  time  the  population  of  the  territory  was  mainly 
in  the  section  east  of  the  Mississippi  river,  and  the  settlers  were  almost 
entirely  engaged  in  lumbering.  The  territorial  government  was  declared 
fully  organized,  June  i.  1849.  by  Hon.  Alexander  Ramsey,  who  had  been 
appointed  first  territorial  governor.  The  year  1848  was  noted  as  the  year 
of  excitement  from  the  discovery  of  gold  in  California,  and  the  eyes  of 
many  thousands  of  people  throughout  the  east  were  turned  westward,  where 
opportunities  were  opening  for  the  growth  of  new  states.  Although  at  the 
organization  of  the  territory  there  was  scarcely  a  thousand  people,  within  a 
year  the  census  of  1850  gave  to  the  territory  a  population  of  6,077.  Of  this 
number,  however,  1,134  residents  were  credited  to  the  northernmost  part  of 
the  territory  on  the  Red  River  of  the  North,  many  of  these  being  lialf- 
breds,  and  the  early  pioneers  engaged  in  the  fur  trade,  brought  there 
through  the  influence  of  the  Hudson  Bay  Company. 

The  first  territorial  election  was  held  on  August  1,   1849. 

The  first  session  of  the  territorial  Legislature  commenced  in  St.  Paul, 
September  3,  1849,  during  which  counties  were  established  and  a  code  of 
laws  enacted.  The  second  session  was  commenced  in  January.  1X51,  at 
which  time  the  capitol  was  located  at  St.  Paul,  the  university  at  St.  Anthony, 
and  the  state  prison  at  Stillwater. 

THE   COUNCIL  AT   TRAVERSE    I  MUX. 

In  1851  three  treaties  were  made  with  the  Sioux  and  with  the  Ojibway 
bands  of  Indians,  whereby  large  tracts  of  lands  were  relinquished  to  the 
United  States.  In  view  of  the  great  extent  of  country  desired,  ami  the 
importance  of  the  transaction,  and  the  long  continued  friend-hip  of  the 
Dakota  nation.  President  Fillmore  departed  from  the  usual  mode  of  appoint- 
ing commissioners,  and  deputed  the  Flon.  Luke  Lea,  the  commissioner  of 
Indian  affairs,  and  Gov.  Alexander  Ramsey  to  meet  the  representatives  -1 
the  Dakotas,  and  to  conclude  with  them  a  treaty  Eoi  Mich  lands  as  they 
might  be  willing  to  sell. 

On  the  27th  of  June,  1851,  Commissioner  Lea  arrived  in  St.    Paul  on 
the  steamboat  "Excelsior,"  and  on  the  29th  he,  in  company  with  Governor 
Ramsey,  landed  at  Traverse  des  Sioux,  where  the  great  council  was  to 
held  and  the  treaty  consummated  with  the  Sisseton  and  Wahpeton   ban 


36  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

of  Sioux.  Great  delay  in  the  proceedings  was  caused  by  the  non-arrival  of 
certain  Sioux  chiefs  from  the  upper  country,  and  it  was  not  until  the  18th 
of  July  that  the  council  convened  and  the  preliminaries  to  the  treaty  com- 
menced. During  this  interval  of  about  twenty  days  they  all  entertained 
themselves  as  best  they  could  with  races,  dances,  suppers,  sham  fights,  and 
all  sorts  of  fun. 

On  the  1 8th  of  July,  all  the  chiefs  having  arrived,  proclamation  was 
made,  and  being  convened  in  grand  council  and  the  pipe  of  peace  having 
"been  passed  around,  the  council  was  opened  by  an  address  from  Governor 
Ramsey.  On  the  23rd  of  July  the  treaty  was  concluded  and  signed  by  the 
chiefs,  by  which  they  ceded  to  the  United  States  all  the  lands  claimed  by 
these  bands  east  of  the  Sioux  Wood  (or  Bois  des  Sioux),  and  Big  Sioux 
rivers  and  Lake  Traverse  to  the  Mississippi,  excepting  a  reservation  one 
hundred  miles  long  by  twenty  miles  wide,  on  the  upper  part  of  the  Minne- 
sota river.  By  this  treaty  the  Indians  were  to  remove  within  two  years  to 
the  reservation;  to  receive  from  the  government,  after  removal  $275,000, 
to  enable  them  to  settle  up  their  affairs  and  to  become  established  in  their 
new  home ;  and  $30,000  was  to  be  expended  in  breaking  land,  erecting  mills 
and  establishing  a  manual  training  school.  They  were  also  to  receive  for 
fifty  years  from  that  time,  an  annuity  of  $68,000,  payable  as  follows:  Cash, 
$40,000;  civilization  fund,  $12,000;  goods  and  provisions,  $10,000;  educa- 
tion fund,  $6,000. 

About  a  week  later,  on  the  29th  of  July,  Governor  Ramsey  and  Com- 
missioner Lea  met  the  chiefs  and  leading  men  of  the  Med-ay-wakanton  and 
Wah-pay-koo-tay  bands  of  Sioux  at  a  grand  council  at  Mendota,  to  nego- 
tiate another  treaty  for  the  sale  of  other  lands,  which  was  concluded  on  the 
5th  of  August,  being  signed  by  sixty-four  chiefs,  head  men  and  warriors. 
In  the  treaty  these  bands  of  Indians  ceded  and  relinquished  all  their  lands  in 
territory  of  Minnesota  and  state  of  Iowa,  and  in  consideration  thereof  the 
United  States  was  to  reserve  for  them  a  tract  of  the  average  width  of  ten 
miles  on  either  side  of  the  Minnesota  river,  and  bounded  on  the  west  by  the 
Tehay-tam-bay  and  Yellow  Medicine  rivers,  on  the  east  by  the  Little  Rock 
river,  and  a  line  running  due  south  from  the  mouth  to  the  Waraju  river; 
and  to  pay  them  the  following  sums  of  money:  For  settling  debts  and  aid 
in  removal,  $220,000;  for  erection  of  buildings  and  opening  farms,  $30,000; 
civilization  fund,  to  be  paid  annually,  $12,000;  educational  fund,  paid 
annually,  $6,000;  goods  and  provisions,  annually,  $10,000;  cash,  $30,000. 
The  annuities  were  to  continue  for  fifty  years  from  the  date  of  the  treaty. 
These  two  treaties  of  1851  at  Traverse  des  Sioux  and  Mendota  acquired 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  37 

for  white  settlement  nearly  24,000,000  acres  of  the  finest  lands  in  the 
world.  The  cessions  were  mostly  in  Minnesota,  but  included  about  an  eighth 
part,  or  nearly  3,000,000  acres,  in  the  state  of  Iowa,  between  the  line  of  the 
old  "neutral  ground''  and  the  northern  anil  western  boundaries  of  the  state. 
That  tract  of  country,  and  generally  all  lands  in  Iowa,  claimed  by  the  Sioux, 
were  therefore  embraced  in  the  articles  of  cession  of  both  treaties. 

The  Senate  of  the  United  States,  on  the  23rd  of  June,  1852,  rati  lie  1  the 
treaties,  with  amendments  to  each,  which  amendments  were  subsequently 
accepted  by  the  Indians,  and  on  the  24th  of  February,  1853,  President  Mil- 
lard Fillmore  issued  his  proclamation  accepting,  ratifying  and  confirming 
each  of  the  said  treaties  as  amended.  The  total  lands  in  the  present  state  of 
Minnesota  relinquished  to  the  government  by  these  treaties  exceeded 
19,000,000  acres;  and  they  also  ceded  about  1,750,000  acres  in  South  Dakota, 
besides  the  tract  described  in  Iowa. 

The  third  treaty  of  1S51  was  effected  by  Governor  Ramsey  with  the 
Red  Lake  and  Pembina  bands  of  Ojibways  at  Pembina,  by  which  they 
ceded  certain  territory,  sixty-five  miles  in  width  by  one  hundred  and  fifty 
miles  in  length,  intersected  by  the  Red  River  of  the  North.  This  treaty 
was  not  ratified  by  the  government. 

After  the  ratification  of  the  treaties  with  the  Sioux,  a  great  wave  of 
immigration  set  in  from  all  the  eastern  states,  and  an  era  of  speculation 
started  which  probably  has  never  been  excelled  in  any  portion  of  the  west. 
A  census,  taken  in  1857.  gave  a  population  of  150,037. 

INDIAN    HUNTERS    CAUSE    TROUBLE. 

Notwithstanding  there  was  an  abundant  supply  of  good  land  outside  of 
the  limits  of  the  land  ceded  under  these  treaties,  the  adventurous  spirit 
of  the  pioneers  led  many  of  them  to  settle  on  the  extreme  limits  of  the 
grant,  and  in  immediate  proximity  to  the  Indian  settlements.  In  the  south- 
western portion  of  the  state,  particularly,  settlements  were  made  close  to 
the  boundary  line  of  Iowa  and  north  and  west  of  Spirit  lake.  Some  were 
in  Iowa  and  some  were  in  Minnesota,  and  all  were  within  the  jurisdiction 
of  the  Indian  agent  resident  in  the  territory  of  Minnesota.  Although  tin- 
Indians  were  living  on  the  reservation  lands  west  of  these  settlements,  in 
their  hunting  expeditions  they  were  accustomed  to  return  to  the  ceded 
lands.  In  a  general  way  the  Indians  were  civil,  and  committed  only  petty 
depredations;  but  their  visits  were  at  times  annoying.  Among  the  Indians 
there  was  a  single  band,  under  the  leadership  of  Ink-pa-du-ta,  or  the  S< 


38  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

let  Point,  of  about  fifteen  lodges,  which  had  been  for  many  years  an  inde- 
pendent band  and  of  a  thieving,  vagabondish  character  (really  outlaws  from 
the  Sioux  nation,  and  not  represented  in  the  treaties  of  1851),  who  had 
taken  possession  of  a  strip  of  land  running  on  both  sides  of  the  boundary 
lines  of  Iowa  and  Minnesota,  and  extending  to  the  Missouri  river.  In 
March,  1857,  a  few  of  these  Indians  were  hunting  in  the  neighborhood  of 
Rock  river  and  one  of  them  was  bitten  by  a  dog  belonging  to  a  white  man. 
The  dog  was  killed  by  the  Indian,  and  in  return  the  owner  of  the  dog  made 
an  assault  upon  the  Indian,  and  afterward  gathered  his  neighbors,  and  they 
went  to  the  Indian  camp  and  disarmed  them.  The  arms  were  afterward 
returned  to  them,  and  the  party  moved  northeast,  arriving  at  the  Spirit  Lake 
settlement  about  the  6th  of  March,  where  they  massacred  the  men  and  took 
four  women  into  captivity.  Other  settlements  were  attacked,  and  alto- 
gether forty-two  settlers  were  killed.  Two  of  the  women  were  afterward 
rescued  through  the  efforts  of  Hon.  Charles  E.  Flandreau.  then  the  Indian 
agent  An  effort  was  made  to  punish  this  band  of  savages,  but  all  escaped 
except  the  eldest  son  of  Ink-pa-du-ta,  who  had  ventured  into  the  camp  of 
other  Sioux,  near  the  agency,  and  was  killed  in  an  attempt  to  capture  him. 

TOWN-SITE   SPECULATION. 

In  1855  and  1856  town-site  speculation  became  the  absorbing  thought, 
and  when  the  panic  of  1S57  set  in,  Minnesota  was  soon  in  a  deplorable 
condition.  The  demand  for  an  extensive  railroad  system  and  a  state  gov- 
ernment had  originated  in  the  flush  times  of  1856  and  1S57,  and  on  Febru- 
ary 26,  1857,  Congress  passed  an  act  authorizing  a  constitutional  conven- 
tion, and  granting  a  large  amount  of  lands  in  aid  of  public  schools.  On 
March  3,  1857,  an  act  °f  Congress  was  approved  making  a  large  grant  of 
lands  in  aid  of  railroads. 

The  election  of  members  of  the  Constitutional  Convention  was  held  on 
June  1,  1857,  and  the  result  was  an  almost  equal  division  representing  the 
Democratic  and  Republican  parties.  So  close  was  this  division,  and  there 
being  some  contested  seats,  when  the  convention  assembled,  on  July  13, 
two  distinct  organizations  were  made,  each  proceeding  to  frame  a  Con- 
stitute m,  but  finally,  by  conference  committees,  they  united  in  one  docu- 
ment, which  was  submitted  to  a  vote  of  the  people  on  October  13,  and  was 
adopted  almost  unanimously.  By  this  Constitution  the  boundaries  of  the 
state  were  changed  on  the  west,  making  the  Red  River  of  the  North  the 
line,    up    the    I'.uis   des    Sioux,    and    thence   extending   along   that    river    and 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  39 

through  Lake  Traverse  and  Big  Stone  lake,  and  by  a  direct  south  line  to  the 
north  boundary  of  Iowa. 

This  Constitution  provided  for  an  election  of  state  officers  at  the  same 
time  of  voting  upon  the  adoption  of  the  Constitution,  resulting,  bj  a  close 
vote,  in  the  election  of  the  Democratic  nominees.  The  first  stale  Legisla- 
ture was  convened  on  the  2nd  of  December,  1857,  and  continued  in  session 
until  March  25,  1858,  when  a  recess  was  taken  until  after  the  state  should 
be  admitted.  Some  doubts  were  raised  as  to  the  legality  of  the  acts  of 
the  Legislature  previous  to  admission  by  Congress.  The  act  of  admission 
was  passed  and  approved.  May  11,  1858.  The  Legislature  again  assembled 
in  June,  and  finally  adjourned,  August  12,  1858.  During  this  prolonged 
session  the  embryo  state  was  without  funds,  and  a  loan  of  $250,000  was 
authorized;  but  as  the  acts  of  the  Legislature  before  admission  were  some- 
what irregular,  the  loan  could  not  be  readily  negotiated.  To  tide  over  the 
difficulty  state  warrants  were  issued  in  the  form  of  bank  notes,  and  passed 
current,  with  more  or  less  discount,  until  the  summer  of  1N5N,  when  tin 
were  redeemed  from  the  proceeds  of  the  loan  consummated  after  the  admis- 
sion of  the  state. 

RAILROAD    BONDS    ISSUED. 

The  first  Legislature  worked  diligently  in  what  they  considered  the 
best  interest  of  the  state,  and  as  the  grant  of  lands  by  the  United  State 
in  aid  of  railroads  within  the  state  had  to  be  turned  over  to  companies,  a 
large  part  of  the  session  was  devoted  to  railroad  legislation.  The  scheme 
of  further  aid  to  companies  who  might  be  willing  to  undertake  the  build- 
ing of  railroads  was  originated,  and  was  commonly  denominated  the  "Five 
Million  Loan  Bill,"  contemplating  the  loan  of  the  credit  of  the  state,  to 
that  amount,  in  such  sums  as  would  be  paid  upon  the  grading  and  final 
completion  of  certain  miles  of  road.  On  a  submission  of  this  law  to  the 
people  it  was  adopted  by  a  large  majority.  The  opposition  at  the  time  of 
the  vote  upon  this  measure  was  very  bitter,  and  continued  after  bonds  « 
being  issued,  and  with  the  dissatisfaction  arising  from  the  small  I  of 

work  completed  and  the  large  amount  of  bonds  issued,  threatenings  of  repu- 
diation advocated  by  leading  men  in  the  state  caused  a  in  financial 
circles  and  a  final  collap  1  oi  the  whole  scheme,  with  the  foi  the 
mortgages  taken  by  the  state  upon  the  railroad  lands  and  Ira;  ind 
the  abandonment  of  all  railroad  construction  for  the  tim  The  total 
amount  of  bonds  issued  under  this  provision  of  the  constitution  v  75,- 
000.     By  the  foreclosure  proceedings  the  state  acquired  about  250  miles  of 


40  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

graded  road,  the  franchises  of  the  companies  and  the  lands,  amounting  to 
five  million  of  acres,  as  indemnity  for  this  issue  of  bonds.  Notwithstanding 
the  state  had  acquired  all  the  rights,  including  the  improvements  of  the  rail- 
road companies,  the  feeling  against  any  settlement  of  the  bonds  was  strong 
enough  to  secure  an  amendment  to  the  constitution  in  i860,  prohibiting  the 
passage  of  any  law  levying  a  tax  or  making  other  provision  for  the  pay- 
ment of  the  principal  or  interest  of  these  bonds  without  having  the  same 
submitted  to  a  vote  of  the  people  and  adopted. 

The  two  years  following  the  crash  of  1857  were  replete  with  financial 
disaster  and  a  shrinkage  of  inflated  .values  in  town-sites;  but  the  country 
was  filling  up  with  farmers,  and  the  rich  soil  of  the  state  was  giving 
abundant  harvests.  The  political  contest  of  1859  was  bitter,  and  resulted  in 
the  Republican  party  carrying  the  state,  both  for  state  officers  and  the  Legis- 
lature 

The  census  of  i860  gave  the  state  a  population  of  172,023.  During 
this  year  there  was  great  hope  of  a  largely  increased  immigration  into  the 
county;  but  the  political  situation  in  the  Union,  starting  with  the  opening 
of  the  presidential  campaign  of  that  year,  soon  indicated  a  disturbing  ele- 
ment throughout  the  country,  and  distrust  and  depression  were  manifest 
on  all  sides  which  was  not  allayed  by  the  result  of  the  presidential  election. 
The  war  period,  commencing  with  the  time  of  the  President's  proclamation 
in  April,  1861,  to  the  final  close  of  the  rebellion  in  1865,  did  not  permit  any 
material  growth  in  the  state.  About  twenty-two  thousand  of  her  able- 
bodied  citizens  volunteered  and  were  enlisted  in  the  Union  army. 

UNREST   AMONG   THE   INDIANS. 

The  Indian  reservation  set  apart  by  the  treaties  of  185 1,  a  tract  twenty 
miles  wide  on  the  upper  part  of  the  Minnesota  river,  embracing  some  of 
the  finest  lands  in  the  state,  was  becoming  a  barrier  to  settlements  in 
the  upper  Minnesota  valley.  Settlers  had  taken  lands  close  up  to  the  reserva- 
tion, and  there  was  considerable  complaint  that  Indians  were  coming  off 
the  reservation  and  committing  petty  depredations,  and  the  Indians  had 
more  or  less  complaints  to  make  regarding  the  extortions  practiced  by  the 
post  traders.  The  encroachments  of  the  whites  were  viewed  with  suspicion 
by  the  Indians,  and  sooner  or  later,  from  these  causes  alone,  a  conflict  would 
probably  have  occurred.  The  War  of  the  Rebellion,  calling  away  so  many 
of  the  able-bodied  men  of  the  state,  left  the   frontier   settlements  almost 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  4  I 

defenseless,  and  doubtless  caused  the  younger  portion  of  the  tribes  to  become 
more  offensive  to  the  settlers  and  more  exacting  in  their  demands. 

The  lands  embraced  within  the  reservation  under  the  treaties  of  1S51 
were  in  the  very  heart  of  Minnesota,  and,  considering-  the  forests  and 
streams,  were  the  choicest  of  farming  lands.  The  settlers  on  the  boi 
were  anxiously  coveting  this  "Garden  of  Eden."  A  sentiment  was  created 
throughout  the  state  that  the  Indians  should  abandon  the  tribal  relations 
and  become  civilized.  To  this  end  the  head  men  of  the  Dakota  nation 
were  induced,  in  1858,  to  go  to  Washington,  under  the  charge  of  Hon. 
Joseph  R.  Brown,  in  whom  they  had  great  confidence,  for  the  purpose  of 
negotiating  for  the  whole  or  a  part  of  this  reservation.  Treaties  were 
signed  ceding  the  ten-mile  strip  on  the  north  side  of  the  river,  upon  the 
payment  of  $140,000,  and  the  government  provided  that  every  head  of  a 
family  or  single  person  over  the  age  of  twenty-one  adopting  a  civilized 
life  should  secure  in  fee  eighty  acres  of  land.  From  some  cause  the  pay- 
ments of  $140,000  were  never  made,  and  there  was  great  dissatisfaction 
on  account  of  this  treat}-,  among  those  of  the  tribes  who  were  adverse  to 
accepting  the  condition  of  civilization;  and  from  the  fact  that  there  v 
no  money  divided  among  them  on  account  of  this  relinquishment  a  bitter 
dissension  arose  between  the  older  chiefs  and  the  younger  members,  the 
latter  claiming  that  they  had  been  robbed  either  by  the  chiefs  or  by  the 
government,  and  they  proposed  to  have  the  settlement,  peaceful  or  other- 
wise. 

This  internal  strife  was  augmented  from  year  to  year  by  the  withdrawal 
of  families  who  were  willing  to  accept  the  civilization  fund,  the  number  in 
three  years  succeeding  the  treaty  amounting  to  one  hundred  and  sixty  | 
sons.     They  were,  however,   still  annuity  Indians,  and  claimed   thi    right   to 
be  heard  in  the  councils.     The  annuity  Indians,  all  told,  numbered  about  six 
thousand    two    hundred,    and    the    annual   cash    payment    to    each   pi  1 
amounted  to  about  fifteen  dollars.     The  Indians  were  treated  as  wards  of 
the   United    States.      Two    agencies    were    established,    around   which    v, 
gathered  storekeepers  to  sell  the  Indians  goods  in  anticipation  of  the  annuity 
payments;    and,    usually,    the    annual    payment    was    simply    a    settlement    of 
the  claims  of  the  traders,   who  took  the  risk   of    furnishing  th  in 

advance.     That  there  was  injustice  practiced  upon  the  Indiai  '.uhtless 

true;   probably   not  so  great  as   the   disaffected    Indians   imagined.      There 
was  enough,  however,  to  make  the  time  of  the  annual  payment  an  anxi 
period,   for   fear  of  an  outbreak.     The   failure   of   the  governmenl    in 
attempt  to  punish  the  Spirit  Lake  murderers  had  a  tendency  I 


42  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

ing  among  the  leaders  of  the  rebellious  spirit  that  if  they  could  only  unite 
the  whole  body  of  Sioux  in  an  uprising  they  could  make  a  successful  attack 
upon  the  settlers,  and  perhaps  regain  the  lands  formerly  held  by  the  Indians. 
The  War  of  the  Rebellion,  starting  in  1861,  gave  renewed  energy  to  the 
discontent.  The  Indians  were  well  aware  of  the  reverses  of  the  Union 
forces  during  the  first  year  of  the  war.  The  calls  for  troops  were  taking  the 
able-bodied  men  from  the  farms,  and  many  of  the  half-breeds  had  volun- 
teered for  the  army.  All  these  conditions  had  a  disquieting  effect,  and, 
added  to  this,  in  1862  the  June  payment  was  not  made;  and  as  there  was  no 
satisfactory  answer  for  the  delay,  the  traders  took  advantage  of  the  neces- 
sities of  the  Indians  and  insinuated  that  perhaps  the  government  would  go 
to  pieces,  and  there  would  be  no  further  payments.  The  missionaries  endeav- 
ored to  counteract  these  evil  influences,  and.  with  the  aid  of  the  civilized 
Indians,  succeeded  in  averting  deliberate  outbreak.  The  delay  in  payment 
of  annuities,  however,  tended  to  keep  up  the  discontent,  particularly  among 
the  younger  braves,  who  were  the  hunters.  Their  vagabond  life  brought 
them  into  the  settlements,  and  in  contact  with  the  whites;  and  their  worth- 
less, lazy  habits  made  them  offensive  to  the  families,  as  beggars  of  meals  or 
money,  or  anything  that  took  their  fancy. 

MASSACRE   OF    1862. 

These  are,  in  brief,  the  circumstances  which  led  up  to  the  great  mas- 
sacre of  1862,  which  for  a  short  time  threatened  the  lives  of  all  the  settlers 
on  the  western  boundary  of  the  state.  There  was  no  concerted  action  for 
the  massacre,  and  to  some  extent  there  is  an  uncertainty  as  to  why  the  first 
murders  were  committed.  Four  young  men  or  boys  are  believed  to  have 
commenced  the  massacre,  in  a  spirit  of  bravado,  making  a  threatening 
attack  first  upon  a  family,  driving  them  from  their  home,  and  afterward 
following  them  to  a  neighbor's  house,  where,  after  an  altercation  with  the 
families,  they  killed  three  men  and  two  women.  These  occurrences  took 
place  on  the  17th  of  August,  in  the  township  of  Acton,  twelve  miles  west 
of  Litchfield  Realizing  that  if  they  remained  in  the  vicinity  punishment 
would  soon  overtake  their  murderous  acts,  they  lost  no  time  in  going  back 
to  camp,  relating  what  they  had  done,  and  asking  protection.  A  hasty 
consultation  was  had  between  two  of  the  chiefs;  they  realized  that  the  mur- 
derers must  be  given  up,  or  the  annuities  would  be  stopped,  and  a  war  of 
extermination  would  be  inaugurated.  They  chose  to  stand  by  the  murder- 
ers, ami  immediately  following  there  was  a  general  uprising  of  the  entire 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  4} 

Sioux  bands.  So  swift  were  their  movements,  before  any  effective  resistance 
could  be  brought  against  them,  that  about  eight  hundred  of  the  settlers, 
men,  women  and  children  were  murdered  within  a  few  days.  The  prompt 
action  of  the  state  authorities,  aided  by  the  national  government,  resulted 
in  the  capture  of  about  2,000  of  the  belligerent  Indians  and  the  withdrawal 
of  the  remainder  beyond  the  boundaries  of  the  state,  into  the  wilds  of 
Dakota.  Of  the  captured  Indians,  303  were  found  guilty  of  murder  and 
rape,  and  were  condemned  to  death  by  a  military  court-martial.  Of  this 
number  265  were  reprieved  by  President  Lincoln,  and  the  remainder,  thirty- 
eight  of  the  most  prominent  engaged  in  the  massacre,  were  hung  in  Mankato 
on  the  26th  of  December,  1862.  The  next  year  the  general  government 
authorized  an  expedition  against  the  Indians  who  had  escaped  to  the  Dakota 
plains,  because  of  their  constant  raids  in  small  squads  on  the  frontiers  of 
the  state  for  the  purpose  of  horse-stealing  and  marauding  upon  adven- 
turous settlers  who  might  risk  going  back  to  their  abandoned  farms.  \.fter 
two  decisive  encounters,  the  Indians  retreated  beyond  the  Missouri  river, 
and  in  1864  another  expedition  was  sent  forward  and  a  final  settlemenl 
of  the  Sioux  outbreak  was  accomplished,  by  a  confiscation  and  surrender 
of  the  ponies  and  arms  of  most  of  the  bands  hostile  to  the  government. 

The  several  tribes  of  Sioux  Indians  were  engaged  in  this  massacre,  and 
were  the  representatives  of  the  tribes  that  had  made  the  cession  of  lands 
in  1851,  under  the  first  and  second  treaties  of  that  year.  Under  these 
treaties  the  government  had  set  aside  trust  funds  of  82,520,000.  from  which 
there  was  paid  annually  the  sum  of  Suo.ooo.  Settlers  who  had  lost  prop- 
erty urged  their  claims  for  indemnity,  and  Congress  promptly  established  a 
commission  to  receive  all  claims  and  investigate  the  fact-,.  The  commis- 
sion was  duly  organized  and  established  headquarters  in  the  city  of  St.  Paul, 
and  carefully  examined  all  the  claims  presented.  The  total  number  filed 
was  2,940,  with  damages  amounting  to  $2,458,795.16.  The  commission 
allowed  2.635  claims,  and  cut  down  the  damages  t..  $1,370,374.  By  . 
Congress  these  claims  were  paid,  and  the  annuities  and  all  furtl 
ments  to  the  tribi  were  stopped.  The  state  was  also  reimbursed  for  extra- 
ordinary expenses  incurred  duriri  riod  of  insurrecl 

On  the  2nd  of  Octob  r,   [863,  a  treaty  was  concluded  at  the  old  cro 
ing  of   Red   Lake   river,  about   twelve  miles  east   of   the    present    m 
Crookston  by  Alexander   Ramsey  and  Morrill,   ai  chiefs 

and  head  men  of  the  Red  Lake  and   Pembina  bai  bway   Ind 

for  the  cession  of  a  large  tract  of  country,  being  the 
in  one  of  the  treaties  of   1851,  but  not  ratified  at  that  lime,  of  which  the 


44  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

boundaries  are  as  follow:  Commencing  at  the  intersection  of  the  national 
boundary  with  the  Lake  of  the  Woods;  thence  in  a  southwest  direction  to 
the  head  of  Thief  river;  thence  following  that  stream  to  its  mouth;  thence 
southeasterly  in  a  direct  line  toward  the  head  of  Wild  Rice  river;  and  thence 
following  the  boundary  of  the  Pillager  cession  of  1855  to  the  mouth  of  said 
river;  thence  up  the  channel  of  the  Red  river  to  the  mouth  of  the  Cheyenne; 
thence  up  said  river  to  Stump  lake,  near  the  eastern  extremity  of  Devil's 
lake;  thence  north  to  the  international  boundary;  and  thence  east  on 
said  boundary  to  the  place  of  beginning.  It  embraced  all  of  the  Red  River 
valley  in  Minnesota  and  Dakota,  except  a  small  portion  previously  ceded, 
and  was  estimated  to  contain  11,000,000  acres.  This  treaty  was  ratified  by 
the  Senate,  with  amendments,  March  1,  1864.  The  Indians,  on  the  12th  of 
April,  1864,  assented  to  the  amendments,  and  President  Lincoln,  by  his 
proclamation  of  the  5th  of  May,  1864,  confirmed  the  treaty. 

A   PERIOD  OF  RAPID  DEVELOPMENT. 

The  close  of  the  Civil  War  in  the  spring  of  1S65,  and  the  return  of  the 
soldiers,  and  the  assurance  of  no  further  depredations  from  the  Sioux 
Indians,  started  a  new  era  of  prosperity  and  rapid  growth.  The  Legislature, 
in  the  meantime,  had  granted  charters  on  the  foreclosed  roadbeds  and  lands 
to  new  railroad  companies,  and  the  construction  of  roads  was  furnishing 
abundant  labor  to  all  who  were  coming  to  the  state.  The  population  at 
this  time  was  250,099,  and  in  1870  the  ppoulation  had  increased  to  439,706, 
nearly  doubling  in  five  years.  The  railroad  companies  had  within  the  same 
period  constructed  nearly  1,000  miles  of  railroad,  and  continued  their  build- 
ing with  even  greater  vigor  until  the  financial  crisis  of  1873  brought  all  pub- 
lic enterprises  again  to  a  stand,  and  produced  stagnation  in  all  the  growing 
towns.  The  farmers  had  been  active  in  developing  the  country,  and  were 
adding  largely  to  the  productions  of  the  state  when  the  grasshopper  raids, 
for  the  time  being,  destroyed  the  growing  crops,  and  caused  great  financial 
distress  for  two  or  three  years. 

The  census  of  1875  gave  the  state  a  population  of  597,407,  still  showing 
a  fair  increase,  but  small  in  comparison  with  the  live  years  following  the 
close  of  the  rebellion.  By  1878  the  state  had  fairly  recovered  from  the 
financial  crash  of  1873,  but  speculation  has  at  no  time  since  1878  been  so 
reckless  as  during  the  two  periods  ending  in  1857  and  1873. 

Along  with  the  prosperity  of  the  state,  caused  so  largely  by  the  rapid 
railroad   building,   the   state   pride  began  to   assert  itself   with   more   force, 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  45 

and  the  prominent  citizens  continued  to  urge  an  adjustment  of  the  dis- 
honored railroad  bonds.  In  1877  a  proposition  setting  aside  the  proceeds 
of  500,000  acres  for  internal  improvement  lands  in  settlement  was  by  act 
of  the  Legislature  submitted  to  a  vote  at  a  special  election  called  for  the 
12th  of  June,  and  was  voted  down  by  the  decisive  vote  of  59,176  against 
to  17,324  votes  for,  the  proposition.  This  vote  was  largely  owing  to  the 
fact  that  the  state  at  that  time  had  almost  an  entire  new  population  that 
had  come  into  the  state  long  after  the  bonds  were  issued  and  had  no  definite 
knowledge  of  the  history  of  the  original  indebtedness. 

In  1881  the  Legislature  enacted  a  law  providing  for  the  adjustment  of 
these  bonds  and  designating  the  judges  of  the  supreme  court  as  a  com- 
mission to  make  the  settlement.  The  constitutionality  of  this  law  was 
questioned,  a  writ  of  injunction  was  served,  and  the  final  determination  of 
the  supreme  bench  was  that  the  law  was  unconstitutional,  as  also  the 
amendment  of  i860,  prohibiting  any  settlement  without  a  vote  of  the  people. 
This  latter  act  had  previously  been  determined  unconstitutional  by  the 
supreme  court  of  the  United  States.  An  extra  session  of  the  Legislature 
was  called  in  October  of  the  same  year,  when  the  final  adjustment  was 
authorized  by  act  of  the  Legislature,  on  a  basis  of  fifty  per  cent,  of  the 
amount  nominally  due,  and,  after  a  careful  examination  of  all  the  claims 
presented,  the  bond  question  was  forever  set  at  rest  by  the  issue  of  adjust- 
ment bonds,  to  the  amount  of  $4,282,000,  to  parties  entitled  to  receive 
them.  For  the  payment  of  these  bonds  the  proposition  of  setting  aside 
the  proceeds  of  the  500,000  acres  of  internal  improvement  lands  was  again 
submitted  to  the  general  election  in  1881,  and  by  a  vote  of  82,435  votes  in 
favor,  and  24,526  votes  against,  the  action  of  the  Legislature  was  rati 
and  the  stigma  of  repudiation  removed,  which  had  been  fastened  upon  the 
state  by  the  popular  vote  of  1877. 

In  1880  the  national  census  gave  the  state  a  population  of  780,773. 
the  state  census  of   1885  swelled  these  figures  to   1,117,798,  indicating  the 
extraordinary  growth  of   forty-three  per  cent.;  but  an  examination  of  the 
figures  shows  that  the  growth  was  mainly  confined  to  the  citi<  ;  nearly 

eighty  per  cent,  of  increase,  while  in  the  farming  community  and  small 
towns  the  percentage  of  inn  vas  only  twenty  per  cent. 

During  the  ten  years  between   1880  and   1890  there   w  period   oi 

great  activity  in  the  railroad  building,  and  2,310  miles  of  road  were  pul  in 
operation.     This  alone  gave  great  energy  to  the  business  of  the  state, 
caused  a  large  increase  in  the  population  of  the  cities,  and  gradually  cul- 
minated in  a  most  extravagant  real  estate  boom,  and  an  era  of  the  wild 


46  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

speculation.  In  the  country  the  growth  was  normal  over  the  entire  state, 
although  large  numbers  of  farmers  in  the  southern  half  of  the  state  were 
attracted  to  the  plains  of  Dakota,  where  great  activity  was  being  developed 
by  the  pushing  of  railroads  into  different  sections  of  the  territory. 

DIVERSIFIED   FARMING  INTERESTS. 

The  settlement  of  the  Dakotas  and  the  consequent  breaking  up  of  the 
virgin  land,  after  the  year  1885,  almost  doubled  the  wheat  yield  of  the  north- 
western states,  so  that  the  farmers  of  Minnesota  were  soon  confronted 
with  the  question  whether  wheat  should  continue  to  be  their  leading  staple. 
In  the  southern  part  of  the  state  the  wheat  return  was  not  enough  per  acre 
to  yield  any  profit  to  the  farmer  at  the  reduced  prices ;  and  gradually  meth- 
ods have  changed,  so  that  the  leading  agricultural  industries  now  include 
dairying,  stock  raising,  and  general  diversified  farming.  It  seems  probable 
that  Minnesota  will  hold  her  place  as  the  greatest  wheat-producing  state, 
and  will  also  earn  a  greater  reputation  as  the  best  all-round  farming  state 
in  the  Union. 

The  national  census  of  1890  gave  the  state  a  population  of  1,301,826, 
an  increase  of  184,028  in  five  years,  of  which  amount  about  70,000  increase 
went  to  the  cities  and  114,000  to  the  country  districts,  showing  eighteen  per 
cent,  increase  in  the  cities  and  fifteen  per  cent,  increase  in  the  country.  The 
state  census  of  1895  showed  an  increase  of  272,793,  or  21.95  per  cent,  in  the 
preceding  five  years,  giving  a  total  population  of  1,574,619. 

According  to  the  census  of  1910  the  population  of  Minnesota  was 
2,075,708,  showing  an  increase  of  17.8  per  cent,  during  the  preceding 
decade.  The  population  of  the  five  largest  cities  was  as  follow:  Minnea- 
polis, 301,408;  St.  Paul,  214,744;  Duluth,  78,466;  Winona,  18,583;  and 
Stiliwater.   10.19S. 

.Minnesota  was  the  first  state  of  the  Union  to  respond  to  the  call  of 
the  President  for  volunteers  at  the  beginning  of  the  war  with  Spain,  in 
April,  1898.  Three  regiments,  designated  as  the  Twelfth,  Thirteenth  and 
Fourteenth  Regiments  of  Minnesota  Volunteers,  were  mobilized  at  St.  Paul, 
April  20,  and  were  mustered  into  the  United  State  service  on  May  7  and  8. 
The  Fifteenth  Regiment  was  mustered  into  service  on  July  18.  In  total 
this  state  furnished  5.315  officers  and  enlisted  men  for  the  volunteer  army. 
At  the  close  of  the  war  the  Twelfth  and  Fourteenth  Regiments  returned  to 
Minnesota,  and  were  mustered  out  of  service  in  November.  The  Fifteenth 
Regiment   continued  in   service  until  March  27,    1899;  and  the  Thirteenth 


COTTONWOOD    AXD    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  47 

Regiment,  after  more  than  a  year  of  service  in  the  Philippine  Islands,  was 
mustered  out  on  October  3,  1899. 

NAME. 

Minnesota  derives  its  name  from  the  river  which  was  named  "Minisota" 
by  the  Dakotas,  pronounced  "Min-nee-sotah,"  applied  to  the  stream,  in  its 
natural  state  in  the  summer  season,  after  the  waters  were  cleared  from  the 
roiling  caused  by  the  spring  floods.  Mini,  water;  sotah,  sky-colored. 
Apparently  to  secure  the  correct  pronunciation  in  English  letters,  the  con- 
vention called  at  Stillwater,  in  1848.  for  the  purpose  of  procuring  a  terri- 
torial organization,  instructed  their  delegates  to  see  that  the  name  of  the 
territory  should  be  written  Min-ne-sota. 

GEOGRAPHY. 

Geographically,  Minnesota  occupies  the  exact  center  of  the  continent 
of  North  America,  midway  between  the  Atlantic  and  Pacific  oceans,  and  also 
midway  between  Hudson  bay  and  the  Gulf  of  Mexico.  This  state  is  bounded 
on  the  south  by  Iowa,  on  the  west  by  South  and  North  Dakota,  on  the  north 
by  Manitoba  and  Ontario,  and  on  the  east  by  Wisconsin.  It  extends  from 
latitude  43  degrees  30  minutes,  to  49  degrees  24  minutes,  and  from  89 
degrees  29  minutes,  to  97  degrees  15  minutes,  west  longitude.  From  its 
southern  boundary  to  the  northern  is  about  400  miles,  and  from  its  most 
eastern  to  the  extreme  western  point  about  354  miles. 

AREA. 

Minnesota  is.  in  area,  the  tenth  state  of  the  Union.  It  contains  84,287 
square  miles,  or  about  53,943,379  acres,  of  which  3.608,012  acres  are  water. 
In  altitude  it  appears  to  be  one  of  the  highest  portions  of  the  continent,  as 
the  headwaters  of  three  great  river  systems  are  found  in  its  limits,  those 
of  streams  flowing  northward  to  Hudson  tward  to  the  Atlantic  ocean, 

and  southward  to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico. 

About  half  of  this  surface,  on  the  south  and  west,  consists  of  rollii 
prairie,  interspersed  with  frequent  groves,  oak  openings  and  belts  of  hard- 
wood timber,  watered  by  numberless  lakes  and  streams,  and  covered  with  a 
warm,  dark  soil  of  great  fertility.     The  rest,  embracing  the  elevated  distrii  1 
immediately  west  and  north  of  Lake  Superi  ists  mainly  of  rich  min- 


48  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

eral  ranges  and  of  the  pine  forests  which  clothe  the  headwaters  of  the  Mis- 
sissippi, affording  extensive  supplies  of  lumber.  There  is  but  a  very  small 
percentage  of  broken,  rocky  or  worthless  land  in  the  state.  Nearly  all  is 
arable. 

RIVERS. 

Numerous  rivers  and  watercourses  give  the  state  excellent  drainage. 
But  few  states  are  so  well  watered  as  Minnesota.  Its  navigable  rivers  are 
the  Mississippi,  the  Minnesota,  the  St.  Croix,  the  St.  Louis,  the  Red  River 
of  the  North,  and  the  Red  Lake  river,  all  of  which,  near  their  sources,  have 
extensive  water  powers;  while  a  number  of  smaller  streams  such  as  Rum 
river  and  Snake  river,  both  valuable  for  lumbering,  the  Cannon  and  Zumbro 
rivers,  the  Vermilion,  Crow,  Blue  Earth,  Des  Moines,  Cottonwood,  Chip- 
pewa, LeSueur,  Root,  Elk  and  Sauk  rivers,  also  furnish  line  water  powers. 
These  with  their  tributaries  and  a  host  of  lesser  streams  penetrate  every  por- 
tion of  the  state.  Some  of  the  water  powers  furnished  by  these  streams 
are  among  the  finest  in  America,  and  many  of  them  have  been  utilized  for 
manufacturing  purposes. 

LAKES. 

The  lakes  of  Minnesota  are  more  numerous  and  varied  in  form  than  in 
any  other  state  in  the  Union.  Bordering  on  the  northeast  corner  of  tin- 
state  for  one  hundred  and  fifty  miles,  the  waters  of  the  great  Lake  Superior 
wash  its  shores.  Within  the  state  there  are  about  ten  thousand  lakes,  the 
largest  of  which  is  Red  lake,  in  the  central  northern  part  of  the  state,  bor- 
dering partly  by  dense  pine  forests,  with  its  overflow  through  Red  Lake 
river,  by  a  devious  course,  into  the  Red  River  of  the  North.  On  the  same 
northern  slope,  in  St.  Louis  county,  is  the  beautiful  Vermilion  lake,  with  its 
tributaries,  at  the  edge  of  the  great  Vermilion  iron  range,  and  flowing  into 
Rainy  lake,  on  the  northern  boundary,  and  then  through  Rainy  Lake  river 
into  the  Lake  of  the  Woods,  and  thence  into  Lake  Winnipeg,  and  finally 
into  Hudson  bay.  On  the  southern  slope  of  the  state  is  Itasca  lake,  the 
source  of  tin-  Mississippi,  with  Cass  lake,  Lake  Winnibigoshish,  Leech  lake, 
and  other  innumerable  lakes,  all  adding  volume  to  the  water  of  the  Mississippi, 
eventually  flowing  into  the  Gulf  of  Mexico.  Then  there  is  Mille  Lacs,  the 
source  of  Rum  river,  and  the  picturesque  Lake  Minnetonka.  These  are  the 
largest  lakes  in  the  state.  Of  these,  however,  only  Minnetonka,  White  Bear, 
Bald  Eagle  and  Chisago  lakes  have  so  far  been  much  utilized  as  summer 
resorts.     The  incomparable  park   region,   traversed  by  the  Great  Northern 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  49 

and  Northern  Pacific  railroads,  is  the  paradise  of  summer  idlers,  of  hunters 
and  fishermen;  but  it  is  not  in  this  portion  alone  that  all  the  beautiful  lakes 
are  found.  The  northeastern  and  the  southwestern  sections  each  have 
numerous  lakes  to  attract  the  summer  visitor. 

There  is  an  undoubted  modification  of  the  climate  of  the  state,  caused 
by  these  numerous  bodies  of  water,  giving  a  most  delightful  summer  tem- 
perature. 

Fine  varieties  of  fish  are  abundant  in  all  these  lakes;  and  the  state 
expends  annually  thousands  of  dollars,  through  a  game  and  fish  commission, 
to  improve  the  varieties  and  to  prevent  their  wanton  destruction. 

ELEVATION. 

Surveys  with  leveling  from  the  sea  show  that  the  shore  of  Lake  Supe- 
rior is  the  lowest  land  in  the  state,  602  feet  above  sea  level.  The  waters 
of  the  northeastern  part  of  the  state  south  of  the  Mesabi  iron  range  flow 
into  Lake  Superior,  and  are  carried  to  the  Atlantic  ocean.  The  Mississippi 
river,  having  its  chief  source  in  Lake  Itasca,  at  1,466  feet  elevation,  runs  in 
a  southerly  direction,  leaving  the  state  at  620  feet  above  sea  level. 

The  Red  River  of  the  North,  rising  in  the  north,  near  Itasca  lake,  at 
a  height  of  1,600  feet  above  the  ocean,  after  a  circuitous  route  south  and 
west  to  Breckenridge,  in  Wilkin  count}-,  and  then  flowing  north  along  its 
great  valley,  leaves  the  state  at  an  elevation  of  750  feet.  The  average 
elevation  of  the  state  is  given  at  about  1,275  Ieet  The  highest  elevation  is 
the  Misquah  hills,  in  Cook  county,  2,230  feet. 

CLIMATE. 

The  elevation  of  Minnesota  above  the  sea,  its  fine  drainage,  and  the 
dryness  of  the  atmosphere  give  it  a  climate  of  unusual  salubrity  and  pleas- 
antness. It  has  an  annual  mean  temperature  of  44  degrees,  while  its  mean 
summer  temperature  is  70  degrees,  the  same  as  that  of  middle  Illinois  and 
Ohio,  southern  Pennsylvania,  etc.  The  excessive  heats  of  summer  often  fell 
in  other  states  are  here  tempered  by  the  cooling  breezes.  Its  high  latitude 
gives  it  correspondingly  longer  days  in  summer  than  states  further  south. 
and  during  the  growing  season  there  are  two  and  one-half  I  ire  sun- 

shine than  in  the  latitude  of  Cincinnati.     This,  taken  in   1 
the  abundant  rainfall  of  early  summer,  accounts  for  the  rapid  and  vigoi 

(4) 


50  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

growth  of  crops  in  Minnesota,  and  their  early  maturity.  The  cool  hreezes 
and  cool  nights  in  summer  prevent  the  debilitating  effects  of  heat  often  felt 
in  low  latitudes.  The  winter  climate  is  one  of  the  attractive  features  of  the 
state.  Its  uniformity,  and  prevailing  freedom  from  thaws  and  excessive 
spells  of  cold,  severe  weather  or  heavy  snow  storms,  and  its  dryness,  together 
with  the  bright  sunshine  and  electrical  condition  of  the  air,  all  tend  to  enhance 
the  personal  comfort  of  the  resident,  and  make  outdoor  life  and  labor  a 
pleasure. 

These  features  tend  to  make  this  climate  the  healthiest  in  the  Union. 
It  gives  life  and  briskness  to  those  performing  manual  labor,  enabling  them 
to  do  more  work  than  in  a  damper  or  duller  climate. 

CHRONOLOGICAL. 

In  the  following  list  some  of  the  more  important  events  in  the  state, 
from  the  earliest  explorations  to  the  present  time,  are  set  forth  in  chronolo- 
gical order : 

I635-     Jean  Nicollet,  an  explorer  from  France,  who  had  wintered  in  the 
neighborhood   of   Green   Bay,   brought    to   Montreal   the  first 
mention  of  the  aborigines  of  Minnesota. 
1659-60.     Grosseilliers  and  Radisson  wintered  among  the  Sioux  of  the  Mille 
Lacs  region,  Minnesota,  being  its  first  white  explorers.     In  a 
previous  expedition,   four  years  earlier,  they  are  thought   to 
have  come  to  Prairie  Island,  west  of  the  main  channel  of  the 
Mississippi,  between  Red  Wing  and  Hastings. 
1661      Father  Rene  Menard  left  Kewennaw,  on  Lake  Superior,  to  visit  the 
Hurons,  then  in  northern  Wisconsin,  and  was  lost  near  the 
sources  of  the  Black  and  Chippewa  rivers.     His  breviary  and 
cassock  were  said  to  have  been  found  among  the  Sioux. 
1679.     July  2,  Daniel  Greyselon  Du  Lhut  (Duluth)  held  a  council  with  the 
Sioux  at  their  principal  settlement  on  the  shore  of  Mille  Lacs. 
Du  Lhut,  in  June,  16S0,  by  way  of  the  St.  Croix  river,  reached 
the  Mississippi  and  met  Hennepin. 
1680      Louis  Hennepin,  after  captivity  in  the  village  of  Mille  Lacs  Sioux, 

first  saw  the  Falls  of  St.  Anthony. 
1689      May  8,  Nicholas  Perrot,  at  his  Ft.,  St.  Antoine,  on  the  Wisconsin 
shore  of  Lake   Pepin,   laid   formal   claim   to   the  surrounding 
country  for  France.     He  built  a  fort  also  on  the  Minnesota 
shore  of  this  lake,  near  its  outlet. 


COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINX.  51 

1695.  LeSueur  built  a  fort  or  trailing  post  on  Isle  Pelee,  now  called  Prairie 
Island,  above  Lake  Pepin. 

1700.  LeSueur  established  Ft.  L'Huillier,  on  the  Blue  Earth  river  (near 
the  mouth  of  the  LeSueur),  and  first  supplied  the  Sioux  with 
firearms. 

1727  The  French  established  a  third  fort  on  Lake  Pepin,  with  Sieur  de 
La  Perriere  as  commander. 

172S.     Great  flood  in  the  Mississippi. 

1763  By  the  treaty  of  Versailles,  fiance  ceded  Minnesota,  east  of  the 
Mississippi,  to  England,  and  west  of  it  to  Spain. 

1766  Capt.  Jonathan  Carver  visited  St.  Anthony  falls  and  Minnesota 
river.  Lie  claimed  to  have  made  a  treaty  with  the  Indians 
the  following  spring,  in  a  cave  afterward  called  "Carver's 
Cave,"  within  the  present  limits  of  St.  Paul,  at  which  he  said 
they  ceded  to  him  an  immense  tract  of  land,  long  known  as 
"Carver's  Claim,"   but   never   recognized   by  the  government. 

1796.  Laws  of  the  Ordinance  of  1787  extended  over  the  Northwest  terri- 
tory, including  the  northeastern  third  of  Minnesota,  east  of 
the  Mississippi  river. 

1798-99.     The  Northwestern  Fur  Company  established  itself  in  Minnesota. 

1800.  May  7,  that  part  of  Minnesota  east  of  the  Mississippi  became  a  part 
of  Indiana  by  the  division  of  Ohio. 

1803.  April  30,  that  part  of  Minnesota  west  of  the  Mississippi,  for  the 
preceding  forty  years  to  possession  of  Spain  as  a  part  of  Louis- 
iana, was  ceded  to  the  United  States  by  Napoleon  Bonaparte, 
who  had  just  obtained  it  from  Spain. 

1803-04.  William  Morrison,  the  first  known  white  man  to  discover  the 
source  of  the  Mississippi  river,  visited  Elk  lake  and  explored 
the  streams  entering  into  the  lake  forming  the  head  of  the 
river. 

1805.  Lieut.  Z.  M.  Pike  visited  Minnesota  to  establish  government  rela- 
tions there,  and  obtained  the  Ft.  Snelling  reservation  from 
the  Dakotas. 

1812.  The  Dakotas.  Ojibways  and  Winnebagoes,  under  the  lead  of  hostile 
traders,  joined  the  British  during  the  war.  Red  river  colony 
established  by  Lord  Selkirk. 

1819.     Minnesota,  east  of  the  Mississippi  river,  became  a  part  of  Crav 

county,   Michigan.     Ft.   Snelling  established,   and   a    po  t    al 
Mendota    occupied    by    troops,    under    command      of      Col. 


52  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

Leavenworth.  Maj.  L.  Taliaferro  appointed  Indian  agent, 
arriving  on  April  19. 

1820.  Corner  stone  of  Ft.  Snelling  laid  on  September  10.  Governor  Cass 
visits  Minnesota  and  makes  a  treaty  of  peace  between  the 
Sioux  and  Ojibways  at  Ft.  Snelling.  Col.  Josiah  Snelling 
appointed  to  the  command  of  the  latter  post. 

1823.  The  first  steamboat  arrived  at  Mendota,  May  10,  Major  Taliaferro 
and  Beltrami  being  passengers.  Maj.  Stephen  H.  Long 
explored  Minnesota  river,  the  Red  river  valley,  and  the  north- 
ern frontier.     Beltrami  explored  sources  of  the  Mississippi. 

1826  Great  flood  on  the  Red  river;  a  part  of  the  colony  driven  to  Minne- 
sota, settling  near  Ft.  Snelling. 

1832.  Schoolcraft  explored  sources  of  Mississippi  river,  and  named  Lake 
Itasca  (formerly  called  Elk  lake). 

1833      First  mission  established  at  Leech  lake  by  Rev.  W.  T.  Boutwell. 

1834.  The  portion  of  Minnesota  west  of  the  Mississippi  attached  to  Michi- 

gan.    Gen.  H.  H.  Sibley  settled  at  Mendota. 

1835.  Catlin  and  Featherstonhaugh  visited  Minnesota. 

1836.  The  territory  of  Wisconsin  organized,  embracing  the  part  of  Minne- 

sota east  of  the  Mississippi,  the  part  on  the  west  being  attached 
to  Iowa.  Nicollet  visited  Minnesota. 
1837  Governor  Dodge,  of  Wisconsin,  made  a  treaty  at  Ft.  Snelling  with 
the  Ojibways,  by  which  the  latter  ceded  all  their  pine  lands 
on  the  St.  Croix  and  its  tributaries ;  a  treaty  was  also  effected 
at  Washington  with  a  deputation  of  Dakotas  for  their  lands 
east  of  the  Mississippi.  These  treaties  led  the  way  to  the  first 
actual  settlements  within  the  area  of  Minnesota. 

1838.  The  treaty  ratified  by  Congress.     Franklin  Steele  makes  a  claim  at 

St.  Anthony  falls.  Pierre  Parrant  makes  a  claim  and  builds 
a  shanty  on  the  present  site  of  St.  Paul. 

1839.  St.  Croix  county  established. 
1843.     Stillwater  settled. 

1846.  August  6,  the  Wisconsin  enabling  act. 

1847.  The  Wisconsin  Constitutional  Convention  meets.     The  town  of  St. 

Paul  surveyed,  platted  and  recorded  in  St.  Croix  county  regis- 
ter of  deeds'  office.  First  improvement  of  the  water  power 
at  tin-  Falls  of  St.  Anthony. 

1848.  May  29,  Wisconsin  admitted,  leaving  the  area  of  Minnesota  without 

a  government.     August  26,  the  "Stillwater  Convention"  held, 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  C  } 

taking  measures  for  a  separate  territorial  organization,  and 
asking  that  the  new  territory  be  named  Minnesota.  October 
30,  H.  H.  Sibley  elected  delegate  to  Congress. 

1849.  January   15,   H.   H.    Sibley  admitted   to  a  seat.     March   3,   the  bill 

organizing  Minnesota  passed.  March  19,  its  territorial  officers 
appointed.  June  1,  Governor  Ramsey  declared,  by  proclama- 
tion, the  territory  organized.  September  3,  the  first  terri- 
torial Legislature  assembled. 

1850.  Great  flood  this  year;  highest  water  ever  known.     Minnesota  river 

first  navigated  by  steamboats.  Census  shows  6,077  inhabi- 
tants. 

1851.  Location  of  the  capitol,  university  and  penitentiary;  another  flood. 

July  23,  treaty  of  Traverse  des  Sioux  completed  and  August 
5  the  treaty  of  Mendota,  opening  the  territory  west  of  the 
Mississippi  to  settlers. 

1852.  June  23,  the  treaties  ratified  by  the  United  States  Senate. 

1853.  Pierce's  administration.     \V.  A.  Gorman  appointed  governor.     The 

capitol  building  completed. 

1854.  Celebration  of  the  opening  of  the  Rock  Island  railroad,  the  first  road 

to  the  Mississippi  river,  by  a  mammoth  excursion,  reaching 
St.  Paul,  June  8.  Large  immigration  this  season  and  the 
three  succeeding  ones,  and  the  real  estate  mania  commences. 

1857.  Enabling  act  passes  Congress,  February  26.     Gov.  Samuel   Medary 

(appointed  by  Buchanan),  arrives  on  April  22.  Legislature 
passes  a  bill  to  remove  the  capital  to  St.  Peter,  but  it  fails  to 
accomplish  the  object.  Ink-pa-du-to  massacre,  April.  Land 
grant  passes  Congress.  April  27.  extra  session  of  the  Legis- 
lature  to  apportion  land  grant.  July_  13,  Constitutional  Con- 
vention assembles.  Real  estate  speculation  reaches  its  height, 
and  is  checked  by  the  financial  panic,  August  27.  <  i 
revulsions  and  hard  times.  Census  shows  150,037  population. 
October  13,  Constitution  adopted  and  state  officii-  elected. 

1858.  State  loan  of  $250,000  negotiated.     Five  million  loan  bill  passed  bj 

the  Legislature.  March  9;  ratified  by  vote  of  the  people,  \pril 
1;.  Great  stringency  in  money  market.  State  admitted,  May 
11.     State  officers  sworn  in.  May  24. 

1859.  Hard  times  continue  to  intensify.     "Wright  County  War."     "Glen- 

coe"  and  "Owatonna"  money  issued.  Work  on  the  land 
grant  road  ceases.     Collapse  of  the  five  million  scheme. 


54  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

export  of  grain  this  fall.     Hard  political  struggle;  the  Repub- 
licans triumph. 
i860.     Another  warm  political  canvass.     Federal  census,  172,023. 

1 861.  April  15,  President  proclamation  for  troops  received;  the  first  regi- 

ment recruits  at  once;  June  22,  it  embarks  at  Ft.  Snelling  for 
the  seat  of  war. 

1862.  Call  for  600,000  men.     August  17,  massacre  at  Acton;  August  18, 

outbreak  at  Lower  Sioux  Agency,  eight  miles  east  of  Red- 
wood Falls;  19th.  New  Ulm  attacked;  20th,  Fort  Ridgely 
attacked;  25th,  second  attack  on  New  Ulm;  30th,  Fort  Aber- 
crombie  besieged;  September  2d,  the  bloody  attack  at  Birch 
Coulee.  September  19,  first  railroad  in  Minnesota  in  opera- 
tion, between  St.  Paul  and  Minneapolis.  September  23,  bat- 
tle of  Wood  Lake;  26th.  captives  surrendered  at  Camp 
Release;  military  commission  tries  321  Indians  for  murder, 
rape,  etc. ;  303  condemned  to  die ;  December  26,  38  hung  at 
Nankato. 

1863.  General    Sibley's   expedition   to   the    Missouri    river;   July   3,    Little 

Crow  killed;  July  24,  battle  of  Big  Mound;  July  26,  battle  of 
Dead  Buffalo  Lake;  July  28,  battle  of  Stony  Lake. 

1864.  Large  levies  for  troops.     Expedition  to  Missouri  river,  under  Sully. 

Inflation  of  money  market.     Occasional  Indian  raids. 

1865.  Peace  returns.     Minnesota  regiments  return  and  are  disbanded.     In 

all  22,016  troops  furnished  by  the  state.  Census  shows 
250,099  inhabitants. 

1866-72  Rapid  railroad  building  everywhere;  immigration  heavy;  "good 
times"  prevail,  and  the  real,  estate  inflated. 

1873.  January  7,  8  and  9,  polar  wave  sweeps  over  the  state;  seventy  per- 
sons perish.  September,  the  Jay  Cook  failure  creates  another 
panic.     Grasshopper  raid  begins  and  continues  five  seasons. 

1876.  September    7,   attack   on   bank   at   Northlield   by   a   gang   of   armed 

outlaws  from  Missouri;  three  of  the  latter  killed  and  three 
captured. 

1877.  Biennial  session  amendment  adopted. 

1878.  May  2,   three  flouring-mills  at  Minneapolis   explode;  eighteen  lives 

lost. 
1880.     November   15,  portion  of  the  hospital   for  the  insane  at  St.   Peter 
destroyed  by   fire;  eighteen  inmates   burned   to   death,   seven 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    .MINX.  55 

died  subsequently  of  injuries  and  fright,  and  six  missing;  total 

loss,  $150,000. 
1881.     March  i.  the  state  capitol  destroyed  by  fire. 
1884.     January  25.  state  prison  partially  burned. 
1886      April  14,  a  tornado  strikes  the  cities  of  St.  Cloud  and  Sauk  Rapids, 

demolishing    scores    of    buildings    and  killing  about  sc\ 

people. 
1887.     Important  legislation  regarding  the  liquor  traffic,  common  carriers, 

and  elections. 

1889.  The  Legislature  enacts  the  Australian  system  of  voting  in  cities  of 

10,000  and  over.  The  first  electric  street  railway  started  in 
the  state  at  Stillwater. 

1890.  United  States  census  shows  a  population  of  1,301,826.     July  13,  an 

excursion  steamboat  returning  from  Lake  City  encampment 
foundered  on  Lake  Pepin,  and  100  people  drowned.  July 
13,  tornado  swept  across  Lake  Gervias,  in  Ramsey  county, 
demolishing  several  buildings  and  killing  six  people. 
1891  June  15,  a  series  of  tornadoes  started  in  Jackson  county,  near  the 
town  of  Jackson,  traversing  Martin,  Faribault,  Freeborn, 
Mower  and  Fillmore  counties,  on  a  line  nearly  parallel  with, 
but  from  five  to  fifteen  miles  ninth  of,  the  Southern  Minnesota 
division  of  the  Milwaukee  &  St.  Paul  railway,  doing  a  large 
amount  of  damage  to  farms  and  farm  buildings,  and  causing 
the  death  to  about  fifty  people  along  the  track  of  the  storm. 

1892.  Tune   7,   Republican  national  convention  held  at   Minneapolis.     The 

Australian  system  of   voting  used  at    the   November   g< 
election. 

1893.  The  Legislature  authorizes  the  appointment  of  a  capitol  commission 

to  select  a  site  for  a  new  capitol,  and  providing  a  tax  of  two- 
tenths  of  a  mill  for  ten  years  to  pay  for  the  site  and  the 
erection  of  a  building.  A  great  financial  crisis  causes  the 
failure  of  several  banks  and  many  mercantile  and  manufactur- 
ing establishments  in  the  larger  cities  of  the     tate 

1894.  September  I.  forest  fires  start  in  the  neighborhood  of   Hincl  ley,  in 

Pine  county,  carrying  death  and  destruction  over  nearl) 
hundred   square   miles  of  territory,   destroying   the   towns  of 
Hinckley   and    Sandstone,    causing   the   death   of   417    people, 
rendering  homeless  and  destitute  2,200  men,  women  and 
dren,  and  entailing  a  property  loss  of  about  $1,000,000. 


56  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

1895.  A  census  of  the  state  was  taken  during  the  month  of  June,  and  the 

total  population  of  the  state  was  found  to  be  1,574,619. 

1896.  The  Red  Lake  Indian  reservation  was  diminished  to  about  a  quarter 

part  of  its  former  area,  and  on  May  15  a  large  tract  of  agri- 
cultural and  timber  lands  formerly  belonging  to  that  reserva- 
tion was  opened  for  settlement. 

1897.  July  2,  the  monument  at  Gettysburg  to  the  First  Minnesota  Regi- 

ment was  dedicated. 

1898.  July  27,  the  corner  stone  of  the  new  capitol  was  laid.     Minnesota 

supplied  four  regiments  for  service  in  the  Spanish-American 
War,  being  the  first  state,  May  7,  to  respond  to  the  president's 
call.  October  5,  the  Pillager  Indians  attacked  United  States 
troops  near  Sugar  Point,  Leech  lake. 

1899.  Semi-centennial  of  the  territory  and  state  celebrated  by  the  Old  Set- 

tlers' Association,  June  1,  and  by  the  Historical  Society, 
November  15. 

1900.  Population  of  Minnesota,  shown  by  the  national  census,   1,751,394. 

Death  of  Senator  C.  K.  Davis,  November  27. 

1 90 1.  In  the  Pan-American  Exposition,  at  Buffalo,  New  York,  the  superior 

exhibits  of  wheat,  flour,  and  dairy  products  of  Minnesota 
caused  her  to  be  called  "the  Bread  and  Butter  State." 

1902.  August  23,  the  fortieth  anniversary  of  the  Sioux  War  celebrated  at 

New  Ulm.  Monuments  and  tablets  erected  there  and  at  other 
places  in  the  Minnesota  valley. 

1903.  Tide  of  immigration  into  Minnesota,  particularly  in  northern  and 

western  sections.  April  22,  death  of  Alexander  Ramsey,  first 
territorial  governor,  later  governor  of  the  state,  United  States 
senator,  and  secretary  of  war. 

1904.  Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition.     Minnesota  exhibits  win  many  first 

prizes  for  flour,  butter,  fruits,  iron  ores,  work  of  pupils  in 
schools,  etc. 

1905.  January  3,  Legislature  convenes  in  the  new  capitol.     The  population, 

according  to  the  state  census,  June  1,  was  1.079.912. 

1906.  September  3,  live  stock  amphitheater  on  the  state  fair  ground  dedi- 

cated, with  address  by  James  J.  Hill.  Attendance  at  the  fair 
on  that  day,  93,199;  during  the  week,  295,000. 

1907.  Folwell  Hall,  the  new  main  building   for  the   College  of   Science, 

Literature  and  Arts,  of  the  University  of  Minnesota,  com- 
pleted at  cost  of  $410,000  for  the  building  and  its  equipment. 


COTTONWOOD    AXD    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  57 

The  total  number  of  students  of  this  University  enrolled  in 
all  departments  for  the  year  was  4,145. 
190S.     The  fiftieth  anniversary  of  the  admission  of  Minnesota  to  statehood 
was  celebrated  in  connection  with  the  state  fair,  its  attendance 
during  the  week  being  326,753. 

1909.  Death  of  Gov.  John  A.  Johnson  as  the  result  of  an  operation,  at 

Rochester,  Minnesota,  September  21,  1909.  Lieut.-Gov. 
Adolph  O.  Eberhart  sworn  in  as  governor  by  Chief  Justice 
Start,  in  the  Supreme  Court  retiring  room,  at  11  o'clock  the 
same  day. 

1910.  Population  of  Minnesota,  shown  by  the  national  census,  2,075,708. 

Death  of  State  Treasurer  Clarence  C.  Dinehart,  June  8.  E. 
S.  Petti  John  appointed  to  succeed,  June  11.  Forest  fires  in 
northern  Minnesota  during  the  second  and  third  week  in  Octo- 
ber, results  in  death  to  about  thirty  people  and  the  destruc- 
tion of  about  $20,000,000  of  property.  Spooner  and  Baudette 
wiped  out. 

191 1.  The  Legislature  ratified  the  proposed  amendment  to  the  United  States 

Constitution  for  election  of  United  States  senators  by  popular 
vote.  October  18,  George  E.  Vincent  was  inaugurated  presi- 
dent of  the  University  of  Minnesota. 

1912.  The  Legislature  in  special  session  enacted  a  new   primary  election 

law  and  "corrupt  practices"  act.  October  19,  the  statue  of 
Governor  Johnson  on  the  capitol  ground  was  unveiled. 

1913.  June  16-20,  the  American  Medical    \ssociation  held  its  sixty-fourth 

annual  session  in  Minneapolis  United  States  postal  savings 
bank  and  parcel  post  inaugurated  in  Minnesota.  Practical  reforms 
in  state  road  laws  enacted.  Work  begun  on  the  new  building 
of  the  St.  Paul  Public  Library  ami  Hill  Reference  Library.  New 
postoffice  and  new  railroad  depot  building  in  Minneapolis. 
November  5,  the  historic  Carver's  cave,  all  trace  of  which  had 
been  lost  for  forty  years  or  more,  was  definitely  located. 

1914.  March,  Minneapolis  made  the  reserve  city  in  the  Northwest  for  the 

system  of  regional  national  banks.  Remarkable  impetu 
building  operations  in  Minnesota  cities.  April  4,  Frederick 
Weyerhauser,  extensive  lumber  operator,  died  in  his  winter  home 
at  Pasadena,  California.  April  15.  plans  adopted  for  St.  Paul's 
new  terminals  and  union  depot.  May  0.  a  bronze  statue  of  Gen. 
James  Shields,  tendered  by  the  Loyal  Legion  and  the  Grand  Army 


58  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINX. 

of  the  Republic  to  the  state  of  Minnesota,  for  a  niche  in  the 
capitol.  Unveiled  in  November;  formally  presented  to  the  state 
by  Commander  Samuel  Appleton,  of  the  Loyal  Legion;  accepted 
by  Governor  A.  O.  Everhart;  eloquent  memorial  address  by 
Comrade  and  Companion  John  Ireland,  archbishop.  July  4-1 1, 
the  National  Educational  Association  held  its  annual  convention 
in  St.  Paul.  November,  Winfield  Scott  Hammond,  Democrat, 
elected  governor  of  Minnesota,  defeating  William  E.  Lee,  Repub- 
lican nominee. 

19 1 5.  January  2,  session  of  the  thirty-ninth  Legislature  opened  at  the  state 

capitol ;  Hon.  J.  A.  A.  Burnquist,  lieutenant-governor,  president 
of  the  Senate;  H.  H.  Flower,  speaker  of  the  House  of  Repre- 
sentatives. January  3,  Winfield  Scott  Hammond  inaugurated 
governor  of  Minnesota.  February  12,  birthday  of  Abraham 
Lincoln  observed  by  Minnesota  Commandery  of  the  Loyal  Leg- 
ion by  a  banquet  at  the  West  hotel.  Minneapolis.  Oration  by 
Bishop  William  A.  Quayle,  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  church. 
February  19-20,  forty-ninth  annual  convention  of  the  Minnesota 
Editorial  Association  assembled  at  the  St.  Paul  hotel,  St.  Paul, 
President  H.  C.  Hotaling,  presiding.  December  30,  death  of 
Governor  Hammond.  December  31,  Lieutenant-Governor  Burn- 
quist assumed  the  office  of  governor. 

1916.  February,  discovery  of  discrepancies  in  the  office  of  Walter  J.  Smith 

treasurer  of  the  state,  and  his  subsequent  resignation. 


CHAPTER  IT. 

GEOLOGY.  TOPOGRAPHY  AND  NATURAL  FEATURES. 

Situation  and  Area.  Cottonwood  is  one  of  the  second  tier  of  counties 
north  of  the  Iowa  line,  from  which  it  is  separated  by  Jackson  county.  From 
St.  Paul  and  Minneapolis  southwest  to  Windom  is  about  one  hundred  and 
thirty  miles.  From  La  Crosse  and  the  Mississippi  river  west  to  the  eastern 
boundary  of  this  county  is  one  hundred  and  eighty  miles.  It  is  thirty  mil* 
long  from  east  to  west,  and  from  its  west  line  onward  to  the  east  line  of 
Dakota,  is  fifty  miles. 

Cottonwood  county  has  a  length  of  the  townships,  and  a  width  from 
north  to  south  of  four;  except  that  on  the  northeast  line,  two  of  the  townships 
that  would  he  included  in  this  county  if  it  were  a  complete  rectangle,  belong 
to  Brown  county-  With  this  reduction,  Cottonwood  county  ha-  eighteen- 
townships,  each  six  miles  square.  The  main  towns  and  villages  of  the 
county  are  situated  in  the  southeast  part,  on  the  line  of  the  St.  Paul  &  Sioux 
City  railroad.     These  are  Windom.  the  county  seat,  situated  in  Greal    Bend 

township;   Bingham   Lake,    in   Lakeside,   and    Mountain    Lake.      Cottonw I 

county  has  an  area  of  650.39  square  mile-,  or  416,250  acres,  of  which  about 
eight  thousand  acres  are  covered  with  water. 

Natural  Drainage.     The  northwest  part  of  Cottonw I  county,  includ- 
ing Germantown,  Highwater,  Ann,  Westbrook,  Storden,  northwestern  Amboy, 
and   most   of   Rose   Hill,    is   drained   to    the   Cottonwood   river,    which    flows 
through   southern    Redwood   county,    only   a    few    miles    farther    north,    and 
enters  this  county  for  a  short  distance  in  the  northeast  part  of  Germantown 
township.     Its  tributaries  from  Cottonwood  county,  in  their  order  from  \ 
to   east,   are    Dutch   Charley's.    Highwater.    Dry    and    Mound    creeks. 
largest  of  these  is  Highwater  creek,  whose  sources  are  several  lake-  in    I' 
Hill  township,  only  three  to  seven   miles  from  the   Des   Moines  river.      It- 
course  in  this  county  is  east-northeast,  about  eighteen  miles. 

The  little  Cottonwood  river,  tributary  to  the  Minnesota,  a  few  miles 
below  the  Cottonwood  river,  rises  nearly  at  the  center  of  Cottonw  inty, 

and  its  first  ten  miles,  flowing  northeast,  are  in  Vmboy  and  Delton  town- 
ships. Its  farther  extent  of  aboul  thirty  miles  eastward  thro  \\n 
countv  is  approximately  parallel  with  the  Big  Cottonwood,  and  mainly  il 


60  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

to  six  miles  distant  to  the  south  from  that  river.  A  tract  in  the  east  part  of 
Cottonwood  county,  reaching  west  to  its  center,  including  Selma,  Mountain 
Lake,  Carson,  the  south  half  of  Delton,  and  the  northeast  part  of  Dale,  is 
drained  by  the  headstreams  of  the  Watonwan  river,  tributary  to  the  Blue 
Earth,  and.  by  that,  to  the  Minnesota.  The  area  in  Cottonwood  county,  in- 
cluded within  the  basin  of  the  Minnesota  river,  is  approximately  four  hun- 
dred and  fifty  square  miles. 

The  remainder  of  this  county,  including  its  southwestern  townships,  an 
area  of  about  two  hundred  miles,  is  drained  by  the  Des  Moines  river,  which 
flows  in  a  zigzag  course,  crossing  South  Brook,  Springfield,  diagonally,  hav- 
ing a  general  southeast  direction  in  South  Brook  and  Great  Bend,  but  mak- 
ing an  offset  in  Springfield  by  running  eight  miles  northeasterly.  Harvey 
creek,  the  outlet  of  Lake  Augusta  in  northeastern  Amo  township,  entering 
the  Des  Moines  at  its  big  bend  in  the  southwest  corner  of  Dale  township,  is 
its  largest  tributary  from  the  north  in  this  county;  from  the  south  it  receives 
the  outlet  of  a  string  of  lakes,  which  lie  in  the  southwest  part  of  Great  Bend, 
and  the  outlet  of  Heron  lake. 

Among  the  lakes  of  Cottonwood  county,  in  the  reports  of  1882,  the  fol- 
lowing merited  enumeration :  Mountain  lake,  two  miles  long  and  from  a 
half  mile  to  one  mile  wide,  two  miles  southeast  from  the  depot  and  town  of 
this  name,  has  long  since  been  drained  and  farmed ;  Bingham  lake,  one  mile 
long  from  northeast  to  southwest,  close  north  of  the  town  to  which  its  name 
is  given ;  Clear,  Cottonwood,  Wolf,  Summit  and  Glen  lakes,  one-third  to  two- 
thirds  of  a  mile  long,  in  the  west  and  southwest  portions  of  Lakeside  town- 
ship, one  to  three  miles  eastward  from  Windom,  beautiful  lakes  of  clear 
water,  divided  by  irregular,  hilly  or  rolling  areas  of  prairie,  and  skirted  by 
narrow  woods;  Fish  lake,  nearly  two  miles  long  from  northeast  to  south- 
west, and  one-fourth  to  two-thirds  of  a  mile  wide,  crossed  by  the  south  line 
of  Lakeside  township,  and  having  about  half  its  area  in  Jackson  county;  the 
String  lakes,  reaching  two  and  one-half  miles  from  north  to  south,  four 
miles  west  of  Windom;  the  Three  lakes,  and  Swan  lake,  each  about  one  mile 
long,  in  Dale;  Rat,  Long,  Eagle  and  Maiden  lakes,  from  one-third  to  one  mile 
long,  in  the  south  half  of  Carson  township;  Lake  Augusta,  about  one  and 
one-half  miles  long  and  a  half  mile  wide,  in  Amo  township;  Hurricane  lake, 
more  than  a  mile  long  from  north  to  south,  lying  in  section  31,  Highwater 
township,  and  section  6,  Storden  township;  Double  lake,  of  similar  extent 
and  trend,  in  sections  23  and  26,  Westbrook  township;  Berry  and  Twin  lakes, 
with  others,  varying  from  a  quarter  of  a  mile  to  about  one  and  a  half  miles  in 
length,  trending  to  the  south  or  southeast,  in  Rose  Hill  township;  Oaks  lake, 


COTTONWOOD    AXD    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  6 1 

one  and  a  half  miles  long  from  north  to  south,  but  narrow,  lying  in  section 
32,  Rose  Hill,  and  sections  5  and  8,  Southbrook;  and  Talcott  lake,  in  sec- 
tions 19  and  30,  South  Brook,  a  mile  long  from  north  to  south,  with  the  Des 
Moines  river  flowing  through  its  northern  end. 

Topography.  In  northern  Cottonwood  county  a  massive  ridge  of  the 
red  Potsdam  quartzyte  extends  twenty-five  miles  from  west  to  east  through 
Storden,  Amboy,  Delton  and  Selma,  terminating  in  the  west  edge  of  Adrian, 
the  northwest  township  of  Watonwan  county.  This  highland  is  mostly  cov- 
ered by  a  smooth  surface  of  till,  but  has  frequent  exposures  of  the  rock.  Its 
altitude  increases  from  one  hundred  feet  at  its  east  end  to  three  hundred  feet 
westward,  above  the  broad,  slightly  undulating  sheet  of  till,  which,  excepting 
a  morainic  tract,  is  stately,  covers  the  region  toward  the  north.  The  height 
reached  at  the  top  of  this  quartzyte  ridge,  thirteen  hundred  to  fifteen  hundred 
feet  above  the  sea,  is  a  permanent  rise  of  the  land,  which  to  the  south  and 
southwest  holds  nearly  this  average  elevation,  with  a  general  ascent  west- 
ward. 

This  ridge  was  probably  considered  by  the  early  French  explorers  as  the 
northeast  border  of  the  Coteau  des  Prairies,  which  name,  meaning  the  High- 
land of  the  prairies,  they  gave  to  an  elevated  tract,  extending  about  two  hun- 
dred miles  from  north-northwest  to  south-southwest  in  eastern  Dakota  and 
southwestern  Minnesota.  Of  this  highland  in  Cottonwood  county,  Nicollet 
says:  "Under  the  forty-fourth  degree  of  latitude,  the  breadth  of  the  coteau 
is  about  forty  miles,  and  its  mean  elevation  is  here  reduced  to  fourteen  hun- 
dred and  fifty  feet  above  the  sea.  Within  this  space  its  two  slopes  are  rather 
abrupt,  crowned  with  verdure  and  scalloped  by  deep  ravines  thickly  shaded 
with  bushes,  forming  the  beds  of  rivulets  that  water  the  adjacent  plains." 
It  is  not  continuously  recognizable  as  a  great  topographic  feature  smith  of 
this  quartzyte  ridge. 

The  Little  Cottonwood  river  and  the  north  branch  of  the  north  fork  of 
the  Watonwan  river  flow  northeasterly  through  gaps  in  the  range  of  quartzyte 
a  hundred  feet  or  more  below  its  crest,  the  former  finding  its  passage  at  the 
middle  of  the  north  half  of  Delton  township,  and  the  latter  about  a  mile 
west  from  the  center  of  Selma  township.  Excepting  at  these  points,  the 
ridge  is  unbroken  and  uplifts  a  broad,  smoothly-rounded  top,  covered  with 
till,  through  which  the  quartzyte  has  occasional  outcrops.  It  extends  in  its 
course  a  little  to  the  north  of  west  twelve  miles  from  the  north  part  oi 
tion  25,  Selma  township;  to  the  north  part  of  sections  9,  8  and  7,  Delton 
township,  and  thence  a  little  to  the  south  of  west  ten  miles  to  Highwater 
creek  at  the  middle  of  Storden  town-hip.      In   its  east  half,  through  Selma 


62  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

and  Delton,  this  ridge  has  a  width  that  increases  toward  the  west  from  a  half 
mile  to  one  or  two  miles,  elevated  fifty  to  one  hundred  feet  above  the  aver- 
age of  the  land  for  the  next  five  or  six  miles  to  the  south,  and  twice  this 
height  above  the  country  which  it  overlooks  northward  to  the  horizon.  Both 
slopes  of  the  range  have  a  gentle  descent,  that  to  the  north  occupying  a  width 
of  one  to  two  miles,  and  reaching  from  section  7,  Delton,  to  the  falls  formed 
by  this  quartzyte  on  the  headstreams  of  Mound  creek,  in  the  southwest  cor- 
ner of  Brown  county,  and  in  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  36,  German- 
town  township.  In  the  central  and  southwest  part  of  Amboy  township  and 
the  east  half  of  Storden,  this  highland,  besides  slowly  increasing  in  elevation 
westward,  expands  to  a  greater  width,  and  forms  an  approximately  level 
plateau  of  till,  one  to  three  miles  wide,  with  outcrops  of  the  quartzyte  only 
upon  the  slope  which  descend  from  it.  The  most  southern  exposures  of  this 
rock  in  Cottonwood  county  are  in  the  west  part  of  sections  6  and  7,  Dale, 
and  in  section  12,  Amo,  on  the  western  descent  from  the  most  southern  part 
of  this  plateau,  which  here  in  northwestern  Dale  is  seventy-five  or  one  hun- 
dred feet  above  the  remainder  of  this  township  and  its  Three  lakes,  and 
about  one  hundred  and  fifty  feet  above  Lake  Augusta  on  the  west. 

This  area  of  Potsdam  quartzyte  is  the  only  part  of  Cottonwood  countv 
which  has  exposures  of  the  bed-rocks,  the  remainder  being  moderately  undu- 
lating or  rolling  and  sometimes  hilly  glacial  drift.  The  general  slope,  as  al- 
ready stated,  rises  from  east  to  west,  and  at  the  west  side  of  Amo  and  in 
Rose  Hill,  this  drift  attains  as  great  an  altitude  as  the  quartzyte  range  eight 
miles  northeast  in  Amboy  and  Storden. 

The  townships  of  Westbrook,  Ann,  Highwater  and  Germantown,  lying 
ninth  of  this  height  of  land  in  Rose  Hill,  Amo  and  the  ridge  of  (|uartzyte, 
have  mostly  a  smoothly  rolling  contour,  with  the  crests  of  swells  fifteen  to 
thirty  feet  above  the  depressions.  The  creeks  which  drain  this  district  north- 
ward to  the  Cottonwood  river,  flow  in  valleys  that  they  have  eroded  twenty 
to  forty  feet  below  the  average  surface. 

The  valley  of  the  Des  Moines  river  in  South  Brook  township,  the  most 
southwest  township  of  Cottonwood  county,  is  less  distinct  in  its  outlines,  and 
it>  depth  is  less,  than  in  any  other  part  of  its  extent  below  Lake  Shetek. 
South  Brook  has  mostjy  a  rolling  contour  of  massive  swells,  variable  in  their 
forms,  trends  and  extent,  rising  twenty  to  fifty  feet  above  the  Des  Moines 
river,  which  flows  among  them  in  an  irregular  course,  generally  without  any 
well-defined  valley  of  bottomland  and  bluffs,  hut  turned  here  and  there  by 
small  undulations.      In  section    ig  it  passes  through  the  north  end  of  Talcott 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COl  -.    MINN.  63 

lake,  which  lies  in  a  shallow  basin  of  the  drift-sheet,  covering  nearly  a  square 
mile,  but  only  five  to  eight  feet  deep. 

In  Springfield  township,  where  the  Des  Moines  flows  northeast,  at  right 
angles  to  its  course  both  above  and  below,  it  again  occupies  a  definite  valley, 
channeled  fifty  to  seventy-five  feet  below  the  average  heighl  of  the  rolling 
surface  on  either  side.  At  the  northeasl  corner  of  this  township  is  the  greal 
bend  of  the  Des  Moines.  Here  it  enters  a  valley  transverse  to  its  course 
through  the  last  eight  miles,  and  is  earned  jn  it  thence  to  the  southeast.  This 
valley  has  a  nearly  flat  alluvial  bottom-land,  a  third  to  a  half  of  a  mile  wide. 
enclosed  by  bluffs  fifty  to  sixty  feet  high.  It  continues  two  or  three  miles 
northerly  from  the  great  bend,  with  the  same  width  and  depth;  and  is  less 
distinctly  marked  three  or  four  miles  further,  along  the  upper  part  of  Harvey 
creek  to  Lake  Augusta.  The  excavations  of  this  channel  were  probably  ef- 
fected by  floods  discharged  from  glacial  melting,  while  the  receding  ice-sheet 
still  covered  the  county  farther  east.  In  the  central  part  of  Great  Bend  town- 
ship the  river  is  bordered  on  the  west  by  morainic  knolls  and  small  ridges  of 
rocky  till,  which  rise  successively  one  above  another  to  the  top  of  the  Blue 
mounds,  one  to  one  and  a  half  miles  distant,  and  in  the  vicinity  of  Windom 
the  ascent  from  the  river  eastward  has  a  similar  contour. 

Distances  along  the  Des  Moines  river,  measured  in  direct  lines  between 
its  principal  bends,  are  as  follow:  From  its  source  to  the  foot  of  Lake 
Shetek  (this  portion  being  commonly  called  Beaver  creek),  twenty-four  miles; 

to  a  point  on  the  south  line  of  Cottonw 1  county,  two  miles  north  to  the 

north  end  of  Heron  lake,  in  Jackson  township,  forty-eight  miles;  to  its  ^reat 
bend,  fifty-six  miles;  to  Windom,  sixty-three  miles;  to  the  state  line,  ninety- 
one  mile;  and  to  its  mouth  at  Keokuk,  Iowa,  aboul  three  hundred  and  eighty- 
five  miles.  Thus,  a  little  less  than  one-fourth  of  it-,  length  lies  in  Minnesota. 
Elevations,  St.  Paul  &  Sioux  City  railway,  from  profiles  in  office  of  T. 
P.  Gere,  former  superintendent,  St.  Paul: 

Feet. 

Mountain    lake,    depot    .1 1.300 

Bingham    lake,    depot    1,420 

Summit,    grade    r>437 

Windom    '_ 1.353 

Des   Moines   river,   water l-?>?,] 

Bluff   siding    1,425 

The  highest  portions  of  Cottonwood  county,  about  fifteen  hundred  feet 
above  the  sea,  are  in  Pose  Hill  township,  in  western  Amo,  and  the  plati 


64  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

upon  the  west  part  of  the  quartzyte  ridge  in  southeastern  Storden  and  south- 
western Amboy,  and  the  tops  of  the  Blue  mounds,  which  are  fourteen  hundred 
and  fifty  to  fifteen  hundred  and  twenty-five  feet  above  the  sea.  The  lowest 
land  of  this  county,  nearly  five  hundred  feet  below  these  tracts,  is  where  the 
Cottonwood  river  enters  the  northeast  corner  of  Germantown  township,  at 
a  height  of  about  ten  hundred  and  thirty  feet  above  the  sea.  The  elevation 
of  the  Little  Cottonwood  river  where  it  leaves  the  county,  is  estimated  to  be 
eleven  hundred  and  fifty  feet;  and  of  the  most  northern  tributary  to  the 
Watonwan  river,  at  the  east  line  of  Selma  township,  eleven  hundred  feet. 
The  Des  Moines  river  descends  into  this  county  approximately  from  fourteen 
hundred  to  thirteen  hundred  and  thirty  feet  above  the  sea. 

Estimates  of  the  average  height  of  the  townships  of  Cottonwood 
county  are  as  follows :  Selma,  twelve  hundred  and  twenty-five  feet  above 
the  sea;  Mountain  Lake,  including  two  governmental  townships,  thirteen 
hundred  feet;  Delton,  thirteen  hundred  and  twenty-five;  Carson,  thirteen  hun- 
dred and  seventy-five ;  Lakeside,  fourteen  hundred  and  ten ;  Germantown, 
twelve  hundred ;  Amboy,  fourteen  hundred ;  Dale,  fourteen  hundred  and 
fifty;  Great  Bend,  fourteen  hundred  and  ten;  Highwater,  twelve  hundred  and 
twenty-five;  Storden,  fourteen  hundred;  Amo,  fourteen  hundred  and  fifty; 
Springfield,  fourteen  hundred  and  thirty;  Ann,  thirteen  hundred;  Westbrook, 
fourteen  hundred  and  twenty;  Rose  Hill,  fourteen  hundred  and  fifty;  and 
South  Brook,  fourteen  hundred  and  twenty-five.  The  mean  elevation  of  Cot- 
tonwood county,  derived  from  these  figures,  is  thirteen  hundred  and  sixty 
feet. 

Soil  and  Timber.  The  soil  of  Cottonwood  county  has  the  same  nearly 
uniform  fertility  that  characterizes  all  southern  and  western  Minnesota.  A 
black,  sandy  clay,  with  some  intermixture  of  gravel,  and  containing  occa- 
sional boulders,  forms  the  soil,  which  has  been  colored  to  a  depth  of  about 
two  feet  below  the  surface  by  decaying  vegetation.  Unmodified  glacial  drift 
or  till,  the  same  as  the  soil,  excepting  that  it  is  not  enriched  and  blackened 
by  organic  decay,  continues  below,  being  yellowish-gray  to  a  depth  of  ten 
or  twenty  feet,  but  darker  and  bluish  beyond,  as  seen  in  wells.  This  deposit 
contains  many  fragments  of  magnesian  limestone,  red  quartzyte,  granites  and 
crystalline  schists;  and  its  tine  detritus  is  a  mixture  of  these  rocks  pulverized, 
presenting  in  the  most  advantageous  proportions  the  mineral  elements  needed 
by  growing  plants.  Wheat  has  been  the  principal  crop,  but  stock-raising 
has  also  received  much  attention  during  several  years  past.  A  large  variety 
of  crops  is  profitably  cultivated  in  this  region,  including  wheat,  oats,  corn, 
garden  fruits  and  vegetables,  potatoes  and  hay. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  65 

From  1873  to  1876  Cottonwood  county,  in  company  with  all  south- 
western Minnesota,  was  distressed  by  the  ravages  of  the  Rockv  Mountain 
locust.  To  many  the  work  of  plowing  and  sowing,  and  the  wheat  sown,  were 
total  losses  during  those  years.  In  1880  frequent  groves  were  noticeable  in 
the  county,  which  had  been  set  out  to  shield  farm  houses  from  the  wind, 
and  still  remained,  though  the  buildings  were  gone,  and  the  farms  deserted, 
telling  where  in  this  struggle  the  grasshoppers  had  conquered.  Though  the 
wheat  was  nearly  everywhere  eaten  by  them  so  that  no  harvest  could  be 
saved,  the  prairie  grass  suffered  only  slightly,  and  from  this  epoch  herding 
has  taken  an  important  place  in  the  agriculture  of  the  county. 

This  county  is  natural  prairie,  affording  rich  pasturage,  and  ready  for 
the  plow.  Less  than  a  hundredth  part  of  their  area  was  wooded,  including 
small  groves  and  narrow  skirts  of  timber  and  brushwood  about  the  shores  of 
the  lakes,  along  the  large  creeks,  and  especially  along  the  whole  extent  of 
the  Des  Moines  river.  The  following  species  of  trees  and  shrubs  are  found: 
American  or  white  elm,  bur-oak,  white  ash,  box-elder,  black  walnut,  willows, 
prickly  ash,  smooth  sumach,  frost  grape,  Virginia  creeper,  climbing  bitter- 
sweet, wild  plum,  choke-berry,  black  raspberry,  rose,  thorn,  smooth  wild 
gooseberry  and  wolfberry,  common  red  or  slippery  elm,  cottonwood,  hack- 
berry,  waahoo,  and  black  currant,  less  frequent,  also  basswood,  sugar 
maple,  etc. 

GEOLOGICAL   STRUCTURE. 

Potsdam  Quartsyte.  The  only  exposures  of  bed-rock  in  this  district  are 
the  red  quartzyte,  which<  forms  a  prominent  ridge  in  the  north  part  of  Cot- 
tonwood county,  reaching  into  the  edge  of  Brown  and  Watonwan  counties. 
From  the  most  eastern  to  the  most  western  outcrop  of  this  rock  is  a  length 
of  twenty-three  miles,  and  the  width  upon  which  it  is  occasionally  exposed 
increases  from  a  half  mile  or  less  at  the  east  to  six  miles  at  the  west.  The 
contour  of  this  area  is  a  massive  highland  of  rock,  mostly  covered  by  a 
smooth  sheet  of  till,  with  gracefully  rounded  top  and  moderate  slopes.  The 
general  character  of  this  formation,  and  the  location,  extent,  and  special  fea- 
tures of  its  outcropping  ledges  are  to  be  noted  here. 

About  thirty  miles  east-northeast  from  this  ridge  in  northern  Cott< 
wood  county,  the  same  rock  formation  has  extensive  exposures,  and  it  con- 
tinues westward  into  Dakota  to  Dell  Rapids  and  Sioux  Falls  on  the  Big 
Sioux  river,  and  to  Rockport  on  the  James  river,  seventy  miles  west  of  Min- 
nesota, and  about  one  hundred  and  eighty  miles  westward  from  New  Ulm, 
(5) 


66  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

in  Brown  county.  All  these  outcrops  are  mainly  very  hard,  fine-grained 
quartzyte,  differing  in  color  from  pinkish  gray  to  dark  dull  red,  always  hav- 
ing some  red  tint;  and  varying  in  the  thickness  of  its  beds  from  a  few  inches, 
or  sometimes  only  a  half  inch  or  less,  to  one  or  two  feet.  It  is  usually  per- 
ceptibly tilted,  with  considerable  variability  in  the  direction  of  its  tips,  which 
vary  in  amount  from  one  or  two  to  fifteen  or  twenty  degrees,  and  rarely  attain 
an  inclination  of  forty-five  degrees.  This  quartzyte  is  a  metamorphosed  sand- 
stone. At  a  few  places  it  occurs  in  an  imperfectly  indurated  condition,  being 
a  more  or  less  crumbling  sandrock,  composed  of  water-rounded  grains.  Some- 
times, too,  it  is  a  conglomerate,  enclosing  abundant  water-worn  pebbles  up 
to  an  inch  in  diameter,  which  was  originally  an  ordinary  fine  gravel,  having 
become  so  cemented  as  to  form  a  very  compact  and  hard,  tough  rock,  and 
by  diminution  in  the  number  of  pebbles  scattered  through  it,  the  formation 
exhibits  all  grades  between  this  pudding-stone  and  its  typical  condition  as 
a  quartzyte.  Again,  it  occasionally  contains  layers,  from  less  than  an  inch 
to  several  feet  thick,  of  argillaceous  rock,  so  fine-grained  and  even  in  its 
texture  as  to  appear  microscopically  homogeneous,  doubtless  metamorphosed 
from  deposits  of  fine  silt  or  clay  in  the  midst  of  beds  of  sand;  commonly 
dull  red,  but  often  mottled  with  pale  spots,  or  striped  by  the  same  lighter  tints 
in  parallelism  with  its  stratification;  soft  enough  to  be  easily  carved  and  pol- 
ished, and  its  best  varities  entirely  free  from  grit.  This  has  been  named 
catlinite,  and  its  finest  layer  is  that  which  has  been  worked  by  the  Indians, 
at  the  celebrated  Red  Pipestone  quarry. 

The  planes  of  bedding  of  this  quartzyte  frequently  show  very  distinct 
and  beautiful  ripple  marks,  such  as  are  made  by  waves  upon  the  sandy  shores 
and  bottom  of  lakes  or  of  the  sea.  No  fossils  have  been  detected  in  this 
formation,  as  here  described  in  southwestern  Minnesota  and  southeastern 
Dakota;  and  fucoid  impressions,  rarely  observed,  are  the  only  remains  of 
life  yet  found  in  the  probably  equivalent  Cupriferous  series  of  red  quartzytes 
and  sandstones  interstratified  with  thick  balsatic  overflows  developed  about 
Lake  Superior.  The  quartzyte  from  New  Ulm  to  the  James  river  is  closely 
like  the  sandstone  and  quartzyte  associated  with  trap  rocks  in  northeastern 
Minnesota,  in  northern  Wisconsin  and  northern  Michigan,  hut  its  deposition 
was  not  similarly  accompanied  by  outflows  of  igneous  rock,  nor  has  this 
formation  in  southern  Minnesota  been  intersected  by  trap  dikes.  Foster  and 
Whitney  referred  these  rocks  in  the  region  of  Lake  Superior  to  the  Potsdam 
age,  considering  them  the  western  equivalent  and  representative  of  the  Pots- 
dam sandstone  in  Xew  Ynrk,  and  the  explorations  by  this  survey  of  their 
continuation  into  northeastern  Minnesota  sustain  this  conclusion,  while  the 


C0TT0XW00D    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    .MINX.  6j 

observations  of  this  quartzyte  outcropping  in  the  southwest  part  of  the  state 
and  farther  west  indicate  that  it  belongs  to  the  same  epoch.  This  formation 
underlies  the  Caliciferous  or  Lower  Magnesian  scries,  which  outcrops  along 
the  lower  part  of  the  Minnesota  river  from  a  point  fourteen  miles  east-- 
southeast  of  Xew  Ulm,  in  Brown  county,  and  along  the  St.  Croix  and 
Mississippi  rivers. 

In  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  25,  Sclma  township,  this  red  quartzyte 
is  exposed  upon  an  eastward  slope  of  till,  with  an  area  three  rods  long  from 
northwest  to  southeast,  and  about  a  rod  wide,  rising  some  two  feet  above 
the  general  surface.  In  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  23,  Selma  township, 
this  rock  outcrops  on  a  southward  slope  along  a  distance  of  about  twenty- 
rive  rods  from  the  east  to  west,  with  a  width  of  two  or  three  rods  and  a 
height  of  only  one  to  two  feet.  It  dips  about  ten  degrees  southward.  Both 
these  ledges  have  been  slightly  quarried.  They  are  the  ordinary,  very  hard 
quartzyte,  intersected  by  systems  of  joints  which  give  it  a  rhomboidal  frac- 
ture. Other  outcrops  of  the  same  stone,  which  have  not  been  visited  in  this 
survey,  occur  northwestward  at  numerous  places  in  this  township  and  in  the 
northwest  part  of  Delton,  upon  the  high  ridge  and  in  the  hollow  where  the 
north  branch  of  the  Xorth  fork  of  Watonwan  river  crosses  it. 

The  quartzyte  also  has  frequent  exposures  in  Delton  along  nearly  the 
whole  extent  of  the  Little  Cottonwood  river  through  this  township,  and  in 
its  tributary  ravines.  In  the  east  part  of  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  8, 
it  has  been  much  quarried  in  the  banks  and  channel  of  this  stream,  sup- 
plying rough  stone  used  for  foundations,  cellar  walls,  well  curbing  and  cul- 
verts, or  by  the  Russian  immigrants,  for  chimneys,  being  sometimes  teamed 
fifteen  miles.  It  occurs  in  layers  of  all  thicknesses  up  to  two  and  one-half 
feet,  the  thinly  bedded  portions,  as  usually,  being  much  divided  by  joints 
into  rhombodial  fragments  a  foot  or  less  in  length.  The  bedding  planes 
are  often  ripple-marked  over  several  square  rods  together,  in  parallel  undula- 
tions about  a  quarter  of  an  inch  high  and  two  to  four  inches  apart  from  crest 
to  crest.  This  dip  is  about  5  degrees  south,  20  degrees  west.  This  is  some 
twenty  rods  east  of  the  Little  Cottonwood  falls,  where  the  same  rock  in 
its  upper  portion  forms  layers  three  to  six  feet  thick,  dipping  about  six- 
degrees  to  the  south,  but  only  a  few  feet  lower,  near  the  level  of  the  stream, 
is  thin-bedded  and  somewhat  contorted  and  irregular  in  stratification, 

Quartzyte  outcropping  in  the  north  part  of  the  southwest  quarter  of 
section  18,  Delton  township,  occurs  in  layers  up  to  six  inches  thick,  dipping 
about  three  degrees  south,  seventy  degrees  east.  Twenty  rods  farther  smith 
it  has  a  dip  of  the  same  amount  but  changed  in  direction  to  south    forty 


68  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

degrees  east,  all  these  bearings  being  referred  to  the  true  meridian.  Its  only 
exposures  observed  in  the  south  half  of  this  township  are  in  the  southeast 
quarter  of  section  30,  where  it  is  visible  at  numerous  places  along  an  extent 
of  about  an  eighth  of  a  mile  in  a  ravine  tributary  to  the  Watonwan  river. 
A  ledge  of  this  rock,  very  remarkably  striated,  and  bearing  rude  Indian 
inscriptions,  is  found  on  the  ridge  about  a  mile  northeast  from  the  Little 
Cottonwood  falls  and  quarry,  being  in  the  north  part  of  the  northwest  quarter 
of  section  9,  Delton  township.  It  has  an  area  of  about  twenty  rods  long 
from  east  to  west,  and  four  to  eight  rods  wide.  The  dip  of  its  stratification 
is  distinctly  seen,  but  is  believed  to  be  about  five  degrees  southward,  which 
is  the  slope  of  the  surface.  Numerous  figures  are  pecked  on  this  rock,  rep- 
resenting animals,  arrows,  etc.,  similar  to  those  inscribed  by  the  Indians  on 
the  quartzyte  beside  the  boulders  called  the  Three  Maidens,  near  the  Pipe- 
stone quarry.  From  this  ledge  westward  the  same  typical  quartzyte  fre- 
quently outcrops  upon  the  higher  part  of  this  ridge  and  on  its  northern  slope 
through  the  northwest  part  of  Delton,  northern  Amboy,  and  northeastern 
Storden. 

In  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  2,  Amboy  township,  a  ravine  ten 
to  fifteen  feet  deep  extends  east-northeast  in  a  straight  course  about  fortv 
rods,  varying  from  two  to  three  rods  in  width,  bordered  by  vertical  walls, 
ten  to  fifteen  feet  high,  of  rough,  thick-bedded  quartzyte,  of  red  or  reddish 
gray  color,  nearly  level  in  stratification,  mostly  much  divided  by  joints. 
The  eastern  half  of  this  ravine  holds  a  long  pool,  ten  to  twenty  feet  wide, 
and  five  to  eight  feet  deep.  At  the  top  of  the  wall  of  rock  south  of  the 
west  part  of  this  pool,  the  much  jointed,  deep  red,  striated  surface  is  in 
many  places  soft  and  like  pipestone  to  the  depth  of  an  eighth  of  an  inch: 
but  within,  there  small  jointed  masses  are  gritty  and  hard,  the  pipestone 
being  only  a  thin  coating  at  the  bedding  planes.  At  the  western  end  of  this 
ravine,  on  its  north  side,  eight  feet  above  the  rivulet  that  flows  east  in  to 
this  pool,  this  rock  encloses  a  layer,  nearly  level,  varying  from  four  inches 
to  a  foot  in  thickness,  somewhat  like  the  pipestone  of  the  famous  quarry 
in  Pipestone  county,  having  nearly  the  same  very  fine  texture  and  dark  red 
color,  but  not  so  hard,  ami  al  this  place,  through  its  extent  of  twenty  feet 
exposed  to  view,  easily  divisible  into  small  flakes  and  fragments  because  of 
joints,  and  therefore  not  seen  in  any  solid  mass.  The  edge  of  this  layer 
has  been  mostly  removed  by  weathering  to  a  depth  of  two  to  six  feet  into  the 
wall  of  tough,  reddish  gray  quartzyte.  which  overhangs  and  underlies  it. 
The  divisions  of  this  very  fine-grained  bed  from  the  coarse  quartzyte  are 
not  definite  lines,  but  these  unlike  sediments  are  more  or  less  blended  and 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  6>) 

interstratified  through  one  to  six  inches.  Both  above  and  below,  the  quartz)  te 
in  some  portions  contains  pebbles  up  to  a  third  or  half  of  an  inch  in  diameter, 
and  is  quite  variable  in  texture,  hut  is  nowhere  finely  laminated.  At  a  tew 
places  the  pipestone  also  is  found  to  contain  these  small  gravel  stones;  and  a 
few  fragments  of  pipestone  up  to  three  inches  in  diameter  are  seen  enclosed 
in  the  quartzyte  within  one  to  two  feet  above  the  pipestone  layer. 

WATER-FALLS    AND    CASCADES. 

Picturesque  falls  are  produced  by  this  formation  in  the  northeast  quarter 
of  section  36,  Germantown  township.  The  rock  here  is  mostly  a  very  coarse- 
grained, thick-bedded  sandstone,  slightly  iron  rusty  or  reddish  in  color. 
Xearly  all  of  it  is  somewhat  friable,  being  thus  unlike  the  other  exposures 
of  this  formation  in  this  county.  In  some  portions,  however,  it  is  here  very 
hard  and  compact,  and  then  usually  has  a  deeper  red  hue.  Its  dip  is  about 
five  degrees,  ten  degrees  east.  Besides  this  general  dip,  the  beds  often  show 
oblique  lamination.  This  rock  is  in  some  places  slightly  conglomerate,  hold- 
ing pebbles  of  white  quartz,  and  less  frequently  of  red  felsyte,  or,  possibly, 
jasper,  the  largest  seen  being  an  inch  long.  These  falls  are  about  two  miles 
northeast  from  the  gorge  last  described,  being  on  the  lower  portion  of  the 
same  stream,  which  is  one  of  the  sources  of  Mound  creek.  Along  its  inter- 
vening course  and  within  short  distances  from  it  on  each  side,  this  forma- 
tion has  frequent  outcrops,  notably  for  a  quarter  of  a  mile  south  and  south- 
west of  the  falls.  The  stream  descends  thirty  feet  in  a  little  succession  of 
cascades,  within  a  distance  of  twenty  rods;  next  below  which  is  a  basin  some 
six  rods'  long  and  four  rods  wide,  bordered  by  vertical  or  overhanging 
walls  of  rock,  about  thirty  feet  high.  At  its  east  end  1 1 1 i s-  basin  is  so  con- 
tracted that  for  a  distance  of  about  twenty  feet  these  walls  of  rock  are  only 
eight  to  fifteen  feet  apart.  Below,  fur  the  next  twenty-five  rods,  the  gorge 
is  four  to  six  rods  wide,  bordered  by  vertical  walls  of  reddish  sandstone  or 
quartzyte,  which  decline  from  thirty  to  twenty  and  ten  feet  high.  The  same 
rock  is  seen  thence  nearly  all  the  way  for  a  half  mile  east,  mostly  forming 
cliffs  fifteen  to  twenty  feet  high  at  the  south  side  of  this  creek,  to  the  junc- 
tion of  another  stream  from  the  south  in  section  31,  Stately.  Brown  county, 
which  also  has  an  interesting  fall  formed  by  the  quartzyte. 

The  most  western  exposure  of  tin-  rock  learned  of  in  Cottonwood  county 
is  in  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  28,  Stofden.     Typical  quai 
compact  and  tough,  varying  in  color  from  dull  red  to  slightly  reddish  gray, 
is  here  exposed  in  the  bed  of  a  stream  tributary  to  Highwater  creek.  al( 


JO  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

a  distance  of  fifteen  rods  or  more  from  north  to  south,  with  a  width  of  two 
to  four  rods.  Its  dip  is  about  five  degrees  to  the  southeast  or  south  sixty 
degrees  east.  It  is  much  divided  by  joints  and  is  thereby  somewhat  fractured 
into  rhomboidal  pieces.  Ripple-marks  were  seen  in  several  places,  the  undu- 
lations being  two  to  three  inches  wide.  Fragments  of  red  pipestone  one  to 
two  inches  in  diameter  occur  rarely  in  this  rock.  Another  outcrop  is  reported 
one  mile  northeast  from  the  last,  on  the  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  21, 
Storden,  in  a  ravine;  and  others  occur  a  half-mile  southeast  of  Carlson's, 
near  the  center  of  section  27.  in  the  bed  of  small  ponds  through  which  the 
brook  flows.  The  west  part  of  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  6,  Dale, 
has  considerable  exposure  of  quartzyte,  scarcely  rising,  however,  about  the 
general  surface  of  the  till,  along  a  distance  of  twenty  rods  and  more  from 
north  to  south,  on  a  westward  slope,  about  a  mile  east  from  the  east  end  of 
Lake  Augusta.  The  stone  varies  in  color  from  yellowish  gray  to  a  dull  red, 
is  much  jointed,  and  has  a  dip  at  the  quarry  of  about  five  degrees  northeast. 
Laminae  of  pipestone  from  a  fourth  to  a  third  of  an  inch  thick,  deep  red, 
traversed  by  whitish  veins,  in  their  predominant  red  color  and  soft  slaty  tex- 
ture, closely  like  the  pipestone  of  Pipestone  county,  were  noted  here  upon 
the  surface  about  fifteen  feet  east  of  the  quarried  excavations,  occurring  at 
bedding  planes  along  an  extent  of  about  two  rods.  Here,  also,  fragments  of 
this  deep  red  pipestone,  up  to  one  or  two  inches  in  diameter,  are  enclosed 
in  the  quartzyte,  which  is  mostly  of  a  more  grayish  red  color. 

Several  other  outcrops  of  this  rock,  similar  in  extent  and  character, 
occur  within  a  distance  of  a  mile  to  the  south  and  southeast  through  section 
7,  Dale,  and  in  the  east  edge  of  section  12,  and  perhaps  also  of  section  1, 
Amo.  These  most  southern  exposures  of  this  area  of  quartzyte  were  exam- 
ined by  Professor  Winchell  in  1873.  The  stone  is  very  hard,  but  banded 
with  light  and  red  beds,  evident  on  the  planed  surface  and  on  the  fractured 
side. 

The  observations  of  dip  recorded  in  the  foregoing  pages  indicate  that 
these  Potsdam  strata  in  Selma,  Helton,  Stately  and  Germantown  are  mono- 
clinal,  dipping  generally  about  five  degrees  southward:  and  that  probably 
farther  wesl  in  Germantown,  Amboy,  Storden.  Dale  and  Amo,  where  a  greater 
width  is  exposed,  they  are  sunclinal  on  the  north,  dipping  about  five  degrees 
toward  the  south,  and  on  the  southwest  dipping  an  equal  amount  toward  the 
northeast  and  north.  From  the  Little  Cottonwood  falls  in  Delton  along  the 
distance  of  three  miles  northerly  to  the  falls  in  section  36,  Germantown. 
Professor  Winchell  in  a  recent  reconnoissance  found  numerous  outcrops  of 
the  rock  with  a  nearly  uniform  southward  dip  of  about  five  degrees,   from 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  Jl 

which  he  computes  the  thickness  of  the  formation  exposed  between  those 
points  to  be  approximately  one  thousand  three  hundred  and  eighty  feet. 
Stratigraphically,  the  lowest  of  the  beds  thus  observed  are  at  the  falls  on 
Mound  creek  in  Germantown,  where  outcrops  extending  twelve  hundred 
feet  from  north  to  south,  with  a  dip  of  five  degrees  toward  the  south,  give 
a  thickness  of  one  hundred  feet  for  the  friable  sandstone  seen  at  that  place. 
This  forms  the  base  of  the  strata  measured,  being  below  beds  of  very  hard 
and  compact  quartzyte,  which  are  almost  a  quarter  of  a  mile  thick. 

DRIFT   AND   CONTOUR. 

The  surface  of  the  Potsdam  quartzyte  in  many  places  shows  distinct 
glacial  markings,  notes  of  which  are  presented  in  the  following  table.  These 
bearings  are  referred  to  the  true  meridian,  from  which  the  magnetic  needle 
here  has  a  variation  of    about  ten  degrees  to  the  east. 

Course  of  glacial  striae  in  Cottonwood  county:  Selma,  northeast  quar- 
ter of  section  25,  south  twenty  degrees  east;  Selma,  southeast  quarter  of 
section  23,  south  twenty  degrees  east;  Delton,  southeast  quarter  of  section 
30,  south  fifteen  degrees  east;  Delton,  southwest  quarter  of  section  18,  south 
fifteen  degrees  east;  Delton,  northwest  quarter  of  section  18,  south  twenty-five 
degrees  east;  Delton,  northwest  quarter  of  section  9,  south  twenty-five  degrees 
east;  Arnboy,  south  part  of  section  2,  mostly  south  forty  degrees  east; 
Amboy,  southwest  quarter  of  section  2,  south  35  degrees  to  50  degrees  ea>t. 
Germantown,  northeast  quarter  of  section  36,  south  thirty  degrees  east, 
and  south  seventy  degrees  east;  Dale  southwest  quarter  of  section  6,  south 
twenty  degrees  to  twenty-five  degrees  east;  Dale,  south  part  of  section  7, 
south  thirty-four  degrees  east;  Amo,  east  part  of  section  12,  south  thirty 
degrees  to  three  hundred  and  twenty  degrees  east. 

Near  the  Little  Cottonwood  falls,  in  the  S.  E.  quarter  of  section  8, 
Delton,  and  at  points  on  the  north  side  of  the  quartzyte  ridge  in  the  north- 
west  part  of  this  township,  the  angles  of  projecting  ledges  of  this  rock  were 
observed  to  be  rounded  off  by  glaciation. 

Remarkable  deflections  and  intercrossing  of  glacial  striae  were  found 
at  the  locality  mentioned  in  the  N.  W.  quarter  of  section  9,  Delton.  It  is 
on  the  southern  slope  of  the  ridge  formed  by  this  quartzyte,  as  already 
described.  This  ridge  is  elevated  about  300  feet  above  the  lowland,  which, 
from  its  base  two  or  three  miles  farther  north,  extends  northward  more 
than  fifty  miles,  across  the  basin  of  the  Minnesota  river;  but  its  height  above 
the  average  surface  to  the  south  and  southwest  is  slight,  probably  not  exceed- 


72  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

ing  50  feet.  Its  length  is  about  twenty-five  miles,  extending  from  east  to 
west;  and  this  locality  is  near  the  middle  of  its  extent.  Very  distinct  glacial 
markings  occur  here  promiscuously,  crossing  each  other  in  all  directions 
between  north  to  south  and  south  sixty  degrees  east,  and  very  rarely,  south 
eighty  degrees  east,  but  a  great  majority  are  between  south  twenty-five 
degrees  east  and  forty  degrees  east.  Many  are  from  ten  to  thirty  feet  or 
more  in  length,  and  from  an  eighth  to  a  half  of  an  inch  deep ;  others  are 
very  delicate  lines.  Cumed  striae  were  observed  at  one  place;  two  or  three 
parallel  furrows,  covering  a  width  of  several  inches  and  extending  about  ten 
feet  to  the  southeast,  were  gradually  deflected  nine  inches  southerly  from 
their  direct  course  in  the  last  four  feet.  All  the  other  very  abundant  inter- 
crossed striae  observed  here  are  straight,  or  deviate  only  slightly  from 
straight  courses.  The  outcrop  containing  pipestone  in  section  2,  Amboy, 
furnished  the  only  similar  instance  seen  in  these  counties.  Here  several 
parallel  glacial  scratches  bend  twenty  or  thirty  degrees  in  a  length  of  about 
eight  inches.  The  curvature  of  these  ice-marks,  where  no  obstacle  existed 
to  cause  deflection,  indicate  that  they  were  engraved  during  the  final  melting 
and  recession  of  the  ice-sheet,  when  it  had  become  thin,  and  that  its  margin 
at  the  date  of  this  curved  striation  was  within  a  few  rods.  In  such  a  situa- 
tion the  unequal  melting  of  the  edge  of  the  ice  must  produce  changes,  such 
as  are  thus  recorded,  in  the  direction  of  its  motion.  The  prominence  of  the 
quartzyte  ridge  doubtless  gave  unusual  irregularity  to  the  outlines  of  the 
retreating  ice-border  in  northern  Cottonwood  county,  which,  by  the  result- 
ing deflections  of  the  glacial  current,  appears  to  have  been  the  cause  of  the 
singularly  varying  and  intercrossed  striation  of  this  region. 

During  the  greater  part  of  the  last  glacial  epoch  the  ice-fields  here 
appear  to  have  flowed  in  a  nearly  south-southeast  course;  but  when  they 
were  being  melted  away,  the  direction  of  movement  close  to  the  ice-border 
would  be  often  deflected  because  it  must  flow  toward  the  nearest  part  of 
this  irregular  and  changing  boundary,  which  here  and  there  became  indented 
by  bays  of  small  or  large  extent.  The  intercoursing  striae  on  the  ledge  in 
section  9,  Delton,  record  very  changeable  glacial  currents,  now  deflected  to 
a  due  south  course,  twenty  degrees  to  the  right  from  the  direction  which 
they  had  previously  held  through  this  glacial  epoch,  but  presently  diverging 
as  much  or  twice  or  three  times  to  the  left,  attaining  a  southeast  or  even  a 
nearly  east  course.  The  medial  moraine  directly  south  of  this  locality,  in' 
Carson  and  Lakeside,  suggests  that,  when  the  ice  retreated,  probably  two 
glacial  currents  converged  here,  pushing  against  each  other,  and  that  the 
striae  bearing  south  were  made  by  the  current  on  the  east,  and  those  bear- 


COTTONWOOD    AXD    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  73 

ing  south  sixty  degrees  to  eighty  degrees  cast  by  the  current  on  the  w<   I 
Divergences  to  the   east   from  the   prevailing  direction  of   glaciation   w 
noted  also  four  miles  farther  northwest,  in  Amboy  and  Germantown,  u 
the  northern  slope  and  at  the  north  base  of  this  massive  ridge.      In  German- 
town  a  surface  about  a  yard  square  was  observed,  on  half  of  which  the  striae 
bear  uniformly   south    thirty   degrees   east,   and   on   the   other  half    seventy 
degree-  east,  these  portions  meeting  at  a  slightly  beveled  angle   from  which 
each  side  slopes  clown  two  or  three  degrees.     The  former  of  these  courses 
of  striation  is  probably  that  which  prevailed  till  the  departure  of  the  ice- 
sheet,  when  the  great  quartzyte  ridge  and  the  irregularity  of  the  glacial  melt- 
ing caused  a  deflection  of   forty  degrees  toward   the  east.     The  later   ice- 
current   was   steadily  maintained  during  a  considerable   time,   sufficient   for 
planing  off  a  part  of  this  surface  of  very  hard  quartzyte.  but  not  touching 
the  adjoining  part,  which  could  only  escape  by  having  a  thin  covering  of 
drift. 

DRIFT. 

The  drift  spread  over  Cottonwood  county  is  principally  till,  in  part 
morainic,  being  accumulated  in  knolls  and  hills,  or  with  a  prominently  roll- 
ing surface  in  massive,  smoothly  sloping  swells,  hut  for  the  greater  part  it 
is  only  gently  undulating  in  contour.  Its  thickness  on  the  quartzyte  ridge 
varies  from  one  inch  to  probably  fifty  feet  or  mure,  and  in  other  portions  of 
this  county  it  probably  varies  from  one  hundred  to  two  hundred  feet  in  depth. 
The  moraines  to  be  described  were  formed  at  the  west  border  of  the  ice- 
sheet  of  the  last  glacial  epoch,  the  first  when  this  ice  covered  its  maximum 
area,  and  the  second  after  it  had  receded  considerably  from  it-  farthest  lim- 
its, when  its  retreat  was  interrupted  by  a  halt  and  perhaps  even  by  some 
readvance. 

In  the  southwest  part  of  Cottonwood  county,  this  belt  of  notably  roll- 
ing and  hilly  drift  occupies  the  west  half  of  Great  Bend,  the  north  part  of 
Springfield,  northeastern  South  Brook,  southwestern  Amo,  and  nearly  all 
of  Rose  Hill.  Its  width  in  these  townships  varies  from  two  to  five  mile-. 
To  the  northeast,  from  the  offset  of  the  Des  Moines  river  which  crosses 
this  formation  in  Springfield,  it  lies  a  few  miles  northeast  of  this  river  and 
parallel  with  it,  having  within  its  limits  of  this  county,  and  especially  in  Rose 
Hill  town-hip.  a  prominently  rolling  contour  in  smooth  swell-,  twenty  to  forty 
feet  above  the  intervening  hollows  and  frequent  lakes.  To  the  south  fn 
this  offset  and  the  great  bend  of  the  Des  Moines,  the  second  terminal  moraine 
lies   west   of   this   river   and    approximately   parallel    with   it,    their   distance 


74  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

apart  being  from  one  to  ten  or  twelve  miles,  along  an  extent  of  a  hundred 
and  forty  miles,  through  Jackson  county  and  onward  in  a  nearly  south- 
southeast  course  to  Pilot  mound  and  Mineral  ridge  in  northern  Boone 
county,  near  the  center  of  Towa. 

The  most  conspicuous  portion  and  most  roughly  broken  contour  of  this 
morainic  belt  in  Cottonwood  county  are  in  the  west  part  of  Grant  bend, 
where  a  group  or  range  of  hills,  known  as  the  Blue  mounds,  begins  three 
miles  west  of  Windom  and  thence  extends  three  or  four  miles  in  a  north- 
west course,  with  a  width  varying  from  a  half  mile  to  one  and  a  half  miles, 
lying  between  the  Des  Moines  river  on  the  northeast  and  Spring  lakes  on 
the  southwest.  These  hills  are  composed  of  till  with  frequent  boulders,  and 
rise  in  very  irregular  slopes  to  heights  of  one  hundred  to  one  hundred  and 
seventy-five  feet  above  the  river  and  twenty-five  to  seventy-five  feet  above 
the  general  level  at  their  west  side.  The  most  elevated  of  these  mounds, 
in  sections  17  and  20.  are  visible  from  the  southeast  part  of  Murray  county, 
fifteen  miles  to  the  west;  but  from  the  east  they  can  only  be  seen  within 
a  distance  of  six  or  eight  miles. 

Medial  Moraine.  Across  the  Des  Moines  river,  the  land  ascending 
from  it  east  of  Windom,  opposite  to  the  Blue  mounds,  has  similar  but  less 
prominent  morainic  features.  It  consists  of  irregular  knolls,  hillocks,  and 
low  ridges  of  till,  which  enclose  hollows  and  lakes,  occupying  a  width  of 
two  or  three  miles,  and  gradually  rising  in  this  distance  about  one  hundred 
feet  above  the  Des  Moines  river.  This  tract  seems  to  be  part  of  a  medial 
moraine  (so  called  because  formed  between  opposing  ice-currents),  con- 
nected with  the  second  terminal  moraine  as  a  branch  from  its  northeast  side, 
and  extending  north  through  the  two  western  ranges  of  sections  in  Lake- 
side and  Carson.  Its  most  broken  portion  is  found  in  sections  17,  8  and  5, 
Carson,  which  have  many  small  hills  and  ridges  forty  to  seventy-five  feet 
high,  mostly  trending  from  north  to  south,  composed  of  till  with  abundant 
boulders.  Ten  miles  north  from  these  hills  in  Carson  is  the  morainic  tract 
through  which  Mound  creek  flows  in  Stately,  but  the  interesting  area,  across 
which  the  quartzyte  ridge  extends  from  east  to  west,  is  destitute  of  such 
knolly  drift  deposits.' 

Beyond  the  knolly  and  broken  ascent  east  from  the  Des  Moines  river 
in  the  vicinity  of  Windom,  the  contour  changes  to  a  smooth  and  nearly  flat 
expanse  of  till,  which  thence  extends  seventy-five  miles  eastward,  descend- 
ing with  an  imperceptible  slope  to  the  Blue  F.arth  river,  and  beyond  this 
rising  in  the  same  manner  to  the  belts  of  drift  hills  at  the  sources  of  the 
LeSueur  and  Cannon  rixers.     The  eastern  two-thirds  of  Lakeside  and  Car- 


COTTONWOOD    AXD    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  75 

son,  and  all  of  Mountain  Lake  township,  included  in  the  vast  area  of  intra- 
morainic  till,  are  slightly  undulating  and  differ  only  live  to  ten  feet  in  broad 
swells  and  depressions  from  being  a  perfect  plain.  This  expanse,  stretching 
on  all  sides  to  the  horizon,  would  be  commonly  called  level,  but  the  survey 
of  the  St.  Paul  &  Sioux  City  railroad  shows  that  its  descent  eastward  is 
uniformly  about  twenty  feet  per  mile  through  these  townships,  or  some  two 
hundred  feet  in  the  ten  miles  from  the  railroad  summit,  a  mile  west  of  Bing- 
ham Lake  to  the  east  line  of  this  county.  Tf  the  same  slope  were  continued 
westward  it  would  pass  over  the  summit  of  the  Blue  mounds ;  hence  they 
cannot  be  seen  east  of  Bingham  Lake.  Mountain  Lake,  which  has  given 
its  name  to  a  railroad  station  and  township,  is  so  called  because  it  contains 
an  island  that  rises  about  thirty-five  or  forty  feet  in  steep  bluffs,  attaining  the 
same  height  with  the  bluffs  that  surround  the  lake,  even  with  the  average 
surface  of  its  vicinity. 

An  exception  to  the  generally  smooth  contour  of  the  drift-sheet  north 
of  the  quartzyte  ridge  is  found  in  a  quite  roughly  hilly  morainic  area, 
apparently  isolated,  which  lies  mainly  in  the  north  half  of  Stately,  the  most 
southwest  township  of  Brown  county,  and  extends  into  Germantown  to  the 
west  side  of  section  12.  Its  abrupt  mounds  and  ridges  of  stony  till  are 
twenty-five  to  seventy-five  feet  high,  having  their  greatest  prominence  in 
Stately  along  the  lower  part  of  Mound  creek.  This  tract  appears  to  belong 
to  a  third  terminal  moraine.  Through  the  middle  of  Germantown  a  notable 
valley,  having  a  flat  bottom  of  stratified  gravel  and  sand,  enclosed  by  mod- 
erately steep  slopes  which  rise  abnut  forty  feet  to  the  undulating  surface  of 
the  till  on  each  side,  was  observed,  extending  five  or  six  miles  in  an  east- 
southeast  course  from  near  Dry  creek  at  the  north  side  of  section  17  in  this 
township,  to  Mound  creek  at  the  east  side  of  section  30,  Stately.  Another 
valley  of  similar  character  was  noted  three-fourths  of  a  mile  farther  south, 
running  parallel  with  the  last  through  the  north  part  of  sections  25  and  26, 
Germantown  township.  These  deserted  water-courses  were  probably  formed 
during  the  departure  of  the  last  ice-sheet.  Upon  this  region  its  border, 
doubtless,  retreated  to  the  north  and  northeast,  and  while  it  still  lay  as  a 
barrier  upon  the  north  part  of  Germantown  and  was  accumulating  the 
morainic  hills  that  lie  a  few  miles  to  the  north-easl  in  Stately,  the  draina 
from  its  melting  was  carried  by  these  valleys  southeasterly,  Farther  north- 
west, the  land  for  a  considerable  distance,  along  the  probable  course  of  the 
ice-margin  in  this  stage  of  its  retreat  is  lower  than  where  these  valleys  occur, 
and  therefore  would  be  occupied  by  a  lake,  and  again  southeastward,   from 


j6  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

the  south  part  of  Stately  to  Silver  Lake  -in  Martin  county,  a  narrow  glacial 
lake  probably  extended  along  the  border  of  the  ice-sheet,  having  a  height  of 
about  twelve  hundred  feet  above  the  sea,  and  overflowing  south  of  Iowa 
lake  to  the  east  fork  of  the  Des  Moines  river. 

Boulders  and  Pebbles.  The  boulders  of  the  drift  in  this  county  are 
mainly  granite,  and  syenite,  crystalline  schists,  quartzyte  and  limestone. 
The  ciuartzyte  ridge  in  northern  Cottonwood  county  has  supplied  from  a 
tenth  to  a  half  of  the  large  rock-fragments  in  the  drift  south  of  it.  Among 
the  large  boulders,  over  one  foot  in  diameter,  in  this  county,  it  may  be  that 
a  twentieth  part  are  limestone.  At  Windom  limestone  containing  recepta- 
culites  was  found  in  the  drift  in  digging  cellars. 

Agriculture  must  be  the  chief  industry  and  source  of  wealth  in  Cot- 
tonwood county.  The  soil,  the  narrow  belts  of  timber  beside  rivers  and 
lakes,  the  natural  pasturage  and  plough-land  of  its  broad  expanses  of  prairie, 
are  peculiarly  fitted  for  farming  operations. 

The  Potsdam  quartzyte  of  northern  Cottonwood  county  has  been  quar- 
ried to  some  extent,  as  already  mentioned,  in  sections  23  and  25,  Selma 
township,  in  section  8,  Delton  township,  and  in  section  6,  Dale  township. 
Owing  to  the  very  hard  and  gritty  nature  of  this  rock  and  its  tendency  to 
rhomboiclal  fracture,  it  supplies  only  rough  blocks,  seldom  of  large  dimen- 
sions, yet  quite  suitable  for  common  foundations  and  walls,  and  for  the 
masonry  of  culverts  and  small  bridges. 

Peat.  An  exploration  of  the  peat  of  southern  Minnesota  was  made 
in  1873  by  Professor  Winchell,  whose  descriptions  embrace  the  following 
notes  pertaining  to  Cottonwood  county: 

Mountain  Lake.  Near  Mountain  Lake  station,  a  coarse  turf-peat 
covers  the  surface  of  a  dry  slough  to  the  depth  of  ten  to  eighteen  inches. 
Near  a  spring,  along  the  side  of  this  slough,  which  is  tributary  to  Mountain 
Lake,  the  surface  quakes  and  the  peat  is  thickest.  Around  Mountain  Lake 
the  land  is  low  and  is  flooded  in  the  wet  season.  This  low  land  contains 
considerable  peat  for  some  distance  out  toward  the  lake.  The  surface 
shales  under  the  tread.  It  is  covered  in  summer  with  a  tall  grass,  which 
much  resembles  the  wild  rice,  yet  the  softest  places,  where  the  peat  occurs 
purest,  are  furnished  with  a  short  grass.  Peat  here  is  two  or  more  feet 
thick.  This  peat,  taken  two  feet  below  the  surface,  was  found  to  contain, 
when  air-dried,  8.69  per  cent,  of  hygrometric  water;  31.90  of  organic 
matter,  and  50.41  of  ash.  A  hundred  pounds  of  it  is  estimated  to  be 
equivalent  to  forty-two  pounds  of  oakwood. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  JJ 

Lakeside.  Section  24.  In  a  dry  slough,  covering  many  acres,  the 
surface  consists  of  a  turf-peat,  to  the  depth  of  about  a  foot,  passing  into  a 
black  mud  and  sand.  The  very  top  is  fibrous  and  even  spongy.  The 
analysis  of  this  gave  10.80  per  cent,  of  hygrometric  water:  6.33  of  organic 
matter,  and  72.87  of  ash ;  a  hundred  pounds  being  equivalent  to  twenty-one 
pounds  of  oak-wood.  Peat  is  again  found  farther  west  in  the  same  town- 
ship, and  also  on  land  five  miles  east  of  Windom.  In  a  narrow  spring 
ravine,  where  water  stands  or  slowly  runs  throughout  the  year,  and  near  its 
head,  a  thickness  of  a  foot  or  more  of  turf-peat  may  be  taken  out  over  a 
space  of  a  few  rods  square.  It  is  thicker  and  better  near  the  head  of  the 
ravine  than  at  any  other  point,  owing  to  the  more  constant  protection  of 
the  grass  and  roots  from  the  prairie  fires. 

Great  Bend.  The  northeast  quarter  of  section  36,  in  Great  Bend  town- 
ship contains  peat.  In  a  turfed  ravine,  where  water  stands  or  oozes  through 
the  turf,  sloping  gently  toward  the  Des  Moines  river,  a  turf-peat  may  be 
taken  out  to  the  depth  of  a  foot  or  twenty  inches.  The  belt  containing  peat 
is  from  ten  to  twenty  feet  wide,  and  similar  in  its  situation  to  that  in  Lake- 
side township,  but  more  extensive.  Tt  shakes  under  the  feet  for  three  or 
four  feet  about,  but  a  horse  can  walk  safely  over  it  in  most  places  in  the 
dry  season.  Indeed,  it  is  mown  for  hay  each  year.  An  irony  scum  lies  on 
the  ground  and  on  the  grass  stalks.  The  peat  itself  is  a  turf,  but  contains 
shells  and  some  grit.  Another  similar  ravine  is  on  the  same  claim.  Numer- 
ous others  might  be  located  along  the  ravines  that  cross  the  Des  Moines 
bluffs. 

Amo.  Section  12.  A  slough  that  shakes  is  in  a  valley  that  forms  the 
prolongation  of  the  Des  Moines  valley  northwestward  above  the  great  bend 
a  few  miles  above  Windom.  and  lias  a  spongy  peat  about  two  feet  in  thick- 
ness, with  black  mud  below.  It  covers  six  or  ten  acres.  This  peat,  taken 
two  feet  below  the  surface,  was  found  to  contain,  when  air-dried,  9.85  per 
cent,  water;  42.63  of  organic  matter,  and  47.52  of  ash;  a  hundred  pounds 
of  it  being  equivalent  to  fifty-six  pounds  of  oakwood.  In  the  same  pro- 
longation of  the  Des  Moines  valley,  two  miles  abo  1  die  bend  of  the  Des 
Moines,  is  a  thickness  of  two  or  three  feel  of  |>cat.  This  valley  seems  to 
hold  about  two  feet  of  peat  along  a  considerable  area  through  the  middle, 
and  would  supply  a  great  quantity.  It  is  not  of  a  superior  quality,  but 
might  be  very  useful.  An  analysis  of  peat  taken  here  shows  13.58  per  d 
of  hygrometric  water;  53.28  of  organic  matter,  and  33.14  of  ash;  a  bundled 
pounds  of  this  air-dried  peat  being  consid.  ual   in   value  to   seventy 


Jb  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

pounds  of  oak  wood.  Peat  from  this  place  three  feet  below  the  surface 
yielded  11.03  Per  cent-  °f  water;  41.67  of  organic  matter,  and  47.30  of  ash; 
a  hundred  pounds  of  it  being  equal  to  fifty-five  pounds  of  oak-wood. 

Springfield.  In  a  dry  slough  in  section  6,  there  is  a  peaty  turf  near 
the  mouth  of  a  ravine  in  considerable  abundance. 

South  Brook.  Section  2.  Side-hill  peat  occurs  on  a  gentle  slope  over 
the  space  of  a  few  rods,  having  a  thickness  of  a  foot  and  a  half  or  two  feet. 
Such  peaty  patches  appear  also  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  main  valley, 
arising  from  the  issuing  of  springs  that  keep  the  surface  moist,  while  the 
lower  land  in  the  same  slough  is  dry  and  hard.  This  peat  is  not  free  from 
sand.     It  also  smells  strongly  of  sulphuretted  hydrogen. 


CHAPTER  III. 

PIONEER   SETTLEMENT    OF    COTTONWOOD    COUNTY. 

The  following  are  stanzas  from  a  lengthy  poem  written  hy  Thomas 
Campbell,  a  resident  of  the  county,  and  seem  appropriate  in  introducing  this 
chapter : 

The  dreamer  was  worn,  old  and  gray, 

As  he  dozed  in  his  chair  in  the  closing  day. 

And  the  crimson  sun  sinking  low. 

While  his  dreams  went  back  to  long  ago. 

And  he  slept  on  the  porch  of  the  bo stead  there, 

The  neat  farm-house,  on  the  landscape  fair; 
On  the  blooming  prairie  spreading  wide, 
And  crossing  the  flow  of  the  Des  Moines  tide, 

By  the  loosened  waves  of  imprisoned  thought, 

The  ways  of  Time's  backward   trail   were  sought; 
Then  a   mental  vision   soon   appeared, 
Of  Cottonwood  hack   some   forty  years. 

Of  a  country  fertile  and   fair  to   rtew, 

'inly  trod  by  the  moccasined  fool   of  the  Sioux, 

Or  the  hoof  of  his  pony  in  reckless  pace, 

In  the  onward  rush  of  the  buffalo  chase, 

P.ut  the  scene  is  shifting  to   later  years. 
Progressive  times  and   white   men's  ways. 
And   the  plain    is   dulled    left    and    righl 
Willi  wagon  tops  of  canvas  white; 

Ami    later   on.    in   the   seasons'    train, 
Tin'  yellow  patches  of  waving  grain. 
Ami  I  he  many  pictures  of  peaceful   toil . 
•  if  settled  life  on  a  grateful  soil. 

This  county  was  surveyed  in  1858-9;  the  surveyors  found  a  few  Ger- 
mans including  Charles  Zierke,  known  as  "Dutch  Charlie."  No  one  knew 
where  he  came  from  here.  It  was  reported  that  he  was  mas  acred  in  the 
Indian  outbreak  of  1862.  He  resided  in  the  northwest  part  of  Cottonwood 
county,  where  there  is  a  creek  named  after  his  nickname.  "Dutch  Charlie 
Creek."  About  a  dozen  persons  had  effected  settlement  in  what  is  Cotton- 
wood countv  now,  prior  to  1862,  when  the  Indian  n  ■■:  I  in,  the  fust 
actual  settler  in  the  county  was  a  homesteader  named  Joseph  F.  Bean ;  the 


80  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

second  was  George  B.  Walker.  Then  a  few  families  came  to  the  West- 
brook  settlement;  early  in  1868  came  J.  W.  Benjamin,  Simon  Greenfield, 
and  others  locating  in  the  present  township  of  Lakeside.  The  settlement 
increased,  but  with  no  marked  degree  of  rapidity  until  the  railroad  came 
through  the  county.  The  first  settlers  marketed  their  crops  at  Xew  Ulm, 
where  they  also  purchased  their  supplies.  On  June  1,  1871,  the  railroad 
grading  was  completed  through  Cottonwood  count}- ;  this  was  the  old  St. 
Paul  &  Sioux  City  line,  now  the  Chicago,  St.  Paul.  Minneapolis  &  Omaha 
system.  On  June  1  that  year  the  rails  were  completely  laid  as  far  as  Win- 
dom  on  the  Des  Moines  river. 

STRUGGLES    OF    PIONEER    SETTLERS. 

The  early  settlers  of  this  county  had  anything  but  a  promising  outlook. 
Prairie  fires  and  terrible  hail  storms  swept  away  much  of  the  property  of 
the  settlers  in  their  destructive  pathways,  but  these  hardy  sons  and  daugh- 
ters felt  determined  to  fight  their  way  through  these  obstacles  and  advers- 
ities. The  crop  of  1872  was  an  average  crop  and  the  people  felt  encour- 
aged. In  the  spring  of  1873  a  large  crop  was  planted,  and  the  immigrants 
of  previous  years,  not  only  of  this  but  of  adjoining  counties,  had  expended 
every  resource  in  preparing  the  ground  and  providing  seed.  A  promising 
harvest  was  apparent;  and  all  felt  that  the  reward  for  their  severe  priva- 
tions would  soon  be  at  hand.  But  alas,  early  in  June  of  that  year  the  entire 
part  of  southwestern  Minnesota  was  visited  by  grasshoppers,  and  nearly 
all  of  the  growing  crops  were  destroyed  and  grasshopper  eggs  laid  and 
buried  in  the  soil,  only  to  curse  the  country  the  next  season.  Great  desola- 
tion was  among  the  farmers.  Appeals  made  to  the  charitable  throughout 
the  better  favored  sections  of  the  country  brought  considerable  immediate 
relief.  In  the  Legislature  in  January.  1874,  an  appropriation  of  five  thou- 
sand dollars  was  made  for  relief  of  the  devastated  regions  and,  later,  twenty- 
five  thousand  dollars  was  appropriated  for  the  purchase  of  seed  grain. 
Wheat  was  sown  from  this  seed,  it  came  up  nicely,  but  the  grasshopper 
eggs,  likewise,  hatched  out  in  all  their  teeming  millions.  When  old  enough 
to  eat,  they  set  to  work  and  destroyed  all  of  the  growing  crops  again.  The 
hatching  commenced  in  May  and  in  June  their  wings  had  developed  enough 
to  enable  them  to  lly  frisky.  After  eating  up  much  of  the  crops  they 
migrated,  filling  the  heavens  at  noon-day  so  as  to  almost  darken  the  sun 
and  give  the  sky  the  appearance  of  a  snow-storm  in  winter  season.  They 
continued  to  fly  and  to  leave  for  the  south  until  in  July,  when  having  joined 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  Si 

the  older  grasshoppers,  their  venerable  ancestors,  they  all  disappeared  from 
the  county,  leaving  hundreds  and  thousands  of  acres  barren  and  desolate. 
Year  after  year  they  kept  this  up,  aid  coming  from  the  state  to  tide  over 
the  brave,  never-give-up  kind  of  people  found  among  the  county's  first 
pioneer  band. 

WINTER    OF    1872-3. 

The  winter  of  1872-3  was  a  long,  cold  one,  never  to  be  forgotten  by 
those  living  in  southwestern  Minnesota  and  Iowa.  In  January,  1872,  soon 
after  the  building  of  the  railroad  through  the  county,  a  severe  snow  and 
wind  storm — now  called  "blizzard" — swept  this  county  in  all  of  its  fury. 
The  railroad  was  completely  blocked  from  January  until  April  10.  the  next 
spring. 

In  a  storm  of  three  days  duration  in  February,  1872.  two  sons  of  a 
Mr.  Lader.  of  Mountain  Lake  perished  in  the  snow.  The  next  winter  was 
as  bad,  and  at  times  worse,  and  only  a  few  trains  of  cars  run  to  bring  in 
supplies  and  fuel  for  the  settlers.  It  was  in  the  three  days  storm  of  1873 
that  William  Morris  was  frozen  to  death  within  eighty  rods  of  his  own 
house,  in  Springfield  township. 

George  B.  Walker  was  an  early  settler  of  Cottonwood  county  and  was 
the  first  man  to  do  any  plowing  in  the  county  after  the  Indian  massacre  of 
1862.  He  died  April  13,  1887.  On  February  10.  1871,  he  was  married 
to  Sarah  Greenfield,  and  this  was  the  first  marriage  ceremony  performed  in 
Cottonwood  county. 

A  more  detailed  account  of  the  settlement  of  the  county  is  found  in 
the  various  town-hip  histories  of  the  work.  But  the  following  gives  quite 
a  number  of  well-known  citizens  who  made  up  the  pioneer  band: 

Mr.  A.  A.  Soule  settled  about  one  mile  southeasl  of  Mountain  Lake  in 
1869.  He  purchased  a  pre-emption  right  of  a  trapper  named  Mason  and  his 
equity  in  an  adjoining  piece  of  land  heavily  timbered  with  oak  and  other  fi  iresl 
trees,  consisting  of  about  forty  acre-.  There  was  also  forty  acre-  of  artificial 
timber  which  consisted  of  spruce,  balsam  fir,  white  cedar,  American  and  Euro- 
pean larch,  willow,  hard  and  soft  maple,  ash,  cottonwood,  coffeenut,  black 
walnut,  basewood,  whitewood,  honey  locust,  elm,  mountain  ash,  and  otl 
varieties. 

During  1869  and  1870.  Mr.  Soule  gave  mosl  of  his  time  and  energy  to 
the  planting  and  growing  of  trees.     At  that  time  he  was  vice-presidenf  of  the 
State  Forestry  Association.    Few  men  take  as  much  interest  in  forestry  as  did 
(6) 


82  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

this  man.  The  attractiveness  alone  of  Mr.  Soule's  farm  was  ample  reward  for 
his  diligent  work,  as  it  was  generally  known  throughout  southern  Minnesota 
that  this  farm  was  one  of  the  most  attractive  in  this  section  of  the  state. 

Ira  E.  Pierce,  Sr.,  came  from  New  Bedford,  Massachusetts,  and  settled 
on  a  farm  near  Clear  lake  in  1 87 1 .  He  died  in  February,  1908,  at  the  age  of 
eighty-seven. 

Paul  Pederson  came  from  Jefferson  county,  Wisconsin,  and  settled  in 
Amo  township  in  1873.    He  died  on  March  28,  1908. 

Myron  Barr  was  one  of  the  first  settlers  in  Cottonwood  county,  settling  in 
Lakeside  township  in  1870  or  1871.  He  located  on  a  small  farm  one  mile 
from  the  station  of  Bingham  lake.  During  the  construction  of  the  railroad 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Barr  conducted  the  railroad  boarding  house,  while  the  men  were 
working  between  St.  James  and  Sheldon.  At  various  times  they  boarded  as 
many  as  one  hundred  men  at  a  time.  With  the  coming  of  the  grasshoppers 
Mr.  Barr  lost  all  that  he  had  in  the  way  of  crops  and  finally  left  the  country. 
He  died  in  August,  1908. 

J.  N.  McGregor  was  born  in  Belmont,  Ohio,  1847,  and  came  to  YYindom 
in  1871,  where  he  formed  a  partnership  with  D.  Patten  in  the  general  mer- 
chandising business.  Later  he  became  county  treasurer  and  president  of  the 
First  National  Bank.  He  was  a  man  interested  in  many  public  enterprises 
and  one  who  added  to  the  life  and  spirit  of  the  community.  He  died  on  July 
22,  1912. 

J.  A.  Billings,  an  old  soldier,  settled  in  Mountain  Lake  in  1872.  He  died 
in  May,  1909. 

J.  H.  Reisdorph,  known  as  "Uncle  John,"  was  bom  in  New  York  in  1826 
and  came  to  Cottonwood  county  in  1870.  He  was  an  old  soldier  and  died  on 
February  18,  191 1. 

Thomas  S.  Brown  was  born  in  Scotland  and  imigrated  to  this  country  at 
an  early  age.     He  joined  the  ranks  of  the  Union  army  and  when  the  war  was 

over  came  to  Cottonw 1  county  and  settled  in  Springfield  township.     He  wa-~ 

fairly  well  read  in   law  and  finally  became  judge  of  probate.      He  died  in 
August,  191 1. 

William  Barnes,  born  in  Maine,  1801,  settled  in  Mountain  Lake  township 
in  187-'.     He  died  on  September  30,  1881. 

1!.  W.  May  came  to  Windom  in  [872  and  For  a  time  was  the  only  imple- 
ment dealer  in  the  village.     He  died  in  December,  to  12. 

Talior  C.  Richmond  was  horn  in  Vermont,  C844,  and  came  to  Lakeside 
township  in  1871.    He  was  an  old  soldier  and  died  in  March,  [913. 

Aaron  Schofield  was  born  in  England,  [8^1.     lie  came  to  this  country 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  83 

and  settled  in  Carson  township,  section  28,  on  a  tree  claim,      lie  died   1  11 
February  14.   i<)i6. 

P.  B.  Crosby  came  to  Windom  in  [872  and  erected  one  of  the  first  tene- 
ment houses  in  the  village.    He  died  in  February,  1874. 

COTTONWOOD    COUNTY    OLD    SETTLERS'     ASSOCIATION. 

In  every  intelligent,  thinking  community  the  pioneer  settlers  have  always 
organized  Old  Settlers'  Reunion  Societies  of  one  sort  or  another,  and  Cotton- 
wood county  is  no  exception  to  the  rule.  The  idea  obtains  in  a  special  degri 
in  the  counties  west  of  the  Alleghany  mountains  in  states  that  have  been 
settled  a  hundred  years  or  less.  These  associations  have  done,  and  are  still 
doing,  much  to  preserve  the  local  history  and  promote  a  friendly  feeling 
among  both  the  pioneers  and  their  sons  and  daughters.  The  true  fires  of 
patriotism  and  love  of  country  or  of  home  are  strengthened  by  a  narration  of 
such  important  events  as  tend  to  stir  the  blood  and  quicken  to  life  those  divine 
affections  of  man.  The  love  of  home  and  parents  and  kindred  has  thus  been 
strengthened  by  oft-told  tales  of  aged  fathers  or  mothers,  especially  of  those 
pioneer  fathers  and  mothers  who  toiled  early  and  late,  hard  and  long,  in 
order  to  give  their  descendants  the  priceless  boon  of  a  home  and  plenty;  of 
refinement  and  love  of  God  and  humanity. 

The  pioneers  in  gathering  in  these  annual  reunions,  seem  to  live  over 
again  those  early  days  and  years.  Their  eyes  sparkle  and  they  grow  young 
as  the  fading  reminiscences  of  other  days  are  recalled.  As  was  well  stated 
by  a  pioneer  in  a  nearby  community,  at  a  meeting  of  the  ( )ld  Settlers'  Society  : 
"You  come  together  with  varied  emotions.  Some  of  you,  almost  at  the  foot 
of  life's  hill,  look  hack  and  upward  at  the  path  you  have  trod,  while  others 
who  have  just  reached  life's  summit,  gaze  down  into  the  valley  of  tears  with 
many  a  hope  and  fear.  You  gray-headed  fathers,  have  done  your  work;  you 
have  done  it  well;  ami  now  as  the  sunset  of  life  is  closing  around  you,  you 
are  given  the  rare  boon  of  enjoying  the  fruit  of  your  labor.  You  can  see  the 
land  won  by  your  own  right  arm  from  its  wilderness  state  and  from  a  savage 
foe,  passed  to  your  children  and  your  children'-  children,  literally  'flow  ing  with 
milk  and  honey;'  a  land  over  which  hover  the  white-winged,  white-robed 
angels  of  religion  and  peace;  a  land  fairer  and  brighter  and  more  glori 
than  any  other  land  beneath  the  blue  arch  of  heaven.  You  have  done  yi 
work  well,  and  when  the  time  of  resl  shall  have  come,  you  will  sink  to 
dreamless  repose  with  the  calm  conscioi  f  dutj  d 

"In  this  hour  let  memory  take  her  strongest  -way ;  tear  aside  the  thin  veil 


84  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

that  shrouds  the  misty  past  in  gloom ;  call  up  before  you  the  long-forgotten 
scenes  of  years  ago;  live  over  once  again  the  toils  and  struggles,  the  hopes  and 
fears  of  other  days.  Let  this  day  be  a  day  sacred  to  the  memory  of  the  olden 
time.  In  that  olden  time  there  are  no  doubt  scenes  of  sadness  as  well  as  of 
joy.  Perhaps  you  remember  standing  by  the  bedside  of  a  loved  and  cherished 
dying  wife — one  who  in  the  days  of  her  youth  and  beauty  when  you  proposed 
to  her  to  seek  a  home  in  a  new  wild  land,  took  your  hand  in  hers  and  spoke 
words  like  these :  'Wither  thou  goest  I  will  go,  and  where  thou  lodgest  I  will 
lodge ;  thy  people  shall  be  my  people  and  thy  God  my  God :  when  thou  diest  I 
will  die,  and  there  will  I  be  buried;  the  Lord  do  so  to  me  and  also  if  aught 
but  death  part  me  and  thee.'  Or,  perhaps,  some  brave  boy  stricken  down  in 
the  pride  of  his  young  manhood;  or  some  gentle  daughter  fading  away  in  her 
glorious  beauty;  or  some  little  prattling  babe  folding  its  weary  eyes  in  the 
dreamless  sleep.  If  there  are  memories  like  these,  and  the  unbidden  tears  well 
up  in  the  eye,  let  them  come,  and  today  one  and  all  shed  a  tear  or  two  to  the 
memory  of  the  loved  and  lost." 

The  pioneer  comes  to  dig  and  delve,  to  plant  and  to  sow,  to  hew  and  to 
build,  the  crooked  path  to  make  straight,  the  rough  to  make  smooth.  Neither 
the  river,  the  lake  nor  the  sea,  nor  the  mountain-chain,  nor  the  vast  wilderness 
have  obstacles  for  them. 

Pursuant  to  a  call  issued  for  a  meeting  to  be  held  on  October  19,  1901,  a 
large  number  of  old  settlers  and  their  families  met  at  the  court  house  and 
proceeded  to  organize  an  old  settlers  association.  Committees  were  appointed 
to  perfect  the  organization  and  to  prepare  a  constitution  and  set  of  by-laws, 
which  were  adopted  on  December  14,  that  year.  The  first  set  of  officers  was 
as  follows:  F.  M.  Dyer,  president;  Matt  Miller,  secretary;  Mrs.  George  E. 
Le  Tourneau,  treasurer.  The  vice-presidents  were  as  follow:  First  commis- 
sioner's district,  H.  A.  Nelson,  town  of  Ann;  second  commissioners  district, 
M.  N.  Caldwell,  town  of  A1110 ;  third  commissioner's  district,  Orrin  Nason, 
Windom;  fourth  commissioner's  district,  I.  F.  Pierce,  town  of  Lakeside;  fifth 
commissioner's  district,  L.  P.  Richardson,  town  of  Selma.  Jackson  county 
territory  to  he  represented  by  A.  J.  Frost,  town  of  Delafield. 

CONSTITUTION. 

We,   the  old   settlors   (if   Cottonwood    county,    in   order   t"    preserve   the   traditions 

and    history    of    its    early    settlers,    in    pi lote    social    Intercourse    between    ourselves 

and  our  families,  and  in  keep  thai  acquaintance  and  friendship  which  was  so  dear 
to  ns  during  the  trying  years  of  our  early  history,  do  ordain  and  establish  this  con- 
stitution for  ihi'  <>iil  Settlers'  Association  of  Cottonwood  County,  Minnesota. 

Article  1.  The  territory  embraced  under  iiiis  constitution  shall  be  Cottonwood 
county  and  thr  northern  tier  of  townships  in  Jackson  c ity,   state  of  Minnesota, 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  85 

Article  II.    Any  person,  after  having  resided   in   the  territory  described   in   Article 
I   for   twenty   years,   may   become   a    member  of   this   association    by    signing    this   coi 
stitution. 

Article  III.  Section  1.  The  officers  of  this  association  shall  be  a  president  and 
one  vice-president  for  each  commissioner  district  In  Cottonwood  county,  and  one 
for  the  northern  tier  of  townships  in  Jackson  county;  a  secretary  and  Treasurer, 
who  shall  hold  their  offices  for  one  year,  or  until  their  successors  arc  elected. 

Section  2.  It  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  president  to  preside  at  all  meetings,  to 
appoint  standing  committees,  unless  otherwise  provided,  to  call  special  meetings,  to 
provide  a  place  for  holding  all  meetings  of  the  association,  and  till  by  appointment 
any  office  that  may  become  vacant,   except   that   of   president. 

In  case  of  a  vacancy  in  the  office  of  president,  the  oldest  rice-president  shall  fill  the 
unexpired    term. 

Section  .'!.    it  shall  he  the  duty  of  the  secretary  to  keep  the  minutes  of  the  associa 
tion  and  a  record  of  its  membership  in  a  book  provided  lor  that  purpose. 

Section  4.     It  shall   lie  the  duty  of  tin1  treasurer  to  receive  all   moneys  of  the   asso 

ciatiou  and   to  pay  out   the  san 1   an  order  .it  the  secretary,  signed  by  the  president, 

and  to  take  a  voluntary  contribution  at  any  regular  or  special  meeting. 

Section  5.  It  shall  he  the  duties  of  the  vice-presidents  to  preside  in  the  absence  of 
the  president,  in  the  order  of  seniority,  to  solicit  membership  and  to  inform  the  secre- 
tary of  any  deaths  that  may  occur  in  the  association. 

Article  IV.  Section  1.  This  association  shall  meet  semi-annually  in  Windom,  Cot- 
tonwood county.  Minnesota,  on  the  first  Saturday  in  June  and  on  the  second  Saturday 
in  October  of  each  year. 

Section  2.  The  officers  of  the  association  shall  he  elected  by  ballot  at  the  semi- 
annual meeting,  held  on  the  first  Saturday  in  June  of  each  year. 

Article  V.  This  constitution  may  he  changed  or  amended  by  a  two  -thirds  vote  Oi 
the  members  present  at  any  regular  meeting. 

A  regular  meeting  was  held  on  June  7,  1902.  at  which  a  bountiful  dinner 
was  enjoyed,  after  which  came  the  election  of  officers  and  then  a  short  pro- 
gram. Mr.  E.  Savage  related  some  reminiscences  and  E.  C.  Huntington  gave 
a  talk  on  "The  South." 

On  October  11,  1902,  the  association  met  at  the  court  house,  where  ati 
enjoyable  program  was  rendered.  Experiences  of  the  early  days  were  told 
by  Doctor  Allen,  Dewain  Conk.  I.  E.  Pierce  and  J.  G.  Redding.  Music  for  the 
occasion  was  furnished  by  Mrs.  Perkins  and  Mrs.  Stedman  and  Messrs. 
Churchill  and  Gillam.  October,  190^.  marked  another  happy  meeting  of  the 
old  settlers  in  the  court  house.  The  old  and  familiar  song,  "Home,  Sv 
Home,"  was  sung  with  great  spirit  and  enthusiasm  by  everyone.  Such  men  as 
Arthur  Johnson,  Mr.  Lewis,  E.  C.  Huntington,  M.  T.  DeWolf  and  II.  M. 
Goss  delighted  the  audience  with  their  reminiscences  of  tin-  early  days.  Mrs. 
Fred  Weld  read  a  very  interesting  story. 

At  the  regular  meeting  held  on  June  3,  1905,  an  elegant  dinner  was 
served  after  which  a  splendid  program  was  rendered.  The  three  <>ldc-t  per- 
sons, each  above  eighty-two  years  of  age,  led  the  way  out  to  the  dinner  table. 


86  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINX. 

These  were  S.  Hanson,  S.  S.  Gillam  and  Mrs.  E.  M.  Peterson.  Short  talks 
were  made  by  E.  D.  Mooers  and  S.  S.  Gillam,  the  former  speaking  on  the  first 
postoffice  and  mail  route  established  in  Cottonwood  county,  and  the  latter 
giving  his  experiences  in  building  a  claim  shanty.  The  meeting  closed  by 
singing  "America." 

One  of  the  enjoyable  features  of  the  meeting  held  on  October  12,  1907, 
was  the  song,  "The  Old  Red  Cradle,"  and  also  another  song  by  the  old  settlers 
quartette  entitled,  "A  Home  on  the  Prairie."  Talks  were  made  by  I.  E.  Pierce 
on  his  travels;  by  F.  M.  Dyer  on  the  prairie  fires,  and  Ole  J.  Finstad  on  the 
grasshoppers. 

On  October  10,  1908,  and  also  on  October  9,  1909,  the  old  settlers  were 
given  a  rare  treat  in  having  with  them  the  Hon.  W.  S.  Hammond,  who  de- 
livered two  stirring  addresses.  His  address  on  the  "Legacy,"  was  especially 
well  received.  At  the  regular  June  meeting  Mr.  R.  H.  Jefferson  related  many 
experiences  of  the  early  settlers  and  at  the  close  of  his  remarks  suggested  that 
a  fund  be  started  to  build  an  old  settlers  monument.  This  idea  was  well 
received. 

Mr.  F.  F.  Ellsworth,  of  Mankato,  addressed  the  meeting  in  October. 
Mr.  Ellsworth's  mother  formerly  lived  in  Windom  during  the  early  days  and 
was  a  daughter  of  Nelson  Manning,  the  first  representee  in  the  state  Legisla- 
ture from  Cottonwood  county.  Mrs.  C.  W.  Gillam  read  an  original  poem 
"Up  and  Down  the  Old  Des  Moines,"  that  touched  the  minds  and  hearts 
of  the  pioneers  as  few  things  ever  have.  In  her  closing  remarks  she  also 
suggested  that  a  monument  be  erected  in  memory  of  the  old  settlers  and 
that  a  very  fitting  place  to  erect  such  a  monument  would  be  in  the  city  park 
overlooking  the  Des  Moines  river.  This  idea  met  with  the  hearty  approval 
of  all  and  committees  were  appointed  to  investigate  the  matter  and  report 
later. 

An  old  settlers'  picnic  was  held  at  Cadwell's  grove  in  Amo  township, 
in  tin-  summer  of  [913.  At  the  noon  hour  a  bountiful  dinner  was  served 
by  the  old  settlers'  wives  and  daughters  in  the  good  old  country  style,  with- 
out any  frills  or  decorations  or  any  foreign  names  attached  to  the  victuals. 
This  meeting  was  conceded  by  all  to  be  one  of  the  best  ever  held  and  every- 
one anxiously  looked    forward  to  the  next  annual   picnic. 

The  old  settlers'  choir  opened  the  October  meeting  of  1915  by  the 
singing  of  "  America."  Reverend  Norman  gave  a  very  interesting  and  stir- 
ring address  that  delighted  the  hearts  of  the  pioneers.  Mr.  E.  D.  Mooers 
made  some  very  appropriate  remarks. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  the  presidents  of  the  Old  Settlers  Association 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  87 

in  the  order  of  serving:     F.  M.  Dyer,  J.  G.  Redding,  D.  C.  Davis,  W.  A. 

Peterson,  D.  A.  Noble,  W.  W.  Hunter.  Mrs.  LeTourneau,  E.  D.  Mooers. 

Among   the   numerous   "memorials"    found    recorded    in   the   books   of 

the  Old  Settlers  Association  of  Cottonwood  county,  the  following  is  a  fair 

sample  of  the  tributes  paid  to  the  departed  dead  of  the  Association: 

MEMORIAL. 

A  memorial  to  J.  H.  Clark,  as  prepared  by  Jens  J.  Jackson,  for  the  Old 
Settlers  Association: 

James  H.  Clark  was  born  on  the  24th  of  April,  1830,  in  the  town  of 
Hollowed,  Maine.  His  boyhood  days  were  spent  with  his  father  in  the 
lumber  industry,  Inn  when  the  young  man  l^ecame  of  age  he  packed  his  be- 
longings into  a  little  bundle  and  walked  to  the  city  of  Bath,  where  he 
secured  work  in  a  ship  yard.  He  remained  at  this  place  until  1850.  when 
he  left  and  started  for  the  state  of  Minnesota  and  landed  in  Taylor's  Falls 
the  same  year.  After  staying  there  for  several  years  he  became  acquainted 
with  Miss  Carrie  Jeelosen,  to  whom  he  became  engaged  to  marry.  When 
the  time  came  for  them  to  be  joined  in  wedlock,  Air.  Clark  suggested  that 
they  go  before  a  justice  of  the  peace  as  there  was  no  minister  in  the  place, 
but  Carrie  said:  "No,  James,  I  want  a  minister  of  the  gospel  to  communi- 
cate to  us  the  blessing  of  God  that  may  accompany  us  on  the  journey  of  our 
married  life."  So  they  drove  thirty  miles  to  the  city  of  Stillwater,  where 
they  found  a  minister,  who  pronounced  them  to  be  lawful  man  and  wife, 
on  the  16th  of  April,  1864. 

They  resided  at  Taylor's  Falls  for  a  period  of  fourteen  years  and  then 
came  to  Windom  in  1878,  where  Mr.  (lark  engaged  in  the  lumber  business 
and  occupied  the  lumber  yard  for  a  short  lime  where  the  Struck-Sherwin 
firm  now  holds  forth.  Trade  was  scarce  over  there,  he  said,  ami  many  a 
lonesome  day  did  he  spend  in  that  hovel  as  lie  called  his  office,  for  want  of 
anything  to  do,  for  he  was  an  industrious  man  and  longed  for  the  time  when 
trade  would  call  him  to  manual  labor  as  well  as  mental  activity,  lie  was  a 
fearless  man  and  he  would  never  shrink  from  responsibility  so  long  a„  ne 
entertained  an  idea  of  being  in  the  right.  An  incident,  thai  some  may 
remember,  occurred  in  the  winter  of  1X81,  will  show  that  he  feared  nol 
even  the  consequences  of  a  lawsuit  when  his  merciful  heart  dictated  to  him 
to  alleviate  the  suffering  of  humanity.  Many  may  remember  the  lot 
!  '  ckade  of  1881,  but  the  road  was  open  once,  when  a  car  of  coal  that  I 
longed  to  the  railroad  company  was  shipped  in  and  found  Windom  destitute 


88  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

of  fuel.  On  Sunday  morning  Mr.  Clark  shouldered  a  shovel,  marched  to 
the  car.  which  was  quickly  opened  and  he  assumed  the  authority  of  dealing 
out  the  contents  to  those  in  need.  He  also  assumed  the  responsibility  of 
being  prosecuted  for  the  act. 

Mr.  Clark  was  not  generally  known  to  have  been  a  philanthropist,  yet 
there  are  many  who  remember  his  philanthropic  deeds.  An  instance  was 
when  Christmas  eve  dawned  upon  the  village  of  Windom,  he  sat  at  his  desk 
with  a  little  notebook  in  his  hand  and  he  would  say  that  Christmas  was  near 
at  hand  and  God  have  mercy  upon  the  poor.  He  would  write  a  few  names 
and  hand  the  book  to  me  and  say,  "John,"  as  he  was  in  the  habit  of  calling 
me,  "do  you  know  of  any  other  poor  widow  that  may  be  in  need?"  When 
the  list  was  complete  the  names  were  copied  on  a  slip  of  paper  and  handed 
to  a  drayman,  with  instructions  to  deliver  to  each  lady  one-half  of  a  ton  of 
coal.  He  furnished  the  fuel,  paid  the  drayage  and  the  matter  was  kept 
quiet.  He  did  not  publish  such  facts  to  the  world  at  large,  he  would  not 
tell  the  recipients,  because  such  acts  he  considered  a  part  of  his  duty.  Noth- 
ing gave  him  more  satisfaction  than  to  offer  a  little  comfort  to  the  lonely 
widow  and  others  in  distress. 

The  love  of  kindness  that  he  exhibited  toward  his  family  was  note- 
worthy of  example.  His  watchful  care  for  their  comfort  unlimited.  He 
truly  complied  with  God's  ordinance  in  performing  the  duty  of  husband 
and  father  and  the  perfect  confidence  that  existed  between  himself  and 
wife  was  due  to  the  amiable  nature  of  both. 

Mr.  Clark  left  Windom  in  the  fall  of  1895  and  settled  in  Minneapolis. 
He  disposed  of  his  business  interests  in  the  winter  of  1896  and  short Iv 
after  moved  to  the  city  of  Los  Angeles,  California.  Here  he  engaged  in 
the  wholesale  paper  business,  but  only  for  a  short  time  as  his  health  was 
failing  and  with  it  his  ambition  for  active  life. 

His  life  had  not  been  one  of  leisure.  His  holdings  were  acquired 
through  constant  labor  and  study  and  he  relinquished  his  hold  upon  manual 
exertion,  only  when  the  tooth  of  time  exerted  its  influence  upon  that  mortal 
structure  that  had  withstood  the  tempests  of  time  for  more  than  three  score 
years  and  ten.  He  died  on  the  5th  of  February,  1904.  at  the  age  of  seventv- 
three  years,  nine  months,  and  twelve  days,  leaving  a  wido\v*and  two  daugh- 
ters to  mourn  his  death. 

EARLY    HARDSHIPS    OF    A    MAIL    CARRIER. 

Among  other  interesting  reminiscences  related  at  the  first  meeting  held 
by  the  Old  Settlers'  Association  at  Windom,  was  the  following: 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  8l) 

Orris  Nason,  known  as  "Tip,"  was  called  upon  and  gave  some  inci- 
dents of  real  pioneer  life.  He  came  to  Minnesota  in  [856  and  worked  near 
Mankato.  Mr.  Nason  carried  the  mail — he  literally  carried  it  as  he  had  to 
walk  much  of  the  time — from  Mankato  to  Sioux  City,  Iowa,  for  four  years. 
The  first  round  trip,  a  distance  of  four  hundred  and  fifty  miles,  was  made 
in  fourteen  days.  Probably  the  howling  of  the  wolves  urged  Mr.  Nason  to 
make  the  trip  in  so  short  a  time,  as  those  wild  beasts  were  plentiful  and 
ferocious  in  the  days  from  1856  to  1861.  Mr.  Xason  took  a  claim  near 
String  lake.  He  and  his  wife,  "Lib,"  managed  to  get  along  in  some  small 
quarters,  a  tent  answering  for  a  dwelling.  At  one  time  a  room  about  seven 
by  nine  feet,  answered  for  parlor,  bedroom  and  kitchen.  An  ox  team 
furnished  motive  power  for  traveling  and  breaking  up  the  prairie  sod.  Air. 
and  Mrs.  Nason  had  many  hardships  to  endure  with  storms  and  grass- 
hoppers, but  they  now  enjoy  the  well-earned  fruits  of  their  labors. 


CHAPTER  IV. 

ORGANIZATION    OF    COTTONWOOD    COUNTY. 

Cottonwood  county,  Minnesota,  was  created,  May  23,  1857,  with  the 
county  seat  at  Windom,  and  is  one  of  second  tier  of  counties  north  of  the 
Iowa  state  line,  and  the  third  county  from  the  state  of  South  Dakota.  This 
county  has  a  length  of  five  townships,  and  a  width  from  north  to  south  of 
four,  except  that  on  the  northeast  corner,  two  of  the  townships  which  would 
be  included  in  this  county  if  it  were  a  complete  rectangle,  belong  to  Brown 
county,  Minnesota. 

This  leaves  the  county  eighteen  townships,  each  six  miles  square,  an 
area  of  six  hundred  and  fifty  and  thirty-nine  one  hundredths  square  miles, 
or  equivalent  to  416.250  acres,  of  which  some  eight  thousand  acres  are 
covered  with  water.  In  1914  the  county  had  fifteen  hundred  and  eighty 
farms.  The  villages  of  the  county  are :  Windom,  Mountain  Lake,  Bing- 
ham Lake,  Delft.  Jeffers.  Storden  and  Westbrook.  Windom,  the  county 
seat,  is  situated  in  Great  Bend  township  on  the  banks  of  the  Des  Mi  lines 
river. 

The  county  has  numerous  lakes  within  its  borders,  the  chief  of  which 
are:  Bingham  lake,  one  mile  long;  Bean  lake.  Augusta,  Three,  Swan, 
Clear,  Long  and  Willow  or  Fish  lakes,  ranging  from  one-third  of  a  mile 
to  over  one  mile  long,  and  some  more  scattered  over  the  county.  The  sur- 
face of  the  county  is  made  up  of  really  beautiful  rolling  prairie,  diversified 
by  the  lakes  and  numerous  streams,  while  health  groves  planted  by  the  bands 
of  the  sturdy  pioneers,  enhance  the  beauty  and  value  of  the  domain  of  the 
entire  county.  Some  of  these  artificial  groves  now  tower  from  twenty  to 
fifty  feet  in  height  and  afford  a  splendid,  cooling  shade  for  man  and  beast 
in  summer-time  and  a  perfect  wind-break  during  the  roaring  blasts  and  occa- 
sional blizzards  of  the  long  severe  winter  months.  These  groves  include 
soft  maple,  Cottonwood,  willow,  ash.  box  elder,  elm  and  other  varieties 
common   to   this   climate. 

SOIL. 

The  soil  of  Cottonwood  county  has  been  treated  in  the  chapter  on  geol- 
ogy and  hence  need  not  be  here  enlarged  upon,  more  than  to  add  that  it  is 
of  a  rich  make-up  and  produces  corn  and  grain,  with  all  the  common  grasses 


COTTONWOOD    AXD    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  91 

of  Minnesota.  It  withstands  great  drought  as  well  as  excessive  rainfall. 
The  grasses  of  the  county  make  it  an  ideal  location  for  the  dairymen  and 
st(  ick  growers. 

The  total  assessed  valuation  of  Cottonwood  county  in  1912  was  $8,523,- 
570.  of  which  S1.Ji5._74  was  personal  property.  The  county  has.  of  late 
years,  come  to  be  known  as  among  the  "corn  counties"  of  the  commonwealth 
"i  Minnesota.     The  farmer  now  calls  corn  his  staple  crop. 

Cottonwood  county  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Redwood  and  Brown 
counties;  on  the  east  by  Brown  and  Watonwan  counties;  on  the  south  by 
Jackson  county  and  on  the  west  by  Murray  county. 

THE   TWO   "STOLEN"   TOWNSHIPS. 

Much  has  been  said  and  written  in  times  pasl  concerning  the  two  civil 
townships  that  should  have  been  left  as  a  part  of  Cottonwood  county,  but 
which,  through  trickery,  were  stolen  and  added  to  Brown  county.  The 
younger  generation  knows  nothing  of  this,  and  in  fact  few  know  that  town- 
ship 108,  ranges  34  and  35  ever  belonged  to  Cottonwood  county.  To  make 
tins  clear  to  the  reader  of  this  history  the  following  able  article  from  the  pen 
of  Attorney  Emory  Clark,  the  pioneer  attorney  of  Windom  and  Cotton- 
wood county,  will  be  given,  as  copied  from  the  Windom  Reporter,  in  which 
paper  it  appeared  in  1873: 

At  the  request  of  the  county  auditor  of  this  county  1  haw  investigated 
the  matter  of  county  lines  between  Cottonwood  and  Brown  counties,  and 
will  gladly  give  to  the  public  the  facts  as  1  have  discovered  them  by  this 
research. 

The  legislative  assembly  of  the  Territory  of  Minnesota,  February  20, 
1855,  passed  an  act  entitled  "An  act  to  define  the  boundaries  of  certain 
counties,"  and  in  and  by  section  19  of  --aid  act  provided  "that  so  much  .,1 
the  territory  as  was  formerly  included  within  the  county  of  Blue  Earth,  ami 
has  not  been  included  within  the  boundaries  of  any  other  county,  as  herein 
established,  shall  be  known  a-  the  county  of  Brown." 

By  tin-  act  all  the  territor)  wesl  of  range  28  ami  south  of  township  [09, 
which  embraced  what  is  now  the  counties  of  Martin.  Jack  on,  Nobles,  Rock, 
Pipestone,  .Murray,  Cottonwood  and  Watonwan,  the  south  tier  .if  townships 
in  Brown  county,  and  the  west  tier  of  townships  of  Blue  Earth  county,  \ 
established  as  the  county  of  Brown. 

On  February  11,   1856,  the  legislative  assembly  passed  an  act  entitl 
"An  Act  to  organize  the  county  of  Brown,  section  1,  of  which  read-:      I  i 


92  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

the  county  of  Brown  is  declared  to  be  an  organized  county,  and  is  entitled 
to  all  the  privileges  and  immunities,  and  subject  to  all  liabilities  of  other 
organized  counties  of  this  territory." 

Section  2  locates  the  county  seat  at  New  Ulm.  On  May  29,  1857,  the 
legislative  assembly  passed  an  act  entitled :  "A  bill  to  establish  certain  coun- 
ties, and  for  other  purposes." 

Section  7  of  this  act  reads:  "That  so  much  of  the  Territory  of  Min- 
nesota as  lies  within  the  following  boundaries  be,  and  the  same  is  hereby 
established  as  the  county  of  Cottonwood;  beginning  at  the  southeast  corner 
of  township  105,  north  of  range  34  west;  thence  due  north  to  the  north 
line  of  township  108,  north  of  range  38,  east;  thence  due  south  to  the  south- 
west corner  of  township  105,  north  of  range  38,  west;  thence  due  east  to 
place  of  beginning." 

This  description  would  embrace  twenty  townships,  and  include  the  two 
Congressional  townships  in  township  108,  ranges  34  and  35  which  have  here- 
tofore been  deemed  a  part  of  Brown  county. 

Previous  to  the  year  1857,  when  our  state  Constitution  was  adopted, 
county  lines  were  subject  to  change  at  the  will  of  the  Legislature,  but  section 
1,  article  2,  of  the  Constitution  requires  that  "all  laws  changing  county 
lines  already  in  counties  already  organized,  shall  before  taking  effect  be 
submitted  to  the  elections  of  the  county  or  counties  to  be  effected  thereby, 
and  be  adopted  by  a  majority  vote  of  such  electors." 

In  1864  the  Legislature  passed  an  act  entitled:  "An  act  to  change  the 
boundary  line  of  Brown  county,"  by  which  those  two  congressional  town- 
ships theretofore  in  the  northeast  corner  of  Cottonwood  county,  would 
become  a  part  of  Brown  county,  and  in  the  same  act  changing  the  county 
line  between  Brown  and  Redwood  counties. 

The  proposition  was  submitted  to  the  electors  of  the  three  counties  at 
the  annual  election  of  1864,  but  as  Cottonwood  county  was  not  vet  organ- 
ized no  vote  was  cast  by  her,  and  Redwood  only  cast  fourteen  votes  in  all. 
that  being  her  first  election.  Brown  county  cast  two  hundred  and  eighty- 
seven  votes  in  favor  of  the  change  ami  none  against  it. 

Now  it  is  contended  by  some,  that  as  the  act  provided  for  a  vote  of  the 
three  counties  on  the  proposition  and  one  of  these  counties  was  then  unor- 
ganized, the  result  of  the  election  in  1864  did  not  effect  a  change  of  the 
county  lines:  and  moreover  that  the  law  itself  was  unconstitutional,  as  it 
endorsed  more  than  one  subject  which  was  not  expressed  in  the  title.  Be 
this  as  it  may,  we  still  find  in  the  General  Statutes  of  1866,  chapter  8.  sec- 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  93 

tion  16,  that  the  boundary  line  of  Cottonwood  county  is  the  same  as  estab- 
lished on  May  29,  1857. 

The  interests  of  Cottonwood  county  requires  an  early  determination 
of  this  state  of  doubt  as  to  the  county  line.  The  assessed  valuation  of  the 
lands  alone  in  these  two  townships  amounted  to  $15,000,  besides  it  embraces 
one-tenth  of  the  whole  territory  of  the  county.  The  tax  and  benefit  of  these 
townships  are  now  being  enjoyed  by  Brown  county.  The  authorities  of 
Cottonwood  county  should  be  as  vigilant  of  the  county  lines  as  a  farmer  is 
of  his  farm  boundary  lines. 

(Signed  >       E.  Clark. 
May.    1873. 

It  appears  that  the  good  advice  given  by  the  above  writer  was  not 
properly  heeded,  for  Brown  county  still  retains  the  two  townships  in  ques- 
tion. It  will  be  remembered  that  the  vote  was  taken  on  this  question  in 
1864 — a  time  when  Cottonwood  county  had  been  depopulated  by  the  Indian 
uprising  of  1862.  and  many  of  the  settlers  in  Redwood  and  Cottonwood 
counties  had  not  yet  returned  to  their  claims. 

COUNTY   GOVERNMENT. 

Counties,  like  states  and  nations,  have  their  own  peculiar  form  of  gov- 
ernment. While  each  county  has  its  own  local  laws  and  rules,  and  no  other 
county  can  dictate  as  to  the  management  of  affairs,  yet  all  county  govern- 
ments are  in  perfect  harmony  with  the  general  state  laws  under  one  common 
constitution.  Then,  the  townships  in  a  county  have  still  other  rules  that  its 
people  make  and  abide  by,  which  may  or  may  not  be  like  any  other  township 
in  the  county;  yet,  in  a  general  sense,  all  townships  must  be  governed  so  as 
not  to  interfere  with  the  laws  of  the  county  in   which  they  may  be  situated. 

In  Cottonwood  county  the  offices  in  both  township  and  county  govern- 
ment have  been  held  generally  by  representative  citizens  who  have  sought 
only  to  do  the  will  of  the  people  in  a  lawful  manner,  as  they  have  understood 
the  laws.  There  have  been  a  \v\v  exceptions  to  this  rule,  but  nol  more  so 
here  than  in  any  other  township  or  county  in  Minni  50ta, 

It  has  been  the  general  policy  of  this  county  (and  was  so  from  the  very 
beginning)   to  live  within  its  means,  and  while  bonds  have  at  certain  tii 
been  issued,  it  was  in  order  that  the  small  warrants  against  the  county  mi] 
be  paid  in   full  when  presented.      However,   such   bonds  have   usually   1« 
issued    for  the  purpose   of   making   internal    improvements    from    which    the 


94  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

succeeding  generations,  possibly,  may  reap  the  greatest  benefits;  hence,  it  is 
no  more  than  right  that  they  should  pay  a  share  of  the  amount  called  for  in 
these  bond  issues,  whether  it  be  for  county  buildings,  roads,  drainage  or 
other  improvements  which  are  demanded  by  a  progressive  people.  All  of  the 
later  improvements  made  in  Cottonwood  county  have  been  made  with  a 
view  to  the  future — the  bridges  and  public  buildings,  etc.,  having  all  been 
constructed  of  the  best  materials  and  by  skillful  workmen,  who  have  not  been 
allowed  to  slight  their  contract  in  the  least. 

NO   HARD   COUNTY-SEAT   CONTESTS. 

At  first  the  seat  of  county  government  was  at  a  point  about  four  miles 
above  present  Windom,  on  the  Des  Moines  river,  and  was  known  as  Big 
Bend.  There  the  first  county  business  was  transacted,  but  in  November, 
1872,  the  entire  set  of  county  officials  were  removed  to  quarters  provided  at 
the  new  village  of  Windom,  which,  being  on  a  railroad,  was  the  logical  place 
for  the  county  seat  to  be  located.  Here  it  has  remained  ever  since,  although 
there  was  a  time  when  the  people  in  and  about  the  village  of  Jeffers  thought 
they  were  entitled  to  the  county  seat.  They  were  very  near  the  exact  geo- 
graphical center  of  the  county  and  had  secured  a  branch  railroad,  which 
made  their  argument  all  the  stronger,  but  the  seat  of  justice  was  not  moved 
and  the  fine,  expensive  court  house  that  stands  in  Windom  today  will  no 
doubt  house  the  county  offices  for  many  li  ing  years  to  come. 

So  sure  were  the  good  citizens  of  Jeffers  that  they  could  induce  the 
voters  to  remove  the  county  seat  to  their  place,  they  donated  what  is  known 
as  the  "court  house  square,"  hut  the  ground  has  always  stood  unoccupied. 
I  lad  the  center  of  the  county  had  a  railroad  at  the  date  of  its  organization,  it 
would  doubtless  have  secured  the  county  seat,  hut  at  that  early  day  the 
settlements  were  far  from  the  center  of  the  county  and  the  nearest  railroad 
point  was  naturally  taken. 

county's  condition  in  1884. 

The  following  article  was  taken  from  the  Windom  Reporter,  June  12, 
1884:  "The  tax  collection  of  Cottonwood  county  at  the  settlement  of  the 
auditor  and  treasurer,  June  1,  [884,  amounted  to  $14,51)1. 58.  leaving  a  less 
amount  of  unpaid  taxes  on  the  hooks  than  ever  shown  before.  The  court 
house  is  paid  for  and  Cottonwood  county  is  entirely  out  of  debt.  We  doubt 
if  there  is  another  county  in  the  state  with  such  a  clean  record. 


COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,     SIINN.  95 

"These  are  facts  for  the  homeseekers  and  land  buyers  to  consider.  It 
you  locate  in  Cottonwood  county  you  have  no  old  taxes  to  pay,  no  court 
house  to  build  and  you  have  the  finest  land  the  sun  shines  on  and  as  low  taxes 
as  are  to  be  found  in  any  civilized  country." 

ORGANIZATION. 

Cottonwood  county  was  organized  in  1S70.  The  first  meeting  of  the 
county  commissioners  was  held  on  July  29,  1870,  and  the  members  of  the 
board  were  Allen  Gardner.  J.  W.  Benjamin  and  I.  L.  Miner.  They  ap 
pointed  the  first  set  of  county  officials  and  their  selection  were  as  follows: 
Charles  Chamberlain,  auditor;  H.  M.  McGaughey,  treasurer;  Ezra  Winslow, 
register  of  deeds;  E.  B.  Sheldon,  sheriff;  T.  C.  Imus,  judge  of  probate;  J. 
W.  Shofer,  county  attorney;  L.  L.  Miner,  court  commissioner;  Orren  Nason, 
surveyor;  J.  A.  Harvey,  coroner. 

At  the  August  meeting  in  1870  Great  Bend  was  organized,  and  the  first 
election  for  township  officers  was  held  at  the  residence  of  Charles  Chamber- 
lain, August  27. 

Originally  the  county  offices  were  kept  at  Great  Bend,  but  in  1872,  by 
vote,  it  was  decided  to  remove  them  to  \\  indom. 

Cottonwood  county  was  attached  to  Watonwan  county  for  judicial  pur- 
poses, June  15,  1871,  but,  by  an  act  of  the  Legislature  in  [873  it  was  de- 
tached from  Watonwan  county  and  Murray  and  Pipestone  counties  wen 
attached  for  judicial  purposes. 

The  first  term  of  court  was  held  in  Windom,  commencing  November 
11.  1873,  with  Hon.  Franklin  H.  White,  judge;  J.  G.  Redding,  clerk- 
Charles  White,  sheriff.  Three  criminal  cases  were  docketed  and  there  wen 
twenty-four  civil  cases  on  the  docket.  The  first  legal  clerk  of  the  courts  was 
H.  M.  McGaughey,  though  early  in  the  organization  of  the  county  one  was 
appointed,  but  without  authority.  Judge  White  appointed  Mr.  McGaughey 
in  July,  1873,  and  he  held  the  position  until  the  fall  election,  that  year,  when 
he  was  succeeded  by  J.  G.  Redding. 

The  first  representative  from  the  county  was  Hon.  Nelson  II.  Manning, 
who  was  seated  in  January,  1874. 

The  first  Fourth  of  July  celebration  in  Cottonwood  county  was  held  in 
i860,  in  J.  W.  Benjamin's  grove  in  Lake-id  hip.     The  orator  on  that 

occasion  was  George  Gray. 

The  first  birth  in  the  county  was  probably  a  child  born  to  I     B.  Sheldon 


96  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES.    MINN. 

and  wife,  in  an  immigrant  wagon,  on  the  hanks  of  Cottonwood  lake,  in  either 
1868  or  1869. 

School  district  No.  1  was  organized  in  1870  in  the  southwest  part  of 
Big  Bend  township.  The  district  was  three  miles  square.  A  school  house 
was  erected  in  that  district  in  1871,  the  school  being  taught  by  Miss  Nettie 
Sackett  at  Great  Bend  in  1871. 

Th  earliest  marriage  in  the  county  was  that  of  George  B.  Walker  to 
Sarah  J.  Greenfield.  February  18,  1871. 

The  first  store  in  Cottonwood  county  was  in  Big  Bend,  John  T.  Smith 
being  the  proprietor,  and  he  was  also  postmaster. 

ASSESSED   VALUATION. 

In  1871  the  assessed  valuation  of  the  county  was  $99,817;  taxes  assessed 
on  the  same  that  year  amounted  to  $1,585.14.  The  number  of  acres  of  land 
assessed  was  $6,043 !  value  of  real  estate  was  about  $24,000,  and  of  personal 
property,  $75,550.  The  first  tax  was  paid  by  George  F.  Robison  in  January, 
1872. 

In  1895  the  county's  assessed  valuation  was  $3,380,000  in  realty  and 
personal  property.  The  total  taxes  that  year  amounted  to  $73,847.88. 

In  1878  the  assessed  valuation  of  lands  in  Cottonwood  county  was  as 
follows:  Dale  township,  $3.50  per  acre;  Amboy  township,  $3.50  per  acre; 
Southbrook  township,  $3.50  per  acre;  Ann  township,  $3.50  per  acre;  Spring- 
'field  township.  $4.00  per  acre;  Amo  and  Delton  townships,  $3.50  per  acre; 
Highwater  and  Germantown  townships,  $3.75  per  acre;  Carson  township, 
$4.00  per  acre;  Selma  township,  $3.50  per  acre. 

In  1905  the  total  assessed  valuation  of  all  real  estate  in  Cottonwood 
county  was  $6,171,632;  of  personal  property,  $863,684. 

By  townships  and  villages,  the  assessed  valuation  of  Cottonwood  county 
in  1916  was  as  follows,  this  representing  about  one-third  of  the  actual  value 
of  the  realty  named  and  about  forty  per  cent,  of  the  personal  property  held 
in  the  county: 

Township  or  Village.  Realty.  Personal. 

Amboy    township    $  514.190  $      55.!90 

\mo    township    528.969  67,724 

Ann  township 5  1-9,286  61,  152 

Carson    township    5;A'.744  83,189 

Dale   township    534.420  68,257 


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■ 


COTTONWOOD    AXD    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  97 

Township  or  Village.  Realty.  Personal. 

Delton  township 530,379            52,914 

Germantown  township SS4.967            6=5,858 

Great    Bend   township    518,945             65,447 

Lake  side   township 517,622             61,532 

Midway   township    551.850  60,264 

Mountain   Lake  township   =522,869            54.717 

Highwater    township    530.660  70,675 

Rose  Hill   township 524,838  57,250 

Selma   township    522,043            57.677 

Southbrook   township    474,732  48,614 

Springfield    township    523,197  66,127 

Storden  township   ' 567,507  105,616 

Westbrook   township    537-388  68,ro4 

Bingham   Lake   village    33-954  18,701 

Jeffers  village   77-937  52,372 

Mountain   Lake  village    248,189  119,471 

Westbrook   village    112,710  78,189 

Windoni   village   471,534  248,148 

Totals $10,498,597     $1,687,388 

COUNTY  COMMISSIONERS'  PROCEEDINGS. 

The  following  is  a  transcript  and  general  account  of  the  more  important 
and  historic  facts  connected  with  Cottonwood  county,  as  shown  by  the  min- 
ute books  kept  by  the  commissioners  in  the  county  auditor's  office  at  Win- 
doni : 

The  first  meeting  of  the  county  commissioners  was  held  on  July  27, 
1870.  the  commissioners  being  .Allen  Gardner,  Jr.,  Joel  W.  Benjamin  and 
Lewis  C.  Miner.  Mr.  Gardner  was  elected  chairman  of  the  board  and 
Charles  Chamberlin  was  appointed  clerk. 

The  first  regular  act  of  this,  the  first  law-making  body  of  Cottonwood 
county,  was  to  divide  the  county  into  commission!  1  districts  as  follow:  Dis- 
trict No.  1  was  made  up  of  ranges  34  and  35;  district  No.  2  consisted  of 
range  Xo.  36;  district  No.  3  consisted  of  ranges  37  and  38. 

On  motion  of  Commissioner  Allen   Gardner,   Charles   Chamberlin    • 
appointed   countv   auditor;   on  motion   of   Joel   W.    Benjamin,    IT.    M.    Me- 
(7) 


98  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

Gaughey  was  appointed  county  treasurer :  on  motion  of  Allen  Gardner,  Ezra 
Winslow  was  appointed  register  of  deeds;  on  motion  of  Joel  W.  Benjamin, 
Ezekeil  B.  Sheldon  was  appointed  sheriff;  on  motion  of  Lewis  Miner,  John 
W.  Shafer  was  appointed  county  attorney;  on  motion  of  Joel  W.  Benjamin, 
Tabor  Tmus  was  appointed  judge  of  probate;  on  motion  of  Allen  Gardner, 
Lewis  L.  Miner  was  appointed  court  commissioner;  on  motion  of  Allen  Gard- 
ner, Orrin  Nason  was  appointed  county  surveyor;  on  motion  of  Joel  W.  Ben- 
jamin, John  A.  Harvey  was  appointed  coroner;  on  motion  of  Allen  Gardner, 
Charles  Chamberlin  was  appointed  clerk  of  the  district  court. 

DISTRICT    APPOINTMENTS. 

David  Mooers  and  S.  P.  Stedman  were  appointed  justice  of- the  peace 
for  district  No.  2;  John  Wilford  and  Rev.  John  Cropsey,  for  district  No. 
3;  Charles  Robison  and  Frank  Pones  for  district  No.  1. 

The  first  constables  appointed  by  the  county  commissioners  were  P. 
Thomas  and  O  B.  Bryant,  for  district  No.  2:  R.  A.  Nichols  and  Mr.  Oaks, 
for  district  No.  3:  Kirk  Sheldon  and  I.  F.  Grant,  for  district  No.  1. 

David  Mooers  was  appointed  assessor  for  district  No.  2;  John  Wil- 
ford. for  district  No.  3;  Simeon  Greenfield,  for  district  No.  1. 

On  motion  of  Allen  Gardner,  Hosea  Eastgate  was  appointed  overseer 
of  the  poor. 

SECOND    MEETING    OF    THE    COMMISSIONERS. 

The  second  session  of  the  county  commissioners  was  held  at  Great 
Bend,  August  15,  1870.  The  object  of  this  meeting  was  to  organize  civil 
townships  in  the  county.  A  petition  having  been  presented  by  the  legal  voters 
of  township  105,  range  35  west,  asking  that  a  township  be  organized,  it  was 
done.  The  board  named  the  new  township  "Lakeside,"  and  ordered  that 
the  first  township  meeting  and  election  lie  held  at  the  house  of  Joel  W.  Ben- 
jamin on  Saturday,  August  27,  1870.  O.  M.  Benhaus,  Tabor  Tmus  and 
Simeon  Greenfield  were  appointed  judges  of  the  election,  and  R.  I'.  Mathews 
was  appointed  clerk.     Several  other  townships  were  organized  (see  township 

histories). 

lanuary  3,  iHyi,  was  the  date  for  the  next  meeting  of  the  county  board, 
it  also  being  held  at  the  first  county  seat,  Great  Bend.  The  members  present 
were  S.  B.  Stedman  and  Hogan  Anderson.  H.  M.  McGaughey  was  ap- 
pointed county  school  superintendent.     The  board  resolved  to  levy  a  tax  of 


COTTOXWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES.    MI \X.  go 

three  hundred  dollars  "for  the  purpose  of  defraying  the  expenses  already  in- 
curred and  to  be  incurred  during  the  present  year." 

At  the  April  22,  1871,  meeting,  the  county  officers  were  ordered  to  hold 
their  respective  offices  at  the  building  of  the  auditor,  "who  will  furnish  ample 
room  for  the  keeping  of  all  books  belonging  to  the  county.  The  clerk  is 
instructed  to  notify  each  officer  of  this  order." 

At  the  January  2,  1872,  commissioners'  meeting,  the  first  held  at  W'in- 
dom,  seventy-two  men  were  drawn  for  grand  jurymen  and  seventy-two  for 
trial  jurymen.  The  district  court  was  held  at  Madelia,  Watonwan  county, 
as  this  county  was  then  attached  to  that  for  judicial  purposes. 

At  the  last-named  meeting,  it  was  resolved  to  lease  the  offices  then  being 
occupied  by  the  count}'  auditor  for  the  next  year  at  one  hundred  dollars  per 
year,  payable  quarterly,  the  owner  to  light  and  heat  the  building.  Emory 
Clark  was  declared  elected  county  attorney  and  gave  his  official  bonds  to  the 
commissioners.  The  board  at  that  session  decided  to  grant  licenses  to  sell 
intoxicating  liquors  to  any  who  might  make  out  the  proper  application  papers 
and  the  amount  to  be  charged  was  seventy-live  dollars. 

On  March  4,  1872.  the  commissioners  met  again  and  at  that  time  they 
declared  the  office  of  county  treasurer  a  acant,  the  sureties  to  be  discharged 
from  further  obligations.  On  motion  of  member  Hogan  Anderson,  Eli  V 
Stedman  was  appointed  county  treasurer  to  fill  the  agency,  and  he  forthwith 
furnished  bonds  in  the  sum  of  five  thousand  dollars.  L.  L.  Miner,  previous 
county  treasurer,  was  requested  to  pay  over  all  the  county  money  and  the 
papers  and  books  belonging  to  Cottonwood  county. 

On  January  7,  1873,  the  members  present  at  the  board  meeting  were 
George  A.  Purdy,  George  F.  Robison  and  Hogan  Anderson,  Mr.  Purdy  being 
chairman.  Official  bonds  were  furnished  a-  follow:  Eli  A.  Stedman.  treas- 
urer; T.  G.  Redding,  court  commissioner;  S.  M.  Espey,  county  auditor; 
Charles  White,  sheriff;  A.  D.  Perkins,  judge  of  probate. 

At  this  session  H.  M.  McGaughey  was  allowed  fifty  dollars  for  services 
as  county  superintendent  of  schools  for  that  year.  The  liquor  license  was  in- 
creased to  ninety  dollars  per  year. 

On  Tanuarv  9,  1873,  the  county  treasurer's  bond  for  ten  thousand  dol 
lars  wa^  furnished  by  the  newly-elected  o  unty  treasurer,  M.  E.  Donohue. 
At  this  session  of  the  board  they  accepted  the  donation  from  the  Si.  Paul  & 
Sioux  City  Railroad  Company  for  block  No.  23,  in  the  village  of  Windom, 
to  be  used  to  erect  a  court  house  and  county  buildings  upon,  and  that  S.  M. 
Espev  be  requested  to  notify  the  company  to  send  on  the  <\r^:\  for  the  same. 

On  January  11,  1873,  the  commissioners  first  let  a  contract  for  pub! 


tffO*90 


100  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

ing  the  proceedings  of  the  county  board  to  the  JVindom  Reporter  at  fifty 
cents  a  folio. 

On  February  4.  1873,  the  following  resolution  was  passed:  "Be  it  re- 
solved by  the  board  of  county  commissioners  of  Cottonwood  county  that  M. 

E.  Donohue,  of  said  county,  having  failed  to  furnish  an  additional  bond  as 
treasurer  of  said  county  and  that  the  ten  days  having  elapsed  since  he  was 
notified;  therefore,  be  it  resolved,  that  the  said  Donohue  is  hereby  removed 
from  said  office  of  county  treasurer.     Members  George  A.  Purdy  and  George 

F.  Robison  voted  in  the  affirmative  and  Hogan  Anderson  in  the  negative. 
Another  resolution  the  same  day  was  as  follows :  "Be  is  resolved  by  the 
board  of  county  commissioners  of  Cottonwood  county  that  Eli  B.  Stedman 
be  declared  appointed  to  fill  the  vacancy  in  the  office  of  county  treasurer 
caused  by  the  removal  of  M.  E.  Donohue." 

It  appears  of  record  that  Treasurer  Donohue  furnished  bonds,  but  the 
list  of  bondsmen  contained  three  who  were  not  considered  financially  good, 
hence  the  commissioners  demanded  further  security,  which  the  treasurer 
failed  to  furnish  and  refused  to  do  so. 

The  board  of  commissioners  provided  for  the  construction  of  the  first 
wagon  bridge  over  the  Des  Moines  river  at  Windom  during  the  year  1873 ; 
it  was  built  by  Contractor  N.  H.  Manning  and  cost  the  county  seven  hundred 
dollars  for  the  structure  and  about  three  hundred  dollars  for  building  ap- 
proaches to  it. 

Nothing  special  transpired,  as  shown  by  the  records,  until  the  meeting 
held  on  June  6,  1874.  when  County  Treasurer  Stedman  resigned  and  the 
commissioners  appointed  C.  H.  Smith  to  fille  the  vacancy. 

In  January,  1875,  the  county  attorney  had  his  salary  fixed  at  two  hun- 
dred dollars  per  year. 

On  July  26,  1875,  the  county  commissioners  requested  His  Honor,  Judge 
Dickinson,  if  it  was  consistent  with  good  business  policy,  not  to  call  a  special 
term  of  the  district  court  in  this  county  that  summer  or  fall,  on  account  of 
the  total  destruction  of  the  crops  and  the  inability  of  the  county  to  secure  the 
necessary  expenses  for  the  same. 

In  1876  the  county  issued  its  first  bond.  Bond  No.  1,  for  twelve  hun- 
dred dollars,  was  issued  to  H.  D.  Winters,  August  1,  1876,  for  five  years  at 
ten  per  cent,  interest  per  annum.  This  bond  was  issued  for  the  purpose  of 
paying  off  the  floating  debt  of  the  county. 


COTTONWOOD   AND   WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  JOI 

TREE  PREMI1 

In  1S76  the  commissioners  allowed  George  F.  Robison  nine  dollars 
premium,  or  bounty,  on  the  three  and  sixty-eight  hundredths  acres  of  limber 
he  had  growing  and  also  the  one  hundred  and  eighty  rods  of  hedge  about  his 
farm  premises.  Aaron  Schofield  was  allowed  two  dollars  premium  on  his 
one  acre  of  planted  timber;  \Y.  T.  Richardson,  on  his  three  and  thirty-six 
hundredths  acres  of  timber,  received  a  credit  of  six  dollars  and  seventy-two 
cents. 

GRASSHOPPER    APPROPRIATIONS. 

In  1877  the  county  commissioners  had  plenty  of  work  trying  to  adjust 
the  losses  sustained  by  the  farmers  of  Cottonwood  county  by  reason  of  the 
seventeen-year  locusts  (commonly  called  grasshoppers).  An  agenl  was 
appointed  in  this  county  to  measure  and  destroy  all  grasshoppers  brough.1  to 
his  notice  within  the  county.  On  motion,  the  commissioners  ordered  that  the 
compensation  for  measuring  and  killing  these  pests  and  their  eggs  should  be 
one  and  a  half  dollars  a  day  for  actual  time  employed  in  measuring,  killing 
and  making  out  proper  reports  and  accounts  of  the  same. 

On  March  28.  1877,  S.  B.  Stedman  was  appointed  superintendent  of 
burning  prairie  grass  for  Cottonwood  county  for  the  year  commencing  April, 
1877;  his  compensation  was  fixed  at  one  dollar  and  fifty  cents  a  day  and  ten 
cents  a  mile  for  use  of  team  when  necessary  to  use  a  team  in  his  work. 

taxes  in  1877. 

In  1877  the  county  revenue  was  $3.5117.  and  the  taxes  levied  were  to 
cover  the  following  items  of  county  expenses:  Officers'  salaries,  $2,320; 
interest,  $270;  court  house  expenses,  $500;  incidental  expenses,  $250,  with 
five  per  cent,  for  losses.  Ordered  that  $500  he  raised  for  caring  for  the  poor 
and  $250  for  bridge  purposes. 

In  1879  the  commissioners  offered  a  bounty  on  gophers  to  the  amount 
of  five  cents  for  each  head  or  pelt  broughl  to  the  court  house  and  vouched 
for  as  being  killed  within  Cottonw I  county. 

In  1881  the  commissioners  ordered  constructed  a  new  combination 
bridge  of  two  spans  crossing  the  Des  Moines  river  at  Windom.  The  King 
Bridge  Company  obtained  the  contract  at  $2,1 

On  January  2,  1883,  the  commissioners  ordered  a  bridge  in  Springl 


102  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

township,  over  the  waters  of  the  Des  Moines  river  in  section  21,  the  same 
to  cost  not  in  excess  of  nine  hundred  dollars. 

At  the  January,  1883,  meeting  of  the  board  a  committee  was  appointed 
to  "arrange  the  office  room  now  occupied  by  the  register  of  deeds  and  audi- 
tor at  an  expense  of  not  more  than  fifty  dollars." 

COURT    HOUSE    BUILDING. 

The  first  mention  made  in  the  records  of  the  county  of  providing  a  court 
house  was  made  at  the  March  meeting  in  1883,  in  a  motion  made  by  M.  T. 
DeWolf.  H.  M.  Goss  and  Joel  Clark  were  appointed  a  committee,  to  report 
at  the  next  meeting  with  plans  and  specifications  for  a  court  house  not  to 
exceed  in  cost  three  thousand  dollars,  and  said  committee  was  to  also  report 
on  the  feasibility  of  building  at  once.  On  March  16,  1883,  on  motion,  it  was 
resolved  to  build  a  court  house  as  soon  "as  it  can  be  practically  done  at  a 
cost  not  in  excess  of  three  thousand  dollars." 

On  another  motion,  the  plans  and  specifications  by  J.  Clark  for  the  court 
house,  which  was  to  be  thirty-six  by  fifty  feet,  were  adopted.  The  building 
was  to  be  two  stories  high.  John  Clark  was  appointed  building  committee, 
with  full  power  to  act  in  every  particular,  as  his  judgment  might  dictate,  and 
that  it  should  be  erected  as  soon  as  it  could  be.  The  commissioners  were  at 
that  time  John  Clark,  C.  Mead.  T.  Ellison,  M.  T.  DeWolf  and  H.  M.  Goss. 
This  court  house  really  cost  $2,916.62.  It  had  been  opposed  by  the  farmers, 
who  felt  too  poor  to  think  of  paying  for  a  court  house  The  county  had  long 
been  renting  of  Mr.  Klock  his  building,  which  was  also  used  for  school  room 
purposes,  and  when  court  time  came  school  had  to  be  dismissed,  for  the  teach- 
ers had  no  other  room;  however,  their  pay  as  teacher  went  on  just  the  same 
as  thought  they  were  teaching. 

County  Commissioner  Clark  was  appointed  a  committee  to  lease  or  rent 
the  hall  or  court  room  for  dances,  shows  and  was  to  get  seven  dollars  a  night 
and  three  dollars  for  free  lectures.  It  was  resolved  to  tender  the  use  of  the 
court  house  to  the  county  agricultural  society  for  fair  purposes  free  of 
charge.  The  village  of  Windom  was  ,<;iven  free  use  of  an  extra  room  in  the 
court  house  by  furnishing  the  same.  The  court  bouse  was  insured  for  $2,- 
500  at  a  $_'.-'5  per  hundred  rate  for  live  years.  On  motion,  Windom  village 
was  granted  the  right  to  put  their  calaboose  on  the  southwest  corner  of  the 
court  house  square,  where  the  park  and  jail  now  stand.  The  old  court  house 
now  serves  as  a  barn  in  Lakeside  township. 


COTTONWOOD   AXD    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  103 

OTHER    LOCATIONS    B"OR    COUNTY    OFFICES. 

The  following  is  the  chain  of  places  at  which  the  county  seat  of  gov- 
ernment has  been  held  at  one  time  or  another:  First,  the  offices  were  held 
up  the  river  at  Big  Bend,  at  private  houses.  Second,  the  offices,  at  least  a 
part  of  them,  were  kept  in  the  "Billy  Wilson"  small  frame  store  building 
that  stood  on  the  east  lot  of  the  present  Foss  Mercantile  building  property. 
This  had  been  erected  by  Air.  Wilson  for  a  store,  but  finding  it  too  small, 
he  erected  a  second  building,  then  leased  the  first  one  to  the  county  for  its 
offices.  Third,  the  county  commissioners  leased  of  Harvey  Klock  a  two- 
story  frame  building,  about  thirty  by  forty  feet  in  size.  It  stood  on  lots  14 
and  15,  of  block  19,  original  plat  of  the  village  of  Windom,  and  was  later 
used  as  a  residence  and  then  as  a  drug  store  by  Nels  Quevli.  It  then  was 
occupied  as  a  hardware  store  by  George  Miller  and  the  present  Earl  Marshall 
&  Son  hardware  store  occupies  the  same  lot.  The  railroad  company  sold 
this  lot  originally  to  David  Patten  and  lie,  in  turn,  to  Harvey  Klock,  who 
erected  the  building  above  referred  to.  The  lot  was  purchased  by  Klock 
for  one  hundred  dollars  in  1872.  At  first  the  village  school  was  kept  on 
the  first  floor  and  the  court  house  offices  above. 

The  first  court  house  built  by  the  county — the  one  erected  in  1883, 
above  mentioned — served  well  its  purpose  until  the  present  magnificent  tem- 
ple of  justice  was  provided  in  1905. 

In  November  1893,  the  county  board  ordered  steel  shelving  for  the  old 
court  house,  the  same  to  cost  $267. 

The  question  of  a  new  court  house  was  agitated  and  finally,  on  October 
13.  1903,  the  count)-  board  of  commissioners  decided,  by  resolution,  to  con- 
struct a  new  building  on  block  No.  13.  and  not  on  the  old  county  grounds, 
where  the  jail  now  stand-.  The  citizen-  of  Windom  were  very  anxious  t" 
have  the  new  court  house  erected  down  in  the  business  portion  of  the  city. 
so.  on  January  5,  1904,  the  county  authorities  exchanged  the  old  courl  house 
square  in  block  Xo.  23,  for  the  present  courl  house  square  in  block  No.  13. 
The  city  of  Windom  owned  the  block  and  simply  exchanged  it  for  the  grounds 
contained  in  block  23,  except  that  the  county  reserved  eighty  feet,  including 
the  ground  where  the  jail  was  built  and  where  it     'ill  stands. 

In  1904  the  county  sold  bonds  to  the  amounl  of  fifty  thousand  dollars 
to  the  First  National  Bank  of  St.  Paul,  the  bonds  to  draw  four  per  rent, 
interest.     Later,  it  was  found  necessar  thirty-fi  liars 

more  in  bonds  with  which  to  finish  paying  for  the  curt  house,  making  the 


104  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN, 

cost  of  the  structure  about  eighty-five  thousand  dollars,  besides  the  grading 
and  other  exterior  improvements  about  the  public  square. 

A  contract  was  awarded  to  J.  B.  Nelson  &  Company,  of  Mankato,  to 
build  the  structure  for  $59,949.00,  the  contract  being  dated  March  22,  1904. 
Thomas  Walsh,  of  Albert  Lea,  was  employed  by  the  county  as  superintendent 
of  construction.  The  record  shows  that  August  11.  1905,  the  building  was 
completed  and  the  last  payment  made  to  contractors  Nelson  &  Company  and 
to  the  architects,  Omeyer  &  Thori. 

On  April  25,  1906,  the  commissioners  let  the  contract  for  grading  the 
grounds  about  the  court  house  to  J.  G.  Redding,  at  his  bid  price  of  $5,200. 
On  October  29,  1907,  the  commissioners  resolved  to  designate  the  east  side 
of  the  court  house  as  its  front. 

Concerning  the  material,  the  architecture  and  dedication  of  this,  Cot- 
tonwood's present  court  hou<=e,  it  may  be  added  that  the  building  is  one  of 
the  best  planned  and  constructed  in  southern  Minnesota.  Its  corner-stone 
was  laid,  with  ceremonies,  on  July  12,  1901,  at  one  o'clock  in  the  afternoon, 
under  direction  of  the  Masonic  fraternity.  Senator  Clapp  made  the  ora- 
tion. Judge  Brown,  who  had  served  as  judge  fourteen  years,  also  spoke. 
There  was  a  picnic  dinner,  a  ball  game  and  excellent  music.  The  corner- 
stone bears  the  following  inscription :  "Commissioners,  David  Ewert, 
Daniel  C.  Davis,  Whalon  Seeley,  Peter  Wiens,  Engbert  Heggerstrom,  John 
A.  Brown,  auditor;  David  A.  Stewart,  attorney."  The  box  in  the  stone 
contained  a  copy  of  the  Bible,  Masonic  papers,  a  copy  of  each  local  county 
newspaper,  a  history  of  the  county  by  D.  A.  Stuart,  lists  of  county  and  vil- 
lage officials. 

On  November  3,  1905,  the  new  court  bouse  was  dedicated,  in  the  midst 
of  a  large  assembly,  Governor  Johnson  uttering  the  dedicatorv  words  in  a 
masterly  manner.  The  entire  structure  cost  one  hundred  thousand  dollars, 
including  all  interior  finishings,  with  the  marble  wainscoating,  beautifully 
decorated  dome  and  court  room. 

COUNTY   JAIL. 

In  July,  t Si;  r ,  it  was  resolved  at  a  meeting  of  the  county  commissioners 
to  provide  the  county  with  a  suitable  jail  and  sheriff's  house,  but  the  matter 
dragged  along  until  January  6,  1898,  when  it  was  again  ordered  that  plans 
and  specifications  for  a  jail  and  sheriff's  residence,  said  jail  to  have  a  separate 
cell  for  women  prisoners,  be  procured.  They  were  submitted  to  and  accepted 
by  the  commissioners  at  a  later  date.     The  specifications  called  for  Kasota 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  [05 

pink  stone  and  Menominee  sand-moulded  brick  as  the  material  from  which 
the  main  building  should  be  constructed.     Fred  C.  Molander  was  awarded 

the  contract  for  doing  the  structural  work  for  $5,875.  The  cell  work  was 
let  to  an  Ohio  firm  at  $2,147;  tne  heating  plant  cost  $445  and  was  let  to 
Pond  &  Hasey  Company.  H.  M.  Goss  was  appointed  as  superintendent  of 
construction  of  this  building,  which  is  the  one  still  standing  at  the  south 
side  of  the  park  overlooking  the  Des  Moines  river,  which  flows  just  beneath 
the  abrupt  bluff  at  that  point. 

The  county  leased  one  cell  in  the  new  jail  to  the  village  of  Windom  at 
fifty  dollars  per  year,  and  the  village  was  to  keep  the  bedding,  etc.,  in  a 
good  and  sanitary  condition. 

CARING   FOR  THE   POOR. 

Up  to  1887  Cottonwood  count}  owned  no  county  farm  or  house  at 
which  the  unfortunate  poor  might  be  cared  for,  but  these  people  were  cared 
for  at  county  and  township  expense,  in  the  various  townships  of  the  county, 
the  county  hiring  some  one  to  keep  and  look  after  them  at  a  fixed  price 
per  week  or  month.  But,  on  February  15,  1887,  the  county  commissioners 
purchased  of  M.  Milford,  land  in  section  10.  township  105,  range  36  west, 
for  the  sum  of  $1,700.  On  April  24,  1SS7,  a  committee  was  appointed  to 
secure  plans  and  specifications  for  building  a  poor  house  on  the  land  just 
mentioned.  It  was  not  to  cost  in  excess  of  $1,800.  On  February  17,  1888. 
it  was  ordered  to  make  an  addition  of  a  one-story  wing,  sixteen  by  twenty 
feet  in  size.  After  this,  the  county's  poor  were  cared  for  on  this  farm, 
which  is  in  Great  Bend  township.  The  auditor's  record  of  the  institution 
in  December,  1S90,  gives  the  following  items:  Number  of  inmates  in  poor 
house  January  1.  1890,  six;  three  were  on  hand  the  year  before  and  thl 
came  that  year;  loss  of  inmates  in  two  years  lasl  past,  two;  number  remain- 
ing  in    the   institution.    December   31.    1890,    four.      Acres   of   land    in    1 r 

farm,  one  hundred  and  sixty;  net  expenses  of  poor  farm.  $1,080.  It  was 
not  found  a  self-sustaining  proposition  and.  as  the  number  of  pauper-  was 
very  small  in  the  county,  it  was  decided  by  the  county  commissioners  at 
their  meeting  held  in  February,  i8qi,  to  rent  out  the  farm,  which  was  done, 
and  the  county  paid  a  stipulated  price  for  keeping  the  paupers. 

Under  a  recent  law  of  the  state  of  Minnesota,  any  count)  has  the  ri 
to  submit  to  a  vote  of  the  people  whether  or  not   the  poor  shall  be  kept   by 
the  county  at  large  or  on  the  township  plan.     This  was  left  to  the  voter 
Cottonwood  county  at  the  general  election  in  the  autumn  of   igoo.  when  the 


106  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

vote  stood,  five  hundred  and  thirty-eight  in  favor  of  changing  to  the  "town- 
ship plan"  and  three  hundred  and  forty-two  votes  in  favor  of  continuing 
the  old  count}-  plan.  The  petition  which  brought  this  matter  before  the 
people  at  that  1906  election  was  filed  on  September  25,  1906,  and  was  largely 
circulated  by  Silas  Reisdorph,  of  Springfield  township.  It  works  well  in 
this  county  and  the  expense  has  not  been  over  one-half  the  amount  it  was 
under  the  old  county  plan  of  caring  for  the  paupers.  There  is  also  a  wise 
provision  in  the  statute  by  which  the  county  at  large  pays  all  bills  over  three 
hundred  dollars  contracted  in  keeping  the  poor  in  any  one  township  or 
village. 

The  poor  farm  was  sold  on  March  11,  1903.  to  John  S.  Schillinger,  of 
Jackson  county,  for  the  sum  of  $7,500 — a  high  figure  then,  but  not  half  its 
present  value;  yet,  it  only  cost  the  county  $1,700  when  it  was  first  purchased 
in  1887. 

RUSSIAN    THISTLE    PEST. 

Cottonwood  county,  in  common  with  many  of  the  western  counties  in 
Minnesota,  was  wonderfully  cursed  in  the  nineties  with  the  Russian  thistle, 
which  drifted  down  with  the  winds  from  the  northwest  part  of  the  state 
and  especially  from  the  Dakotas,  where  in  some  instances  this  weed  almost 
depopulated  the  county  in  which  it  had  gotten  so  strong  a  foothold.  It  is 
said  these  weeds  gut  into  this  country  by  the  Russian  immigrants  bringing  the 
seed  here  to  sow  for  sheep-feeding  purposes,  as  it  is  used  to  quite  an  extent 
for  that  purpose  in  Russia.  It  has  proven  as  bad  a  curse  as  the  English 
sparrow  has  to  the  cities  and  villages  of  the  United  States. 

So  thick  had  the  growth  of  the  thistles  become  in  this  county  in  July, 
1896,  that  the  board  of  county  commissioners,  on  resolution,  ordered,  "That 
after  the  expiration  of  the  first  day  of  September  all  Russian  thistles  stand- 
ing or  growing  in  the  county  of  Cottonwood  are  required  to  be  destroved 
by  public  authority  in  accordance  to  law."  Later,  a  tax  was  added  to  cover 
the  expense  of  a  "weed  agent,"  whose  duty  was  to  enforce  the  law  and  see 
that  all  weeds  were  cut  and  the  expense  charged  up  to  the  landowner,  if 
not  previously  seen  to  :is  directed. 

At  the  session  of  the  hoard  in  July,  1897,  the  following  was  the  record: 
"Whereas,  the  well-known  Russian  thistle  has  made  its  appearance  again 
and  is  to  he  found  growing  in  Cottonwood  comity.  Therefore,  pursuant 
to  the  statutes  in  such  cases  made  and  provided,  and  at  a  meeting  of  the 
board  of  county  commissioners  of  said  county  held  on  the  13th  day  of  July, 
[897,  it  is  resolved,  by  said  board  >'!  county  commissioners,  that  sixty-four 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  IO7 

days  from  and  after  this  date  be  the  time  fixed  in  which  all  persons,  com- 
panies or  corporations  owning  or  occupying  land  within  said  county  are 
required  to  destroy  all  Russian  thistles  found  growing  or  standing  on  the 
said  lands  according  to  the  statutes  in  such  cases  made  and  provided." 

MISCELLANEOUS    PROCEEDINGS. 

In  July,  1901,  the  county  commissioners  ordered  that  a  bounty  of  fifteen 
dollars  be  paid  for  each  male  wolf  killed  within  this  county;  also  that  the 
sum  of  twenty  dollars  should  be  allowed  for  each  female  wolf  that  should 
be  killed  in  the  county. 

In  1902  the  bond  required  to  be  put  up  by  the  county  treasurer  was 
forty  thousand  dollars,  the  county  to  pay  the  fees  exacted  by  the  bonding 
or  surity  companies.  If  the  bonds  were  of  a  personal  nature,  then  sixty 
thousand  dollars  were  required  at  the  hands  of  the  treasurer  as  his  bond. 
In  19 1 3  the  bond  was  fixed  at  fifty  thousand  dollars. 

COUNTY   OFFICERS'    FEES    IN    I9O9. 

In  1909  the  fees  of  the  various  county  officials  were  as  follows : 
Sheriff.  Si. 579;  clerk  of  the  court,  $1,434:  court  commissioner,  $10.00; 
coroner,  S5.60;  register  of  deeds,  $2,346.06;  superintendent  of  schools, 
$1,091. 15;  auditor,  $2,117  75;  judge  of  probate,  $1,062;  treasurer,  $2,]  18.83; 
surveyor,  $51.51;  county  attorney,  $1,200. 


TAX    LEVY    FOR     IQ[6-[ 


7- 


The  tax  levy  for  1916-17  is  as  follows:  County  revenue.  S30.000; 
county  road  and  bridge,  830,000;  county  bond  and  interest,  $2,000;  county 
sinking  fund,  $3,000;  tubercular  sanitarium.  $1,900;  total,  $66,900 

COUNTY  FINANCES,  JULY    I,    [916. 

According  to  the  county  auditor's  books,  on  the  first  day  of  July,   i" 
after  an  examination  of  the  books  of  the  county  treasurer,  D.  C.  Davis,  the 
following  showing  was  made : 

Cash  in  drawer $45-37 

Cash  items,  checks,  etc. • 207.6] 

Deposited  with  Farmers  State  Bank,  Windom 9-604 


IOS  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MIXX. 

Deposited   First  National   Bank,   Windom 16,198.01 

Deposited  Windom  National  Bank 13,693.56 

Deposited  First   State   Bank,   Mountain   Lake 10,996.53 

Deposited  First  National  Bank,  Mountain  Lake__  7,146.31 

Deposited  State  Bank  of  Jeffers 7,176.08 

Deposited  State  Bank  of  Storden 5-7°9-59 

Deposited  First  National  Bank,  Westbrook 5.566.99 

Deposited  Citizens  State  Bank,  Westbrook 7,194.21 

Deposited  State  Bank,  Bingham  Lake 3,207.22 

Deposited  Farmers  Bank,  Jeffers 4,663.79 

Deposited  Farmers  State   Bank,   Storden 1,383.20 

Time  certificates 80,741.30 

Total $173,534.38 

COUNTY    OFFICIALS    IN     I916. 

S.  A.  Brown,  auditor;  D.  C.  Davis,  treasurer;  S.  J.  Fering,  register 
of  deeds;  P.  G.  Neufeld,  clerk  of  court;  A.  W.  Annes,  judge  of  probate; 
O.  G.  Peterson,  sheriff;  O.  J.  Finstad,  county  attorney;  A.  R.  Iverson, 
superintendent  of  schools;  L  C.  Churchill,  court  commissioner;  Dr.  L.  L. 
Sogge,  coroner;  A.  S.  Gove,  surveyor;  Ole  Osland,  H.  R.  Pietz,  J.  A.  Brown. 
N.  P.  Minion,  J.  I.  Bargen,  county  commissioner. 

COUNTY  AND  STATE   ROADS. 

During  the  last  few  years  the  "good  roads"  problem  in  Minnesota  lias 
absorbed  the  minds  of  many  interested  in  such  internal  improvements  and 
now  this  state  is  not  behind  her  sister  commonwealths  in  the  building  of 
good  wagon  roads  within  her  borders,  much  money  and  time  having  of  late 
years  being  judiciously  expended  for  such  needful  improvements. 

In  [912  the  state  made  provisions  for  aiding  in  the  construction  of 
what  it  terms  "state  roads."  In  this  county  one  such  road  is  already  laid 
out  and  partly  worked,  from  Comfrey,  on  the  north  line,  to  Mountain  Lake 
village,  thence  to  Bingham  Lake,  on  to  Windom,  from  which  point  it  goes 
to  Jeffers,  Storden  and  Westbrook.  Another,  known  as  the  Walnut  Grove 
and  Dundee  road,  is  laid  partly  within  this  county.  Some  of  this  state  road 
system  has  already  been  graveled,  and  much  is  being  accomplished  in  the  way 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  IOQ 

of  making  suitable,  permanent  culverts  and   bringing  the  road  to  a  good 
grade. 

The  state  appropriates  from  twelve  to  fifteen  thousand  dollars  annually 
for  these  roads  in  Cottonwood  county,  while  the  county  itself  aids  materially 
in  the  laudable  enterprise.  Ere  long  the  county  will  have  excellent  high- 
ways in  all  of  its  townships,  and  be  possessed  of  many  miles  of  state  read 
besides. 


CHAPTER  V. 


COUNTY   AND    STATE    REPRESENTATION. 


PRESIDENTIAL    VOTE    IN    COTTONWOOD    COUNTY. 

r- 
u 

The  first  presidential  campaign  in  which  Cottonwood  county  took  part 
was  that  of  1872,  when  U.  S.  Grant  and  Horace  Greeley  were  opposing 
candidates.  The  following  is  the  vote  in  this  county  for  that  and  every 
subsequent  election  to  the  present  date : 

1872 — U.  S.  Grant   (Rep.),  437;  Horace  Greeley   (Liberal-Dem.),  47. 

1876 — Rutherford  B.  Hayes  (Rep.),  387;  Samuel  J.  Tilden  (Dem.),  76. 

1880— James  A.  Garfield    (Rep.),  717;  W.   S.  Hancock    (Dem.),   128. 

1884— James  G.  Blaine  (Rep.),  599;  Grover  Cleveland  (Dem.),  137; 
John  P.  St.  John  (Prohib.).  34:  B.  F.  Butler  (Greenback),  26. 

1888 — Benjamin  Harrison  (Rep.),  760;  Grover  Cleveland  (Dem.), 
273;  Fisk  (Prohib.),  90. 

1892 — Benjamin  Harrison  (Rep.),  727;  Grover  Cleveland  (Dem.), 
201;  James  B.  Weaver  (Pop.),  769. 

1896 — William  McKinley  (Rep.),  1,242;  W.  J.  Bryan  (Dem.),  Sio; 
Joshua  Levering  (Prohib.),  43. 

1900 — William  McKinley  (Rep.),  1,368;  W.  J.  Bryan  (Dem.),  547; 
J.  G.  Woolley  (Prohib.),  73. 

[904 — Theodore  Roosevelt  (Rep.),  1.541;  Alton  B.  Parker  (Dem.), 
214. 

[908— William  H.  Taft  (Rep.),  1,240;  W.  J.  Bryan  (Dem.).  526; 
E.  W.  Chafin  (Prohib.),  98. 

1912 — William  H.  Taft  (Rep.).  325;  Theodore  Roosevelt  (Prog.), 
i,07<j;  Woodrow  Wilson  (Dem.),  511. 

STATE    SENATORS. 

The   following  have  served  as  state  senators  from  the  districts  in  which 

Cottonw 1  county  has  been  situated  since  the  organization  of  the  county: 

J.    A.    Latimer,    1870;   C.   W.   Thompson,    1871 ;    (apportionment   of    1871) 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  Ill 

William  D.  Rice,  1872;  William  D.  Rice,  1873;  E.  P.  Freeman.  1874;  E.  P. 
Freeman,  1S75  ;  l-  p-  Durfee.  1876;  I.  P.  Durfee.  1877;  C.  H.  Smith.  [878; 
A.  D.  Perkins,  1879;  A.  D.  Perkins,  1881;  (apportionment  of  1881  )  George 
Knudson,  1883;  George  Knudson,  1S85;  John  Clark,  1887;  John  Clark, 
1889;  (apportionment  of  1889)  Erick  Sevatson,  1891  ;  Erick  Sevatson,  1893; 
Frick  Sevatson,  1895;  Erick  Sevatson,  1897;  (apportionment  of  1S97) 
E.  J.  Meilicke,  1899;  E.  J.  Meilicke,  1901 ;  \Y.  A.  Smith,  1903:  W.  A.  Smith, 
1905;  H.  E.  Hanson,  1907;  H.  E.  Hanson,  1909;  A.  C.  Olson,  191 1;  A.  C. 
Olson,   1913;   (apportionment  of  1913)   C.  W.  Gillam,   1915. 

STATE    REPRESENTATIVES. 

The  members  of  the  Lower  Hou.se  representing  Cottonwood  county 
have  been:  (Apportionment  of  1871  )  E.  Berry,  1S7J;  J.  W.  Seager,  1873; 
J.  F.  Daniels,  1874;  Charles  F.  Crosby,  E.  Berry,  1875;  J.  A.  Everett,  Lee 
Hesley.  W.  H.  Mellen,  1876;  Dr.  H.  X.  Rice.  Lee  Hensley,  C.  H.  Smith, 
1877;  Frank  A.  Day,  L.  H.  Bishop.  Alex.  Fi'ddes,  1878;  M.  F.  L.  Shanks, 
T.  Lambert,  P.  J.  Kniss,  1879;  J.  A.  Armstrong,  \Y.  D.  Rice,  I'.  Kniss, 
1881 ;  (apportionment  of  1881)  S.  Blackmail.  1883;  S.  Blackman,  1885;  W. 
R.  Estea,  1887;  W.  R.  Estea,  1889;  (apportionment  of  1889)  Henry  F. 
Tucker,  1891  ;  John  Paulson,  1893;  E.  J.  Meilicke,  1895;  George  M.  Laing, 
1S97;  (apportionment  of  1897)  D.  L.  Riley,  John  E.  Johnson,  1899;  D.  L. 
Riley,  W.  A.  Potter,  1901  ;  A.  M.  Schroeder,  J.  D.  Schroeder,  1003;  L.  O. 
Tiegen,  A.  D.  Palmer,  1905;  Charles  Winzer,  R.  H.  Jefferson,  1907;  John 
Baldwin,  D.  A.  Stuart,  1909;  Henry  Gntiedt,  Elias  Warner,  191 1  ;  I),  ('raw- 
ford,  Elias  Warner,  191 3;  (apportionment  of  1913)  George  W.  Grant  and 
Lars  Tiegen,  191 5. 

COUNTY    AUDITORS. 

The  fir>t  county  auditor  of  Cottonwood  county  was  Charles  Chamber- 
lain, who  served  until  1879;  then  followed  S.  M.  Espey,  1879  to  [889; 
George  F.  Robison,  1889  to  1891 ;  John  \.  Brown,  (891  to  [893;  Herman 
Tiechroew,  1893  to  [899;  Matt  Miller,  [899  to  \,,,,\  :  John  A.  Brown,  [901 
to  1911;  E.  H.  Klock,   1  n  1 1   to  1915;  S.  A.  Brown.    1015  and  still  serving 

COUNTY   TREASURERS. 

The  first  county  treasurer  was  L.  L.  Miner,  succeeded  by  Eli    V  Sted- 

man,  who  served  until  [879;  C.  H.  Smith,   1879  to  [881 ;  J.  X.  McGregor, 


112  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

1881  to  18S7;  H.  A.  Cone,  1887  to  1895;  Matthias  Miller,  1895  to  1897; 
James  S.  Kibbey,  1897  to  1905;  Matthias  Mill'er,  1905  to  191 1;  D.  C.  Davis. 
191 1  to  present  date. 

SHERIFFS. 

The  first  sheriff  of  the  county  was  Hosea  Eastgate,  followed  by  Charles 
White,  who  served  until  the  election  of  S.  B.  Stedman,  who  served  from 
1S79  to  1883:  W.  W.  Barlow,  1883  to  1891 ;  Frank  White.  1891  to  1893; 
W.  W.  Barlow,  1893  to  1895;  John  H.  Ness,  1895  to  1903;  Ed.  J.  Severson, 
1903  to  1911;  D.  A.  Lahart,  1911  to  1913;  O.  G.  Peterson,  1913  and  still 
in  office. 

REGISTER   OF   DEEDS. 

The  first  register  of  deeds  for  this  county  was  Ezra  Winslow,  followed 
by  H.  A.  Cone  in  1879;  F.  Riis,  1879  to  1883;  C.  H.  Anderson,  1883  to 
1889;  Henry  E.  Hanson,  1889  to  1907;  S.  J.  Fering,  1907  to  present  date. 

PROBATE    JUDGES. 

Tabor  Imus  was  the  first  judge  of  probate,  succeeded  by  Emory  Clark 
and  A.  D.  Perkins;  J.  G.  Redding.  1879  to  1883;  G.  M.  Laing,  1883  to  1897; 
Thomas  S.  Brown,  1897  to  1913:  A.  W.  Annes,  1913  to  present  date. 

COUNTY   COMMISSIONERS. 

1870 — S.  B.  Stedman,  L.  L.  Miner,  Hogan  Anderson. 

1871 — S.  B.  Stedman,  R.  P.  Mathews,  Hogan  Anderson. 

1872 — S.  B.  Stedman,  Hogan  Anderson,  George  F.  Robison. 

1873 — George  A.  Purdy,  George  F.  Robison,  Hogan  Anderson. 

1874 — George  A.  Purdy,  F.  Riis,  George  F.  Robison. 

1875 — George  A.  Purdy,  F.  Riis,  A.  A.  Soulc. 

1876— David  Goss,  F.  Riis,  A.  A.  Soule. 

1877 — David  Goss,  W.  L.  Taylor,  H.  Anderson. 

1878 — David  Goss,  D.  C.  Davis,   Hogan  Anderson. 

1879 — David  H.  Anderson,  H.  M.  McGaugbey,  D.  C.  Davis. 

1880— H.  M.  McGaugbey,  T.  Ellingson,  D.  C.  Davis. 

[881-  II.  M.  McGaughey,  T.  Ellingson,  H.  M.  Goss. 

!882— John  Clark,  H.  M.  Goss,  C.  Mead.  M.  T.  DeWolf. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  II3 

1883— John   Clark,   H.    M.    F.    Gk>ss,   T.    Ellingson,   C.    Mead,    M.   T. 
DeWolf. 

1884— M.  T.  DeWolf,  C.  Mead,  T.  Ellington,  Charles  Chadderdon. 

1885 — Charles  Chadderdon,  T.  Ellingson,  A.  Wigton,  J.  S.  Naramore. 

1886 — J.  S.  Naramore,  Charles  Chadderdon,  C.  Mead,  A.  Wigton. 

1887— Charles  Chadderdon.  C.  Mead.  A.  Wigton,  M.  T.  DeWolf.  Chris. 
Brand. 

!  888— Charles   Chadderdon,   A.   Wigton,   C.   Mead,   C.   Brand,   M.   T. 
DeWolf. 

1889— M.  T.   DeWolf,  Charles  Chadderdon,  C.   Mead,  A.   Wigton,  C. 
Brand. 

1890 — Ole  Christophson,  C.  Mead,  R.  Jenness,  J.  F.  Grant,  H.  Dickman. 

1891 — D.  C.  Davis,  Lars  Swenson,  C.  Mead,  R.  Jenness,  H.  Dickman. 

1892 — D.  C.   Davis,  Lars  Swenson,  E.   D.   Mooers,  Lars  Swenson,  C. 
Mead. 

1893 — D.   C.    Davis,   H.   M.   Goss,   E.   D.   Mooers,   Lars   Swenson.   C. 
Mead. 

1894 — E.  D.  Mooers,  H.  M.  Goss,  Lars  Swenson,  W.  D.  Seely,  D.  P. 
Langley. 

1895 — E.  D.  Mooers,  H.  M.  Goss,  Lars  Swenson,  W.  D.  Seely,  D.  P. 
Langley. 

1897 — Lars  Swenson.  W.   D.   Seely,   D.  C.   Davis,   D.   P.  Langley  and 
H.  M.  Goss. 

1899— Lars  Swenson,  W.   D.   Seely.   D.   C.   Davis,   D.   P.   Langley,    D. 
Ewert. 

1 90 1 — Lars  Swenson,  W.  D.  Seely,  D.  C.  Davis,  D.  P.  Langley,  David 
Ewert. 

1903 — W.  D.  Seely,  D.  C.  Davis.   Peter  Wiens,  David  Ewert. 

IQ05 — E.    E.    Heggerston,   W.    D.    Seely,   J.    F.    French,    Peter  Wiens. 
David  Ewert. 

1907 — E.  E.  Heggerston.  B.  Johnson,  J.  F.  French,  N.  P.  Minion. 

1909 — Ole  Osland,   Bernt  Johnson,   J.    F    French,   N.    P.   Minion   and 
Jacob  I.  Bargen. 

191 1 — Ole  Osland.  H.  R.  Pietz,  J.  F.  French.  X.  P.  Minion  and  Jacob 
Larson. 

1913— Ole  Osland,  H.  R.  Pietz,  J.    \.  Brown,  N.   P.  Minion  and  T.  I. 
Bergen. 

(8) 


CHAPTER  VI. 

TOWNSHIPS   OF   COTTONWOOD   COUNTY. 

Cottonwood  county  is  sub-divided  into  eighteen  civil  township,  each 
having  a  local  government  of  its  own,  but  all  working  in  harmony  with  the 
general  county  government  plan. 

Germantown  comprises  congressional  township  108,  range  36,  west. 
Highwater  comprises  congressional  township  108,  range  37,  west. 
Ann  comprises  congressional  township  108,  range  t,8,  west. 
Selma  comprises  congressional  township  107,  range  34,  west. 
Delton  comprises  congressional  township   107,  range  35,  west. 
Amboy  comprises  congressional  township   107,  range  36,  west. 
Storden  comprises  congressional  township  107,  range  37,  west. 
Westbrook  comprises  congressional  township  107,  range  38,  west. 
Midway  comprises  congressional  township  106,  range  34,  west. 
Carson  comprises  congressional  township   106,  range  35,  west. 
Dale  comprises  congressional  township  106,  range  36,  west. 
Amo  comprises  congressional  township  106,  range  t,j,  west. 
Rose  Hill  comprises  congressional  township  106,  range  38,  west. 
Mountain  Lake  comprises  congressional  township  105,  range  34,  west. 
Lakeside  comprises  congressional  township  105,  range  35,  west. 
Great  Bend  comprises  congressional  township  105,  range  36,  west. 
Springfield  comprises  congressional  township  105,  range  t,"/,  west. 
Southbrook  comprises  congressional  township   105,  range  38,  west. 

GERMANTOWN   TOWNSHIP. 

This  is  the  eastern  township  of  the  three  northern  townships  of  the 
county,  being  described  as  township  108,  range  36,  west.  It  is  bounded  on 
the  north  by  Redwood  county,  on  the  east  by  Brown  county,  on  the  south 
by  Amboy  township,  Cottonwood  county,  and  on  the  west  by  Highwater 
township.  Its  surface  is  somewhat  cut  up  by  numerous  prairie  creeks  or 
runs,  which  afford  splendid  drainage,  and  at  the  same  time  make  the  gen- 
eral scenery  one  of  rare  beauty.  The  soil  in  common  with  other  parts  of 
this  county  is  not  lacking  in  the  features  and  elements  which  yield  abundant 


COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  1 15 

harvests.     The  chapter  on  Geology  treats  in  detail  of  the  soil,  surface  and 
minerals  of  this  township. 

The  population  at  various  periods  is  as  follows:  In  1895  it  had  488; 
in  1900  it  had  51 J  and  in  1910  it  was  placed  at  522  by  the  United  States 
census  returns. 

ORGANIZATION. 

Germantown  was  organized  into  a  separate  civil  township  in  January, 
1874,  by  a  petition  presented  by  a  majority  of  the  voters  in  township  108, 
range  36.  The  first  township  meeting  and  election  for  officers  was  fixed 
at  the  house  of  August  Brand  on  January  24.  1874. 

EARLY   SETTLEMENT. 

To  have  been  an  early  settler  in  Germantown  township  was  to  Ik.-  counted 
among  the  heroic  band  of  men  and  women  who  braved  many  hardships  and 
saw  the  real  "rough  side  of  life,"  in  Cottonwood  county.  Many  of  the 
pioneers  have  passed  from  earth.  In  many  cases  the  lands  they  entered 
under  either  pre-emption  or  homestead  act,  have  long  since  passed  into  the 
hands  of  strangers.  Those  who  came  later  knew  not  of  the  privations  and 
sacrifices  made  by  the  original  settlers. 

The  following  will  give  a  brief  record  transcript  of  many  who  claimed 
land  and  actually  settled  in  this  township: 

Wesley  D.  Sprague  homesteaded,  June  3,  1878,  at  the  Xew  I'lm  land 
office  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  2.  U.  S.  Grant,  President,  signed  his 
patent  papers. 

Gottleib  Scheef,  claimed  a  homestead,  May  7,  1879.  the  southeast  quar- 
ter of  section  30,  and  his  patent  wa-  signed  by  President  R.  B.  I  laves. 

Caroline  Retz  claimed  as  her  homestead  right,  land  in  the  wesl  half  of 
the  northwest  quarter  of  section  6,  this  township.  It  was  entered  at  the 
land  office  at  Xew  Ulm  and  the  patent  is  dated  March  13,  187a  and  i-  signed 
by  President  Hayes. 

Henry  finding  homesteaded  land  in  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  30. 
The  patent  bears  date  of  February  6,  1881,  and  i-  signed  by  President  I  lave-,. 
The  entry  was  effected  at  the  land  office  at  Xew  Ulm. 

August  Block  claimed  land  as  a  homestead  right  in  the  wesl  half  oi  the 
southwest  quarter  of  section  8;  the  patent  is  dated  February  i<».  [881,  and 
is  signed  by  President  Hayes.  The  entry  was  made  at  the  land  office  at 
Xew  Ulm. 


Il6  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

John  F.  Borsach  homesteaded  land  in  the  south  half  of  the  southwest 
quarter  of  section  6.  It  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm,  and  the 
patent  is  signed  by  President  Hayes  and  bears  date  of  December  30,  1879. 

Henry  Moll  homesteaded  land  in  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  24.  His 
patent  is  dated  September  10,  1880,  and  was  signed  by  President  Hayes,  but 
the  entry  was  made  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm. 

Ferdinand  Heller  homesteaded  land  in  the  southeast  quarter  of  section 
34.  The  date  of  his  patent  is  February  10,  1881;  and  is  signed  by  President 
Hayes ;  the  land  was  secured  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office. 

Herman  Luck  homesteaded  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  34  at  the 
land  office  at  New  Ulm,  his  patent  being  issued  by  President  Hayes  and  bears 
the  date  of  June  15,  1880. 

Christine  Werner  homesteaded  the  west  half  of  the  northeast  quarter  of 
section  4,  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm;  her  patent  was  issued  and  signed 
by  President  Hayes,  February  10,  1881. 

George  Werner  homesteaded  the  west  half  of  the  northeast  quarter  of 
section  6;  it  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm  and  patented  to  him 
by  President  Hayes,  December  30,  1879. 

Daniel  Werner  homesteaded  the  east  half  of  the  northwest  quarter  of 
section  6;  the  same  being  entered  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm  and  patented 
by  President  Hayes,  December  30,   1879. 

Frederick  Juhnke,  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office  entered  as  a  homestead 
the  south  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  8,  the  same  was  patented 
by  President  Hayes,  February  10,  1881. 

Herman  Ohme  homesteaded  the  west  half  of  the  northeast  quarter  of 
section  8,  the  same  being  entered  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm  ,and  patented 
by  President  Hayes,  January  20,  1881. 

Charles  Tesmer  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm  entered  as  a  homestead 
the  southwest  quarter  of  section  4;  it  was  patented  by  President  Hayes, 
February  10,  1881. 

John  Surratt  homesteaded  the  northwest  quarter  of  the  northwest  quarter 
of  section  32,  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington  and  the  same  was  patented  to 
him  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  July  10.  1885. 

Daniel  Raddatz  at  the  Tracy  land  office  entered  as  his  homestead  the 
southeast  quarter  of  section  22;  it  was  patented  by  President  Chester  A. 
Arthur,  November  1,  1881. 

William  R.  Divine  homesteaded  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  12  at 
the  land  office  at  New  Ulm  and  had  the  same  patented  to  him  by  President 
James  A.  Garfield,  June  jo,  1881. 


COTTONWOOD   AND   WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  117 

Frederick  Schroter  claimed  a  homestead  in  the  southwest  quarter  of  sec- 
tion 20,  the  same  being  entered  at  the  land  office  at  Tracy  and  patented  by 
President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  February  10,  1883. 

Christian  Xerget  entered  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  20,  at  the 
land  office  at  New  Ulm,  and  later  obtained  his  patent  from  President  Hayes, 
who  signed  same  on  February  10,  1881. 

PRE-EMPTION    CLAIMS. 

Isaac  Davis,  at  the  Xew  Ulm  land  office  entered  the  east  half  of  the 
southwest  quarter  of  section  10.  The  patent  was  signed  by  President  U.  S. 
Crant,  May  12,  1874. 

George  Werner  entered  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  32,  at  the  Tracy 
land  office,  and  his  papers  were  signed  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  May 
15,  1884. 

Valentine  Bott  entered  the  east  half  of  the  northwest  quarter  of  section 
10,  at  the  Tracy  land  office  and  his  final  papers  were  signed  by  President 
Grover  Cleveland.  July  27,  1885. 

Henry  Essig  entered  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  24,  at  the  Marshall 
land  office  and  his  papers  were  signed  by  President  Harrison.  November  15, 
1892. 


AMBOY   TOWNSHIP. 

Amboy  township  is  one  of  the  central  townships  in  the  county,  being 
composed  of  congressional  township  107,  range  36,  west.  It  is  made  up 
of  thirty-six  full  sections,  and  is  bounded  on  its  north  by  Germantown,  on 
the  east  by  Delton,  on  the  south  by  Dale  and  on  the  west  by  Storden  town- 
ship. Its  surface,  lakes  and  streams  have  already  been  covered  in  the  chap- 
ter on  Geology,  hence  need  not  be  referred  to  here.  Of  its  schools  and 
churches  special  chapters  will  treat,  in  general.  To  one  who  has  recently 
visited  this  part  of  Cottonwood  county,  il  v  1  without  saying,  that  this  has 
come  to  be  a  veritable  garden  spot,  where  com  and  cream  are  king  and 
queen.  The  branch  line  of  the  Chicago,  St.  Paul,  .Minneapolis  &  Omaha 
railroad  traverses  the  southern  portion  of  the  township,  with  a  station  at  the 
sprightly  village  of  Jeffers. 

The  population  of  Amboy  township  in  [895  was  443;  in  1900  it  was 
placed  at  489  and  according  to  the  1910  United  States  census  it  had  decreased 


Il8  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

to  437.  The  inhabitants  are  a  sturdy,  painstaking  class  of  good  citizens, 
many  of  whom  are  foreigners  who  came  to  our  shores  many  years  ago 
without  much  means,  save  strong  bodies  and  determined  wills,  and  with 
these  they  have  forged  to  the  front  and  today  are  among  the  most  inde- 
pendent, prosperous  and  contented  people  within  southern  Minnesota. 

ORGANIZATION. 

This  township  was  formed  by  act  of  the  county  commissioners  at  their 
meeting  held  on  October  10,  1872,  when  township  107,  range  36  west,  was 
declared  to  be  organized  and  the  first  election  called  to  meet  at  the  house  of 
C.  M.  Bywater,  and  the  judges  of  such  election  were,  John  H.  Nelson,  Peter 
A.  Wheeler,  Milo  T.   DeWolf,  and  Charles  M.  Bywater  was  named  clerk. 

FIRST    SETTLERS. 

The  records  show  the  following  to  have  been  the  early  homesteaders 
and  also  holders  of  pre-emption  claims : 

Moses  DeWolf  claimed  as  a  homestead  the  southwest  half  of  section 
34,  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office,  April  8,  1878,  and  the  papers  were  signed 
by  President  U.  S.  Grant,  the  land  being  in  what  is  now  Amboy  township. 

Emery  Cook,  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office,  entered  a  homestead  in  the 
southwest  quarter  of  section  36,  May  29,  1878,  the  patent  being  signed  by 
President  R.  B.  Hayes. 

Henry  C.  McLean  claimed  land  in  the  southeast  of  section  2,  at  the 
New  Ulm  land  office,  and  his  patent  was  signed  by  President  U.  S.  Grant, 
February  27,  1879. 

David  W.  Potter  homesteaded  land  in  the  southwest  quarter  of  section 
10;  his  patent  is  dated  February  20,  1881,  and  was  signed  by  President 
Chester  A.  Arthur.     It  was  entered  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office. 

George  W.  Tones  homesteaded  land  in  the  southwest  quarter  of  section 
32,  and  his  patent  is  dated  March  13,  1879,  and  is  signed  by  President 
Hayes;  this  homestead  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm. 

John  A.  Kelley  homesteaded  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  26;  his 
patent  for  same  bears  date  June  24,  1878.  and  is  signed  by  President  Have-. 
The  land  was  secured  through  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm. 

Peter  A.  Wheeler  homesteaded  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  14,  at 
the  land  office  at  New  Ulm,  and  had  the  same  patented  by  President  U.  S. 
Grant,  December  20,  1875. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  II9 

Adolph  M.  Scott  homesteaded  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  iS,  at 
the  land  office  at  Tracy,  and  had  the  same  patented  to  him  by  President 
Grover  Cleveland.  January  9,   1886. 

John  Wright  homesteaded  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  26,  at  the 
New  Ulm  land  office  and  the  same  was  patented  by  President  U.  S.  Grant 
June  20,  1874. 

Wilber  Potter  homesteaded  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  10,  at  the 
land  office  at  Tracy,  and  had  the  same  patented  to  him  by  President  Chester 
A.   Arthur.  February  10.   1883. 

PRE-EMPTION  CLAIMS. 

Agnes  E.  Safley  entered  land  in  the  north  half  of  the  southeast  quarter 
of  section  12,  and  the  patent  was  signed  by  President  Benjamin  Harrison, 
March  1,  1892;  the  land  office  was  at  Marshall. 

John  Knowles,  at  the  Tracy  land  office,  entered  the  northeast  quarter 
of   section  20,   and   signed   by   President   Grover   Cleveland,   June   5,    1888. 

Esther  Dickerson,  at  the  Marshall  land  office,  entered  the  north  half 
of  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  2,  and  the  final  papers  were  signed  by 
President  Benjamin  Harrison,  April  24,   1891. 

VILLAGE   OF   JEFFERS. 

Jeffers  is  situated  in  section  20,  township  107,  range  36,  west,  and  was 
platted  by  the  Inter-State  Land  Company,  September  19,  1899.  In  so  far 
as  the  earlv  history  of  Jeffers  is  concerned,  there  is  not  a  great  deal  to  be 
said.  The  site  that  is  now  occupied  by  the  village  was  homesteaded  by 
George  Jeffers  and  Wesley  Stoddard  over  forty  years  ago.  When  the 
Currie  branch  of  the  Omaha  railroad  was  surveyed  through  the  county, 
Mr.  Whited.  representing  a  townsite  company,  saw  great  possibilities  in 
locating  a  village  at  this  place.  So  the  beautiful  farms  or  parts  of,  belong- 
ing to  the  men  mentioned  above,  were  transformed  into  town  lots  and  sold 
at  auction.  The  village  sprung  up  like  a  mushroom  over  night  ami  soon 
there  were  mechanics  and  tradesmen  of  all  kinds  on  the  ground. 

Among  the  first  on  the  ground  to  put  up  houses  and  open  up  for  busi- 
ness were  Mr.  Loomis  and  A.  A.  Faust:  Mr.  Faust's  building  was  where  tbe 
co-operative  store  now  stands.  J.  J.  Duroe  put  up  a  building  and  started  a 
bank  in  the  lumber  yard.  In  the  spring  of  1900  Cowan  &  Castledine  built 
a  business  house  on  the  site  of  the  restaurant  and  Louie  Dustin  starts  I  a 


120  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES.    MINN. 

drug  store  the  same  spring.  L.  P.  Dolliff  and  Company  installed  their 
lumber  yard  in  the  spring  of  1899,  as  did  the  Hayes-Lucas  Lumber  Com- 
pany. The  Peary  elevator  was  also  put  up  in  1899.  The  early  professional 
men  were  Dr.  W.  N.  Theissen  and  Attorney  E.  M.  Duroe. 

Jeffers  has  experienced  two  fires,  each  of  which  was  rather  serious. 
The  more  destructive  one  occurred  in  May,  191 1,  destroying  four  large 
buildings  and  causing  an  unusually  heavy  loss.  The  first  fire  happened  in 
August,  1902,  starting  in  the  hotel  which  was  consumed  as  were  the  build- 
ings owned  by  A.  A.  Faust  and  Nels  Anderson.  The  total  loss  was  about 
twenty-one  thousand  dollars. 

The  first  postoffice  in  Amboy  township  was  known  as  the  Red  Rock 
postoffice  and  was  located  on  the  farm  of  D.  M.  Fairbairn,  who  was  also 
the  postmaster.  After  Jeffers  became  a  village  the  Red  Rock  office  was  dis- 
continued and  the  postoffice  took  on  the  name  of  the  village.  The  first  post- 
master appointed  to  the  Jeffers  office  was  A.  A.  Faust.  He  died  before  his 
term  expired  and  J.  O.  Ouerna  was  chosen  to  fill  out  the  unexpired  term. 
Miss  Ida  Faust,  the  daughter  of  A.  A.  Faust,  received  the  next  appoint- 
ment and  as  Mrs.  Ida  Mertens  succeeded  herself.  The  present  postmaster 
is  Mr.  J.  H.  Tofflemire.  Through  attention  to  business  and  with  the  help 
of  appreciative  patrons,  he  has  brought  the  receipts  of  the  office  up  to  the 
point  where  it  will  soon  graduate  to  the  third  class.  The  postal  receipts 
for  the  last  fiscal  year  amounted  to  two  thousand  one  hundred  and  eleven 
dollars  and  seventy-four  cents,  exclusive  of  money  orders.  The  money 
orders  for  June,  iqi6,  amounted  to  one  thousand  and  six  dollars  and  ninety- 
six  cents.  A  rural  route,  with  Bert  A.  Crist,  was  established  on  October 
15,  1904;  he  is  still  serving  in  that  capacity. 

MUNICIPAL    HISTORY. 

Jeffers  became  an  incorporated  village  on  September  28,  1899.  The 
first  election  placed  in  office  the  following  men.  President,  L.  P.  Dustin; 
recorder,  Lewis  E.  Streater;  trustees,  C.  G.  Fredricson,  V  W.  Binger,  A. 
A.  Faust.  The  present  officers  include  the  following:  President,  William 
A.  Potter;  trustees,  E.  F.  Schmotzer,  II.  C.  Schoper  and  J.  M.  Jackson; 
treasurer,  C.  O.  Castledine;  clerk,  Charles  Grabert;  justice,  E.  D.  Helder. 
The  following  is  a  list  of  all  the  presidents  who  have  served  to  date:  L.  G. 
Dustin,  A.  A.  Faust  (pro  tern),  H.  H.  Potter,  L.  A.  Duroe.  W.  Gleason, 
S.  M.  Pratt,  M.  C.  Void,  E.  J.  Viall,  A.  W.  Mertens  and  W.  A.  Potter. 

At  present  the  village  is  lighted  with  gas  lanterns,  but  there  is  a  move- 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  121 

ment  on  foot  to  install  an  electric  system.  The  village  is  also  badly  in  need 
of  water-works,  as  now  they  have  no  ample  means  of  fire  protection  except 
chemical  engines.  With  these  things  added,  the  village  would  be  as  modern 
as  any  in  the  county.  The  village  has  about  three  miles  of  cement  walks 
and  building  more  all  the  time.  The  present  indebtedness  is  about  one  thou- 
sand five  hundred  dollars. 

Jeffers.  the  hub  of  Cottonwood  county,  is  a  beautiful,  hustling  little 
town  of  six  hundred  population,  located  on  the  Currie  branch  of  the  Omaha 
railroad,  one  hundred  and  fifty  miles  from  the  Twin  Cities  and  sixteen  miles 
from  Windom,  the  county  seat.  It  is  one  of  the  busiest  trading  centers  in 
the  state,  according  to  size.  It  is  located  in  the  heart  of  die  beautiful,  roll- 
ing plains  of  southern  Minnesota.  Its  business  people  are  up-to-date,  pro- 
gressive, courteous  and  accommodating.  The  farmers  of  the  community  are 
up  to  the  times  in  their  farming  methods,  and  rank  high  in  the  citizenship 
of  the  community.  Five  years  ago.  good  land  could  be  procured  in  this 
community  at  sixty  dollars  per  acre,  while  most  land  is  now  worth  around 
one  hundred  and  twenty-five  dollars  per  acre.  Jeffers  has  a  modern  system 
of  schools,  fine  churches  and  strong  secret  societies,  all  of  which  will  be 
treated  in  their  respective  chapters. 

CREAMERY. 

Jeffers  is  supplied  with  a  prosperous  and  enterprising  creamery  under 
the  management  of  H.  E.  Nimtz.  It  is  regarded  as  the  most  important 
enterprise  of  the  town  and  it  is  doubted  if  any  one  business  concern  turns 
over  as  much  money  to  the  farmers  as  the  creamery.  The  creamery  has 
about  one  hundred  and  forty  patrons,  with  an  average  monthly  output  of 
three  thousand  pounds  of  butter-fat  per  month.  They  supply  the  local  mar- 
ket with  butter  and  ship  the  remainder  to  the  markets  in  Chicago  and  New 
York. 

COMMERCIAL   FACTORS   IX    lQl6. 

In  1916  the  business  interests  of  Jeffers  were  represented  by  the  fol- 
lowing : 

Auto  garage — Iverson  &  Harrison. 

Banks — State  Bank,  Farmers  State  Bank. 

Barber — Charles  Grabert. 

Blacksmiths— Krame  M.  Michiel,  George  J.  Koess. 

Creamery — H.  E.  Nimtz. 


122  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

Confectionery — L.  J.  Bastian. 

Druggist — F.  J.  Armantrout. 

Elevator — Benson  Grain  Company,  Farmers  Co-operative  Elevator 
Company. 

General  dealers — Jeffers  Co-operative  Company,  Thorne  &  Dustin, 
Malachi  Void. 

Harness  dealer — John  AT.  Jackson. 

Hotel — The  Jeffers,  The  Leader. 

Hardware  dealer — L.  A.  Duroe. 

Ice  dealer — Charles  Burmeister  &  Son. 

Jeweler — F.  J.  Armantrout. 

Livery — David  E.  Noble. 

Lumber  dealer — L.  P.  Dolliff  and  Company,  Haynes-Lucas  Lumber 
Company. 

Milliner — Olga  B.  Grenwatz. 

Meat  market — H.  C.  Schoper. 

Moving  picture  show — M.  B.  Fish. 

Newspaper — The  Review,  E.  F.  Schmotzer,  proprietor. 

Physician — George  P.  Panzer. 

Produce  dealer — City  Produce  Market. 

Restaurant — W.  A.  Sargent,  L.  J.  Bastian. 

Real  estate  dealer — The  Jeffers  Land  Company.  W.  H.  Dhabolt. 

Shoemaker — Edward  D.  Helder. 

Undertaker — Peter  Anne. 


AMO  TOWNSHIP. 

Amo  township  comprises  all  of  congressional  township  106,  range  t>7< 
west.  It  is  situated  south  of  Storden  township,  west  of  Dale,  north  of 
Springfield  and  east  of  Ruse  IT  ill  township.  Its  thirty-six  sections  contain 
some  of  fehe  finest  land  in  southern  Minnesota.  It  is  settled  by  an  indus- 
trious class  of  citizens,  mostly  of  foreign  birth,  who  have  made  a  prairie 
wilderness  blossom  like  the  rose.  The  principal  lake  within  the  township  is 
Lake  Augusta.  With  the  passing  of  years  much  of  the  former  swampy 
land  has  been  transformed  into  beautiful  pastures.  The  schools  and  churches 
of  the  township  arc  mentioned  at  length  in  other  chapters  of  this  volume. 

The  population  in  [895  was  296;  in  1900  it  was  385,  and  according 
to  the  census  taken  by  the  United  States  in  1910,  the  township  contained  a 
population  of  395. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  I23 

There  are  no  towns  or  villages  within  this  township  and  it  is  purely  an 
agricultural  and  dairy  section,  where  the  people  vie  one  with  another  in 
making  substantial  improvements  and  beautifying  their  places.  Many  of 
the  old  homesteads  of  the  county  were  located  in  Amo  and  have  long  years 
since  come  to  be  valuable  farms.  The  hundreds  of  artificial  groves  seen 
here  and  there  over  this  township,  lend  a  charm  once  seen  never  to  be  for- 
gotten. It  was  the  wisdom  and  foresight  of  the  pioneer  band  of  settlers, 
which  caused  to  be  planted  out  the  cottonwood,  the  elm,  the  ash,  the  willow 
and  the  maple  trees,  which  today  weave  in  the  winds  with  their  branches 
extending  far  and  wide,  as  so  many  living,  growing  monuments  to  those 
hardy  pioneers  who  set  them  out.  These  groves  have  for  years  provided 
fire-wood  for  the  farmer  and  made  an  excellent  wind-break  in  winter  time, 
as  well  as  a  cooling  retreat  in  the  hot  summer  months. 

ORGANIZATION. 

Amo  was  formed  as  a  civil  township  of  Cottonwood  county  in  February, 
1873,  at  a  special  meeting  of  the  board  of  county  commissioners.  It  was 
effected  through  a  petition  signed  by  the  legal  voters  of  township  108,  ranges 
37  and  38,  asking  that  they  be  set  off  as  a  separate  civil  township,  to  be 
known  as  Amo,  the  territory  formerly  being  included  in  Westbrook  town- 
ship. The  first  election  was  held  March  4,  1873,  at  the  school  house  in 
district  No.  4.  in  township  108,  range  37,  west. 

The  record  shows  that  it  was  first  named  "Georgetown,"'  but  soon 
changed.  It  is  believed  that  W.  H.  Benbow  named  it  "Amo,"  which  in 
Latin  means  "I  love." 

FIRST    SETTLERS   AND    LAND   ENTRIES. 

The  books  of  the  register  of  deeds  at  the  court  house  at  Windom,  show 
the  following  facts  concerning  the  original  land  entries,  homesteads  and  pre- 
emptions, in  Amo  township: 

Jemima  Benbow  obtained  a  homestead  in  the  west  half  of  the  north- 
west quarter  of  section  34;  it  was  filed  at  the  land  office  at  Tracy  and  finally 
patented  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur,   February   to,   1883. 

John  Wilford,  an  early  pioneer  in  Minnesota,  had  patented  to  him  a 
homestead  in  the  west  half  of  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  26,  from  the 
Worthington  land  office  and  it  bore  the  signature  of  President  U.  S.  Grant. 


124  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

William  G.  Shafer  homesteaded  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  26,  at 
the  Jackson  land  office,  the  papers  heing  signed  by  President  Grant. 

Gilman  S.  Redding  patented  at  the  Worthington  land  office,  February 
22,  1879,  the  east  half  of  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  25,  the  same  bears 
the  name  of  President  Rutherford  B.  Hayes. 

Presbury  W.  Moore  homesteaded  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  34, 
May  11,  1879,  under  the  signature  of  President  Rutherford  B.  Hayes. 

Tames  A.  Moore  claimed  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  26,  at  the 
Worthington  land  office.  April   15,   1879,  signed  by  President  U.  S.  Grant. 

Elias  N.  Peterson  homesteaded  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  12,  on 
December  18,  1879,  at  the  Worthington  land  office,  the  same  being  signed 
by  President  Grant. 

David  Pratt  claimed,  as  a  homestead,  the  north  half  of  the  southeast 
quarter  of  section  8,  township  106,  range  37,  west.  The  date  was  October 
14,  1879,  and  the  patent  was  signed  by  President  Hayes. 

Hiram  S.  Ellis  homesteaded  the  east  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of 
section  10,  and  the  same  was  patented  to  him  by  President  Chester  A. 
Arthur;  the  entry  was  effected  at  the  land  office  at  New  TJlm,  and  the  date 
of  patent  was  June  20,  1882. 

Francis  T.  Seely  homesteaded  the  south  half  of  the  northeast  quarter 
of  section  32;  it  was  filed  at  the  land  office  at  Tracy  and  patented  March  1, 
1883,  with  the  signature  of  President  Chester  A.  Arthur  attached. 

Alonzo  K.  Peck  claimed  as  his  homestead  the  west  half  of  the  north- 
west quarter  of  section  24  and  the  west  half  of  the  southwest  quarter  of  the 
same  section.     The  patent  was  signed  by  President  U.  S.  Grant  September 

5.  i874- 

Philip  Zorn  homesteaded  the  northwest  quarter  of  section   18;  it  was 

filed  at  the  land  office  in  Tracy  and  was  patented  to  him  by  President  Chester 

A.   Arthur.  March   10,   1883. 

Martin  Bales  homesteaded  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  26;  it  was 
originally  filed  at  the  land  office  at  Tracy  and  patented  to  him  by  President 
Chester  A.  Arthur  March  10,   1883. 

William  W.  Barlow  homesteaded  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  26; 
his  filing  was  made  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm,  while  his  patent  was 
issued  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  April  10.  1882. 

Leslie  Anderson  claimed  as  his  homestead  right  the  northeast  quarter 
of  section  20.  His  filing  was  made  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm,  and  his 
patent  was  signed  by  President  Hayes,  March  13,  1879. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  125 

Warren  Hunt  homesteaded  the  west  half  of  the  southwest  quarter  and 
north  half  of  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  32;  it  was  filed  at  the  laud 
office  located  at  Xew  Ulm  and  was  patented  to  him  by  President  Chester  A. 
Arthur.   February   13,    1882. 

Orrin  Silliman  homesteaded  the  east  half  of  the  southwest  quarter  of 
section  14:  also  the  north  half  of  the  southwest  quarter  of  same  section;  he 
made  his  filing  at  the  land  office  at  Tracy  and  received  his  patent  from 
President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  March  3,  1884. 

William  H.  Bigalow  homesteaded  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  30, 
making  his  filing  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm,  receiving  his  final  patent 
from  President  Chester  A.  Arthur.  January  2,   1882. 

Lewis  L.  Bigalow  homesteaded  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  30;  his 
filing  was  made  at  the  land  office  at  Tracy  and  his  patent  was  obtained  from 
President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  February  10,  1883. 

Daniel  C.  Ashley  homesteaded  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  14,  mak- 
ing his  filing  on  same  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm  and  receiving  his  patent 
from  the  hands  of  President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  June  20,   1882. 

Ransom  Bigalow  claimed  as  his  homestead  right  the  southeast  quarter 
of  section  30,  and  received  his  patent  from  President  Chester  A.  Arthur, 
March  10,  1883.     The  entry  was  made  at  the  land  office  at  Tracy. 

Orrin  Polk  Moore,  at  the  Tracy  land  office  entered  a  homestead  situated 
in  the  east  half  of  the  southwest  quarter  and  the  south  half  of  the  north- 
west quarter  of  section  28,  and  had  the  same  patented  to  him  by  President 
Chester  A.  Arthur,  May  24,  1884. 

David  Pratt  at  the  land  office  located  at  Tracy  entered  the  south  half 
of  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  8,  and  had  the  same  finally  patented  to 
him  by  President  James  A.  Garfield,  June  20,  1881. 

John  C.  Sprague,  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office,  entered  as  his  homestead 
the  southwest  of  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  6,  and  the  same  was  pat- 
ented to  him  by  President  Hayes,  February  20,  1880. 

John  F.  Tabbert  homesteaded  the  north  half  of  the  northeast  quarter 
of  section  6,  the  same  was  patented  to  him  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur, 
January  15,  1885. 

Ebenezer  Rice  homesteaded  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  8,  at  the 
land  office  located  at  Tracy  and  had  the  same  patented  to  him  by  President 
Chester  A.  Arthur,  March  10,   1883. 

Elbert  D.  Cole  homesteaded  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  4,  at  the 
land  office  then  located  at  Tracy,  and  the  same  was  later  patented  to  him  by 
President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  October  1,  1883. 


126  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

Feder  C.  Jensen  homesteacled  at  Tracy,  the  south  half  of  the  northeast 
quarter  of  section  28,  the  same  being  patented  to  him  by  President  Grover 
C.  Cleveland,  May  20,  1885. 

O.  Scott  Mead,  at  the  land  office  at  Tracy,  entered  the  northwest  quarter 
of  section  34,  and  had  it  patented  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  March 
10,  1883. 

George  Chapman  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office  entered  as  a  homestead 
the  east  half  of  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  26,  and  had  it  patented  June 
20.  1882,  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur. 

PRE-EMPTION   CLAIMS. 

Orrin  P.  Moore  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office,  entered  a  tract  of  land 
described  as  the  west  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  28;  the  final 
papers  were  issued  to  him  by  President  Hayes,  who  signed  the  same,  Janu- 
ary 10,  1879. 

John  W.  Rice  pre-empted  land  in  this  township  in  the  northwest  quarter 
of  section  4;  the  final  papers  were  signed  by  President  Benjamin  Harrison, 
January  5,   1892. 

James  E.  Reynolds  entered  land  in  the  New  Ulm  land  office,  described 
as  the  south  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  and  the  south  half  of  the  south- 
west quarter  of  section  22,  the  same  being  finally  patented  to  him  by  Presi- 
dent Hayes  who  signed  the  instrument,  January  10,   1879. 

John  Robertson,  at  the  land  office  at  Marshall,  entered  the  southeast 
quarter  of  section  8,  the  final  papers  were  signed  by  President  Roosevelt 
December  12,  1901. 


ANN    TOWNSHIP. 

Ann  civil  township  is  the  extreme  northwestern  township  in  Cotton- 
wood county;  it  is  six  miles  square,  comprising  congressional  township  108, 
range  38  west.  It  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Redwood  county,  on  the  east 
by  Highwater  township,  this  county,  on  the  south  by  Westbrook  township 
and  on  the  west  by  Murray  county. 

It  was  originally  a  pure  prairie  country,  hut  through  the  foresight  and 
unrelenting  toil  of  the  settlers  who  first  made  settlemenl  here,  groves  of  elm, 
maple,  Cottonwood  and  other  varieties  of  forest  and  shade  trees  were  early 
planted  out,   and  now   they   wave  in   all   their  growing  beauty,  affording  a 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES.,    MINN.  127 

beautiful  cooling  shade  in  mid-summer  and  in  winter  are  appreciated  by 
both  man  and  beast  for  the  wind-break  they  afford.  These  groves,  here 
and  there  over  the  township,  give  it  a  look  resembling  a  forest  land,  when  in 
fact  not  a  native  tree  was  found  growing  by  the  first  corners,  but  all  have 
been  planted  as  seed,  seedlings  or  cuttings  shipped  in  from  abroad.  Many 
of  these  trees  now  measure  sixteen  inches  in  diameter  and  tower  up  thirty 
and  forty  feet. 

This  township,  as  well  as  most  all  of  the  northern  tier  of  townships, 
is  settled  largely  by  foreigners,  who  have  made  a  fine  agricultural  section 
out  of  what  in  the  seventies  was  but  a  prairie  wilderness.  The  various 
census  enumerations  for  this  township  show  the  following:  In  1895  ^  had 
a  population  of  402;  in  iqoo  there  was  500  and  according  to  the  United 
States  census  returns  in  1910,  there  was  a  population  of  433. 

ORGANIZATION. 

Ann  township  was  organized  by  the  board  of  county  commissioners  at 
one  of  their  regular  meetings  during  the  year  1876,  as  it  does  not  appear 
of  record  in  January,  1876,  but  does  appear  in  the  list  of  townships  January 
1,   1877. 

EARLY  LAND   ENTRIES. 

The  records  of  the  countv  show  the  following  to  have  made  homestead 
or  other  land  entries,  at  some  one  of  the  various  land  offices  in  this  state, 
and  these  men  and  women  constituted  the  first  settlers  of  Ann   township : 

Engbert  E.  Heggerston,  at  the  Xew  Uhn  land  office,  entered  as  his 
homestead  claim  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  18;  he  received  his  patent 
from  President  James  A.  Garfield.  June  20,  1881. 

Peder  Pederson  claimed  as  a  homestead  right  the  east  half  of  the  north- 
east quarter  of  section  8;  it  was  filed  at  the  land  office  at  Tracy  and  was 
finally  patented  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  August  1,  188^. 

Nels  Knudson  Dalen  homesteaded  the  east  half  of  the  southwest  quarter 
of  section  14;  it  was  filed  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm  and  patented  by 
President  Hayes,  September  10,  1880. 

Rasmus  Hanson  homesteaded  the  north  half  of  the  southeast  quartef 
of  section  22  of  this  township;  the  filing  was  at  the  land  office  at  Tracy,  and 
the  patent  was  secured  from  President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  October  5.   1881. 

John  J.   Alfson  homesteaded  the  east  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of 


128  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

section  14;  he  filed  at  the  land  office  at  Tracy  and  secured  his  patent  from 
President  James  A.  Garfield,  June  20,  1881. 

Kesta  K.  Helgerson,  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office  filed  on  the  west  half 
of  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  14,  and  as  a  homestead  it  was  patented 
to  him  by  President  Hayes,  September  10,  1880. 

John  J.  Alfson  homesteaded  the  west  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of 
section  14,  the  same  being  filed  at  the  land  office  at  Tracy  and  his  final  papers 
were  signed  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  October  1,  1883. 

Johannes  Petersen  homesteaded  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  8;  it 
was  filed  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm  and  patented  by  President  Hayes, 
February  6,  1881. 

Ole  O.  Knudson  homesteaded  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  24,  the 
entry  being  made  at  the  land  office  at  Tracy  and  the  patent  was  issued  by 
President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  July  5,  1885. 

Ole  Larson  claimed  a  homestead  from  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm,  the 
same  being  the  west  half  of  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  6;  it  was  pat- 
ented to  him  by  President  James  A.  Garfield,  May  3,  1881. 

Ole  John  Anderson  homesteaded  the  east  half  of  the  northeast  quarter 
of  section  12;  it  was  filed  on  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm  and  patented  by 
President  Chester  A.  Arthur.  June  20,  1882. 

Hans  Ola  Olsen,  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office,  entered  as  a  homestead 
the  southwest  quarter  of  section  6,  and  had  it  patented  to  him  by  President 
Hayes,  February  10.  1881. 

John  T.  Holly  claimed,  as  a  homestead  right,  the  northeast  quarter  of 
section  20,  September  18,  1879,  the  patent  issued  by  President  Hayes,  and 
the  entry  effected  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm. 

Mervin  Waight  homesteaded  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  4,  at  the 
New  Ulm  office.  December  7,  1878,  the  patent  1  icing  signed  by  President 
I  laves. 

Kittle  Sanderson  homesteaded  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  14.  the 
date  of  his  •patent  being  January  5,  1875.  and  is  signed  by  President  U.  S. 
Grant,  the  entry  being  made  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm. 

Thomas  Halvorson  homesteaded  the  west  half  of  the  southwest  quarter 
of  section  12.  the  date  of  the  patent  being  January  20,  1881,  and  was  signed 
by  President  I  laves,  the  papers  coming  through  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm. 

Rasmus  Hanson  homesteaded  at  the  Tracy  land  office,  the  south  half 
of  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  2,  the  patent  being  signed  May  3,  1881, 
by  Presidenl  James  A.  Garfield. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  120. 

John  M.  Hanson  homesteaded  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  26,  at 
the  New  Ulm  land  office,  the  patent  being  signed  by  President  Chester  A. 
Arthur,  March  15.  1882. 

Hogan  Anderson  homesteaded  the  west  half  of  the  southeast  quarter 
of  section  24.  the  patent  being  signed  by  President  Hayes,  March  20,  1878. 

Andrew  O.  Anderson  homesteaded  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  24; 
it  was  filed  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm  and  patented  by  President  Hayes, 
February  10,  1881. 

Hans  A.  Nelson  homesteaded  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  26;  his 
filing  was  made  through  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm  and  he  received  his 
patent  from  President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  signed  on  November  1,   1881. 

Thomas  Hansen  claimed,  as  his  homestead  right,  the  south  half  of  the 
southeast  quarter  of  section  2 ;  his  filing  was  made  at  the  land  office  located 
then  at  New  Ulm.  His  patent  was  received  from  President  Hayes,  January 
20.  1881. 

Thomas  Pool  homesteaded  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  24;  it  was 
filed  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm  and  patented  by  President  Chester  A. 
Arthur.  June  25,  1882. 

Apollos  S.  Yale  homesteaded  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  30;  it 
was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm  and  patented  by  President  Chester 
A.  Arthur,  June  20,   1882. 

Gilbert  Oleson  homesteaded  the  north  half  of  the  southwest  quarter  of 
section  10,  at  the  land  office  at  Tracy  and  had  the  same  patented  to  him  by 
President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  August  1,  1883. 

T.  B.  Steen  homesteaded  the  east  half  of  the  northeast  quarter  of  sec- 
tion 6,  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm,  and  the  same  was  patented  to  him  by 
President  Hayes,  December  30,  1879. 

PRE-EMPTION   CLAIMS. 

Gilbert  A.  Olson,  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office,  had  issued  to  him  a  pre- 
emption claim  for  the  southeast  quarter  of  the  southwest  quarter  of  section 
10,  President  U.  S.  Grant  issuing  the  papers  on  May  20,  1874. 

Ole  John  Anderson,  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm,  pre-empted  the  west 
half  of  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  28,  the  same  being  certified  by 
President  Hayes,  June  24,   1878. 

Ole  Olson,  at  the  Tracy  land  office,  entered  the  south  half  of  the  south- 
west quarter  of  section  18,  this  township,  and  his  papers  were  signed  by  I  'resi- 
dent Chester  A.  Arthur,  April  20,  1883. 
(9) 


I30  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

Ingebret  I.  Toker,  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm,  pre-empted  land  in 
the  west  half  of  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  28,  and  the  papers  were 
signed  by  President  Hayes,  January  20,  1881. 

Iver  Xielson  Moen,  at  the  land  office  at  Xew  Ulm,  pre-empted  land  in 
the  west  half  of  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  28,  the  papers  being  certi- 
fied by  President  Hayes,  January  20,  1881. 


CARSON    TOWNSHIP. 

Carson  is  one  of  the  southeastern  townships  in  Cottonwood  county,  and 
comprises  all  of  congressional  township  106,  range  35,  west,  hence  is  six 
miles  square.  The  chapter  on  geology  in  this  volume  treats  of  the  soil,  lakes 
and  streams  of  this  township.  There  were  originally  numerous  ponds  and 
prairie  lakes,  but  for  the  most  part  these  have  been  drained  and  their  former 
beds  are  cultivated  or  used  as  pasture  lands,  the  soil  being  very  rich  and 
deep — almost  inexhaustible.  Delft  is  a  small  hamlet  in  this  township,  a  sta- 
tion point  on  the  Chicago,  St.  Paul,  Minneapolis  &  Omaha  Railroad,  which 
runs  through  the  southwestern  part  of  the  township,  en  route  from  Jeffers 
to  Bingham  lake. 

The  population  of  Carson  township  in  1895  was  655;  in  1900  it  was 
623  and  the  United  States  census  in  1910  gave  it  as  having  672. 

With  the  passing  of  years  the  land  within  this  part  of  the  county  has 
materially  improved,  and  since  tiling  and  ditching  have  been  so  successfully 
carried  out,  the  territory  is  almost  all  reclaimed  from  its  former  wet  state  to 
one  of  cultivation.  The  hundreds  of  prosperous  homes  observed  on  every 
hand  are  but  an  index  as  to  what  intelligent  management  and  hard  toil  will 
do  for  a  country.  Lands  have  risen  in  value,  until  today  there  are  few  parts 
of  Cottonwood  county  more  sought  after  by  home-seekers  than  Carson  town- 
ship. 

ORGANIZATION. 

This  civil  township  was  organized  by  the  board  of  county  commission- 
ers at  their  meeting  in  July,  1S71,  when  township  106,  range  35,  west  was 
declared  to  be  the  civil  township  of  Carson. 

EARLY   SETTLEMENT. 

The  records  show  the  following  persons  to  have  entered  lands,  either 
under  the  homestead  or  pre-emption  acts  in  this  township: 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  I}I 

William  B.  Walker  claimed  a  homestead  under  the  act  of  1862,  for  the 
northwest  quarter  of  section  2,  the  land  was  entered  at  the  New  Ulm  laud 
office,  and  the  date  was  January  18,  1875;  signed  by  President  U.  S.  Grant. 
Joseph  McMurtrey  claimed  land  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office,  in  the  south 
half  of  the  northwest  quarter  and  the  north  half  of  the  southwest  quarter  of 
section  30.  The  patent  was  signed  on  January  18,  1879,  by  President  Hayes. 
Michael  O.  Keefe  homesteaded  land  in  the  northeast  quarter  of  section 
2;  it  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm  and  was  patented  by  Presi- 
dent Hayes;  signed  on  February  10,  1881. 

William  G.  Furman  homesteaded  land  in  the  northwest  quarter  of  the 
southwest  quarter  of  section  34  also  in  the  southwest  quarter  of  the  north- 
west quarter  of  the  same  section.  It  was  patented  by  President  Hayes  on 
March  13,  1S79;  it  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm. 

Frederick  Carpenter  homesteaded  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  8; 
it  was  patented  by  President  Hayes  on  February  10,  1881  ;  it  was  entered 
at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm. 

Nathaniel  P.  Hoag  homesteaded  land  in  the  southeast  quarter  of  section 
12,  and  the  patent  was  signed  by  President  Hayes,  December  30,  1879;  the 
entry  was  effected  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm. 

Marshal  Chase  claimed  a  homestead  in  the  east  half  of  the  northeast 
quarter  and  in  the  west  half  of  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  10.  It  was 
patented  by  President  Hayes  and  by  him  signed  on  January  20,  188 1.  It 
was  entered  in  the  land  office  located  at  New  Ulm. 

Charles  A.  Gardner  homesteaded  land  in  the  west  half  of  the  south- 
west quarter  of  section  1,2;  it  was  patented  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur 
on  June  12,  1882.     It  was  secured  at  the  land  office  located  at  New  Ulm. 

Daniel  Griffin  homesteaded  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  12,  at  the 
land  office  at  New  Ulm;  his  patent  was  obtained  at  the  hands  of  President 
Hayes  and  signed  by  him  on  February  10,  1882. 

Klaas  Dick  homesteaded  the  east  half  of  the  southwest  quarter  and  the 
northwest  of  the  southwest  of  section  22.  at  the  land  office  at  Tracy,  and 
received  his  patent  from  President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  March   10,   [883. 

Edwin  Maxon  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office  entered  the  south  half  of  the 
southwest  quarter  of  section  28  and  received  his  patent  on  same  from  Presi- 
dent Hayes,  April  9,   1878. 

Aaron  Schofield  homesteaded  the  north  half  of  the  southwesl  quarter  ol 
section  28;  it  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm  and  was  patented 
by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  June  20,  1882. 

George  S.  Maxon     homesteaded  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  28  at 


I32  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

the  Tracy  land  office  and  had  the  same  patented  to  him  by  President  Chester 
A.  Arthur,  February  20,  1882. 

Peter  Wien  homesteaded  the  east  half  of  the  northwest  quarter  of  sec- 
tion 28,  at  the  land  office  at  Tracy,  and  had  the  same  patented  to  him  by 
President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  February  10,  1883. 

Cornelius  Hubert  claimed  the  homestead  situated  in  the  west  half  of 
the  northeast  quarter  of  section  26,  at  the  land  office  and  had  his  patent  finally 
issued  to  him  for  the  same. 

Jacob  S.  Neal  homesteaded  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  2,  at  the 
land  office  at  Tracy,  and  had  his  patent  granted  him  by  President  Chester  A. 
Arthur,  March  10,  1883. 

Henerich  Quiring,  at  the  Tracy  land  office  entered  a  homestead  in  the 
east  half  of  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  10;  it  was  patented  by  Presi- 
dent Chester  A.  Arthur,  January  15,  1885. 

Frank  C.  Mason  homesteaded  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  24,  at 
the  land  office  at  New  Ulm,  and  his  patent  was  issued  by  President  U.  S.' 
Grant,  October  1,  1875. 

William  H.  Leighton  homesteaded  the  south  half  of  the  southwest  quarter 
of  section  34,  at  the  land  office  at  Tracy,  and  his  patent  was  granted  by 
President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  March  10,  1883. 

George  H.  Smyth,  at  ihe  New  Ulm  land  office  entered  the  southeast 
quarter  of  section  32,  and  his  patent  was  granted  by  President  Hayes,  March 
20,  1878. 

PRE-EMPTION  CLAIMS. 

Elizabeth  Smith  entered  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office,  lot  No.  3  in  section 
26,  and  received  her  patent  from  President  U.  S.  Grant,  May  20,  1874. 

Arthur  Minnion  selected  south  half  of  the  northeast  quarter  of  section 
4,  this  township,  and  the  same  was  patented  to  him  by  President  Hayes, 
January  10,  187a 

William  Minion  pre-empted  the  north  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of 
section  4,  this  township;  his  entry  was  made  at  Xew  Ulm  and  his  final  papers 
were  issued  by  President  Hayes,  January  20,  1881. 

Edgar  Hazen  entered  the  northwest  quarter  of  the  southeast  quarter  of 
section  10,  President  U.  S.  Grant  signing  the  final  papers,  April  to.  1875. 

Robert  Minion,  at  the  Xew  Ulm  land  office,  entered  the  southeast  quar- 
ter of  section  4,  and  had  the  same  patented  to  him  by  President  Hayes,  May 
15,  1880. 

Peter  C.  Hiebert,  at  the  Marshall  land  office,  entered  land  in  the  north- 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  I33 

west  quarter  of  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  34;  the  same  was  finally 
patented  to  him  by  President  Benjamin  Harrison,  February  24,  1893. 

Henry  E.  Fast  entered  land  in  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  28;  it  was 
entered  at  the  land  office  at  Marshall  and  his  final  papers  were  signed  by 
President  William  McKinley,  March  20,  1897. 

Thomas  J.  Warren  entered  land  in  the  north  half  of  the  northeast 
quarter  of  setcion  10;  the  entry  was  effected  at  the  land  office  at  Tracy  and 
the  final  papers  were  signed  by  President  Benjamin  Harrison,  January  18, 
1890. 

Oella  P.  Mason,  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office  entered  land  in  the  tract 
known  as  lot  Xo.  3,  in  section  24.  President  U.  S.  Grant  signed  the  patent 
on  May  15,  1876. 

VILLAGE    OF    DELFT. 

Delft  is  situated  in  the  northwest  quarter  of  the  southwest  quarter  of 
section  18,  township  106,  range  35,  west,  and  was  platted  by  the  Inter-State 
Land  Company  June  18,  1902. 

Town  plats  of  the  village  of  Delft  were  filed  in  the  office  of  the  register 
of  deeds  on  June  25,  1902,  by  the  Inter-State  Land  Company,  of  which  O.  O. 
Whited  was  vice-president.  The  plat  consisted  of  eleven  blocks  in  the  town- 
ship of  Delton.  This  was  the  place  where  the  railroad  and  warehouse  com- 
mission ordered  the  railroad  company  to  put  in  a  sidetrack,  in  response  to  the 
petition  of  the  farmers,  in  order  that  they  might  put  in  an  elevator.  Not 
so  very  long  after  the  elevator  had  been  built  the  village  had  its  first  fire, 
which  burned  the  farmers'  elevator,  the  coal  sheds  and  the  railroad  company's 
stockyards.  All  were  rebuilt  immediately  after.  At  present  the  business  of 
the  village  is  chiefly  in  the  hands  of  Jacob  Rupp,  who  conducts  a  general  store ; 
John  Rupp,  who  conducts  a  hardware  store ;  and  the  Farmers  Elevator  Com- 
pany, who  buy  and  sell  grain,  have  charge  of  the  coal  sheds  and  do  a  gen- 
eral implement  business. 


DALE    TOWNSHIP. 

Dale  is  one  of  the  central  townships  in  the  county,  and  comprises  all  of 
congressional  township  106,  range  36,  west,  hence  has  thirty-six  sections  of 
land  within  its  borders.  It  is  south  of  Amboy  township,  west  of  Carson, 
north  of  Great  Bend  and  east  of  Amo  township. 

When  first  discovered  there  was  a  beautiful  chain  of  lakes  in  the  central 


134  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINX. 

eastern  portion  of  this  township.  These  were  filled  in  their  season  with  wild 
fowls  and  many  fish  abounded  in  their  waters.  "With  the  settlement  of  the 
country,  several  of  these  lakes  have  been  drained  out  and  are  now  utilized 
for  pasture  and  field  purposes  by  the  farmers  who  own  the  property.  Some 
of  the  lakes  are  still  intact  and  are  highly  prized  by  the  citizens  of  the  county. 
The  educational  interests  of  the  township,  as  well  as  the  churches,  are  ail 
treated  in  special  chapters  relating  to  such  subjects. 

The  population  of  Dale  in  1895  was  367;  in  1900  it  was  455  and  the 
census  reports  of  the  United  States  enumeration  for  1910  showed  a  population 
of  483. 

ORGANIZATION. 

Dale  became  a  separate  civil  township  by  act  of  the  county  board  in 
March,  1872,  from  township  106,  range  36,  west  and  was  to  be  bounded  as 
follows:  "Commencing  at  the  northeast  comer  of  township  106,  range  36. 
thence  south  to  the  southeast  corner  of  said  township;  thence  west  to  the 
southwest  corner  of  said  township;  thence  north  to  the  northwest  corner  of 
said  township;  thence  east  to  the  northeast  corner  of  said  township  and  place 
of  beginning."  The  first  election  was  held  at  the  house  of  George  W.  Purdy. 
Saturday,  March  30,  1872;  the  judges  were:  George  W.  Purdy,  Charles 
White  and  L.  E.  Mace,  with  John  A.  Harvey,  clerk. 

SETTLEMENT. 

Perhaps  no  better  way  of  showing  who  the  pioneer  settlers  in  this 
township  were,  can  be  shown  than  to  give  a  brief  transcript  of  the  original 
land  entries,  which  is  as  follows : 

Henry  C.  Cornell  homesteaded  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  2, 
March  12,  1878.  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office,  the  patent  being  signed  by 
President  U.  S.  Grant. 

James  H.  Sharp  claimed  as  a  homestead  the  southeast  quarter  of  sec- 
tion 14,  in  this  township,  March  21,  1878,  the  patent  being  signed  by  Presi- 
dent Grant,  and  theentry  was  made  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office. 

lames  I'..  Mace  claimed  as  a  homestead  land  in  the  west  half  of  the 
southwest  quarter  and  the  northeast  quarter  01  the  southwest  quarter  of 
section  12,  at  the  Xew  Ulm  land  office :  the  patent  was  signed  by  President 
Hayes,  April  27.  1878. 

Ahram  L.    Miles  homesteaded  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office,  the  north- 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  I35 

west  quarter  of  section  24.  President  R.  B.  Hayes  signing  the  patent,  July 

12,    1S78. 

James  C.  Brown  homesteaded  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  26,  July 
12,  1878,  the  same  being  signed  by  President  Hayes;  the  entry  was  made 
at  the  Xew  Ulm  land  office. 

S.  Alexander  homesteaded  land  located  in  the  west  half  of  the  southeast 
quarter  of  section  10;  it  was  patented  to  him  on  February  20,  1880,  and  was 
signed  by  President  Hayes  and  secured  through  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm. 

James  B.  Rhoades  homesteaded  land  in  the  west  half  of  the  southwest 
quarter  of  section  32.  It  was  patented  on  October  20,  1880,  and  signed  by 
President  Hayes,  being  secured  through  the  New  Ulm  land  office. 

Edwin  S.  Streator  claimed  land  under  the  homestead  act  of  1862,  in 
the  west  half  of  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  34;  it  was  patented  to  him 
on  November  3,  1876,  and  signed  by  President  U.  S.  Grant;  it  was  secured 
through  the  land  office  at  Worthington. 

Alfred  Mosher  homesteaded  land  in  the  west  half  of  the  southwest 
quarter  of  section  14;  it  was  patented  to  him  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur 
and  dated  June  20,  1882 ;  it  was  secured  through  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm. 

David  Goss  homesteaded  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  12,  at  the 
Xew  Ulm  land  office,  and  received  his  patent  from  President  Chester  A. 
Arthur,  June  20,  1882. 

John  Schnotyen,  at  the  land  office  at  Tracy,  entered  a  homestead  in  the 
north  half  of  the  northeast  quarter  and  the  south  half  of  the  northeast 
quarter  of  section  6 :  it  was  patented  to  him  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur, 
February   10.   1883. 

Peter  Schmith  homestead  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  6,  at  the 
Tracy  land  office  and  had  the  same  patented  to  him  by  President  Chester 
A.  Arthur.  May  31,  1884. 

William  G.  Douglass  claimed,  as  his  homestead,  the  north  half  of  the 
southwest  quarter  of  section  28,  the  date  of  patent  filing  is  April  7,  1874, 
and  it  bears  the  signature  of  President  U.  S.  Grant. 

Joel  R.  Clark  claimed,  as  a  homestead,  the  northwest  quarter  of  the 
northwest  quarter  of  section  34,  the  patent  being  signed  by  President  U.  S. 
Grant,  October  22,  1878. 

Joseph  O.  Miles,  claimed  a  homestead  in  section  24,  and  his  patent 
was  filed  on  February  18,  1870,  signed  by  President  U.  S.  Grant. 

Joseph  R.  Cornwell,  homesteaded  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office,  the  north- 
east quarter  of  section  8,  the  patent  being  issued  on  September  17,  1879, 
and  was  signed  by  President  Hayes. 


136  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

College  land  was  claimed  at  the  land  office  at  Washington  by  William 
Prentiss,  the  same  being  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  20.  The  date  of 
filing  was  March  6,  1875,  signed  by  President  U.  S.  Grant. 

Homer  L.  Jewitt  homesteaded  land  in  the  south  half  of  the  southwest 
quarter  of  section  28 ;  it  was  patented  by  President  Hayes  and  signed  on 
March  13,  1879;  it  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm. 

Daniel  F.  Rogers  homesteaded  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  34  at 
the  Tracy  land  office  and  had  the  patent  to  the  same  issued  to  him  by  Presi- 
dent Chester  A.  Arthur,  May  10,  1883. 

Valentine  Pfremmer  homesteaded  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  6, 
at  the  land  office  at  Tracy  and  had  his  patent  granted  him  by  President 
Chester  A.  Arthur,  May  31,  1884. 

PRE-EMPTION    CLAIMS. 

George  A.  Purdy,  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office,  pre-empted  the  odd  lots 
in  section  28,  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm,  and  had  his  papers  signed  by 
President  U.  S.  Grant,  May  26,  1874. 

Peter  O.  Arvold  at  the  Worthington  land  office  pre-empted  the  north- 
west quarter  of  section  8,  the  papers  being  signed  by  President  U.  S.  Grant, 
January  6,  1876. 

Jacob  P.  Epp.  at  the  Marshall  land  office,  claimed  the  northwest  quarter 
of  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  24;  the  same  was  signed  by  President 
William  McKinley.  March  20,  1897. 

Aaron  G.  Laing.  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office,  pre-empted  the  south  half 
of  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  2,  the  papers  1  icing  signed  by  President 
Hayes,  January  20,   1881. 

George  P.  Jeffers  pre-empted  the  lot  known  as  No.  6  in  section  2^, 
at  the  Tracy  land  office,  the  papers  being  signed  by  President  Benjamin 
Harrison,  January  18,  tSqo. 

Frank  C.  Bell  pre-empted  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  20,  at  the 
New  Ulm  office,  the  papers  being  finally  issued  by  President  Hayes. 

James  II.  Wilson  pre-empted  the  part  of  section  22.  known  as  lot  No. 
3.  at  the  land  office  at  Marshall,  under  President  Cleveland's  administration, 
and  he  signed  the  same  June  9,  1894. 

Wolph  Graumann,  at  the  Marshall  land  office,  entered  the  west  half  of 
the  southwest  quarter  of  section  30,  the  papers  being  signed  finally  by  Presi- 
dent Grover  Cleveland.  November  6,  1893. 

Henry  E.  Wall,  at  the  land  office  at  Marshall,  entered  the  southwest 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  [37 

quarter  of  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  24,  President  Grover  Cleveland 
signing  his  papers  on  March  12,  1896. 

William  W.  Barlow  pre-empted  land  in  the  north  half  of  the  north- 
west quarter  of  section  ,^o,  at  the  Marshall  land  office,  the  papers  being  certi- 
fied to  by  President  Benjamin  Harrison  on  February  14,   1893. 

Lars  Anderson  entered  under  the  pre-emption  act,  at  the  land  office  at 
Marshall,  the  north  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  26.  President 
Grover  Cleveland  signed  the  papers  on  October  22,   1895. 

Abram  L.  Miles  entered  the  southeast  quarter  of  the  southeast  quarter 
of  section  26,  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office,  and  had  his  final  papers  signed 
by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  lune  1,  1882. 


DELTON    TOWNSHIP. 

Delton  is  composed  of  congressional  township  107,  range  35  west, 
hence  is  six  miles  square  and  contains  thirty-six  sections  of  land.  It  is 
bounded  on  the  north  by  Brown  county,  on  the  east  by  Selma  township, 
on  the  south  by  Carson  and  on  the  west  by  Amboy  township.  Its  principal 
stream  is  the  Little  Cottonwood  river  and  its  many  small  branches,  all  of 
which  are  merely  prairie  runs  or  creeks,  which  in  dry  times  have  but  little 
water  in  them,  but  in  rainy  reasons  are  full  to  overflowing. 

What  in  an  early  day  was  but  a  wild  prairie  wilderness,  without  shrub 
or  tree,  has  now  come  to  be  one  of  the  finest  farming  sections  in  all  this 
part  of  the  state.  The  farmers  have  labored  long  and  hard  and  have  finally 
reclaimed  the  low,  waste  places  and  kept  cultivating,  annually  the  higher, 
better  land  until  until  the  scene  is  now  one  of  real  rural  beauty,  and  the 
contented  owners  of  these  lands  have  come  to  enjoy  a  life  little  dreamed 
of  by  the  homesteaders  of  the  early  seventies.  It  is,  of  course,  a  pure  farm- 
ing section,  with  no  other  industry  to  enrich  the  resident,  but  here  farming 
and  dairying  certainly  pay  good  returns  for  the  labor  expended. 

The  farmers  of  this  part  of  Cottonwood  county  are  well  favored  by 
having  market  towns  on  every  hand — Jeffers  at  the  west,  Delft  at  the  south 
and  Comfrey  to  the  northeast — all  being  railroad  points,  where  the  products 
of  the  farm  may  be  exchanged  for  the  smaller  necessities  of  the  farm- 
house. 

The  population  of  the  township  in  1895  was  350;  in  1900  it  had 
reached  360,  and  by  the  census  of  [910  it  was  placed  at  371. 


I38  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINX. 

FIRST    TRACTS    OF    LAND    ENTERED. 

The  records  show  the  following  original  land  entries  in  Delton  town- 
ship: 

At  the  New  Ulm  land  office  James  Coy  claimed  land  in  the  southwest 
quarter  of  section  2,  the  patent  being  filed  on  May  13,  1878,  by  President 
Hayes. 

John  C.  Gent  homesteaded  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office  the  southwest 
quarter  of  section  20,  and  the  filing  was  made  on  January  17,  1878,  signed 
by  President  U.  S.  Grant. 

John  W.  Bangle  homesteaded  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office  the  southeast 
quarter  of  section  12,  the  date  of  filing  being  May  10,  1878,  signed  by 
President  U.   S.  Grant. 

George  M.  Mayberry  homesteaded  land  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office 
in  section  26,  of  range  31,  and  also  in  the  east  half  of  the  northeast  quarter 
of  section  12,  township  107,  range  35  west.  The  filing  was  made  on  Jan- 
uary 9,  1878,  and  bore  the  signature  of  President  U.  S.  Grant. 

Morgan  C.  Young  claimed  land  in  the  west  half  of  the  southwest  quar- 
ter of  section  14,  the  filing  being  dated  at  New  Ulm  land  office,  January  5. 
1880,  and  signed  by  President  Hayes. 

Ayres  Hall  homesteaded  land  in  the  east  half  of  the  northeast  quarter 
of  section  34  and  the  west  half  of  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  4.  in 
this  township.  It  was  patented  to  him  by  President  U.  S.  Grant  and  by 
him  signed  on  December  1,  1873;  it  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  New 
Ulm.   ' 

Andrew  A.  Nickerson  homesteaded  land  in  the  southeast  quarter  of 
section  18,  the  same  being  patented  by  President  U.  S.  Grant  and  signed  by 
him  on  February  20,  1877.     It  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm. 

Nicholas  Burger  homesteaded  the  south  half  of  the  northeast  quarter 
of  section  22,  also  the  north  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of  that  section. 
It  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm  and  was  patented  by  Presi- 
dent  Chester  A.  Arthur  .and  signed  on  June  20,  1882. 

Smith  Cottrel  claimed,  as  his  homestead,  the  south  half  of  the  north- 
east quarter  of  section  [8;  it  was  filed  on  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm. 
and  patented  by  1 'resident  Hayes  on  March  13,   1S79. 

John  R.  Baldwin  homesteaded  the  north  half  of  the  southwest  quarter 
of  section  30  and  the  west  half  of  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  [2,  town- 
ship  107.  range  35,     This  was  effected  at  the  land- office  at   New   Ulm,  and 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  [39 

the  patent  to  same  was  issued  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  December 
1.   1882. 

Charles  S.  Xaramore  homesteaded  the  northwest  quarter  of  section 
12;  it  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm  and  finally  patented  to 
him  by  President  James  A.  Garfield,  January  20,  1881. 

George  Lent  homesteaded  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  8;  his  filing 
was  made  at  the  land  office  at  Tracy,  and  his  final  papers  were  signed  by 
President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  March   10,   1883. 

Abraham  Triesen,  at  the  Tracy  land  office,  entered  as  a  homestead  the 
northeast  quarter  of  section  34;  it  was  patented  to  him  by  President  Chester 
A.  Arthur,  May  31,   1884. 

George  L.  Kendall  homesteaded  the  southeast  of  the  northwest;  the 
east  half  of  the  southwest  and  the  southwest  of  the  southeast  quarter  of 
section  22.  at  the  land  office  located  at  New  Ulm,  and  had  same  patented  to 
him  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  June  20,  1882. 

John  Calkin  homesteaded  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  6,  at  the 
land  office  at  Tracy,  and  on  February  10,  1883,  it  was  patented  to  him  by 
President  Chester  A.  Arthur. 

PRE-EMPTION    OF    CLAIMS. 

Lyman  Parsons,  at  the  land  office  at  Tracy,  entered  a  pre-emption  claim 
to  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  2,  and  had  the  same  patented  to  him  on 
June  1,  1882,  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur. 

Titus  F.  Mills,  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm,  entered  land  in  the  east 
half  of  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  32;  I 'resident  U.  S.  Grant  signed 
the  papers  on  May  12,  1874. 

Albert  Gowin  entered,  at  the  land  office  at  Marshall,  the  southeast 
quarter  of  section  6,  the  same  being  patented  by  President  Harrison  on 
November  15,   1892. 

Edson  R.  Fry,  at  the  Marshall  land  office,  entered  the  northwest  quar- 
ter of  section  14,  and  the  final  papers  were  signed  by  President  Grover 
Cleveland.  June  5,  1894. 

Carl  Schneider,  at  the  Marshall  land  office,  entered  the  northeast  of  the 
southeast  quarter  of  section  18,  and  President  Grover  Cleveland  signed  the 
papers  June  9,   1894. 

Charles  Schneider  took  land  in  the  north  half  of  the  northeasl  quarter 
of  the  above  section  and  had  his  papers  signed  by  President  Cleveland, 
June  4,   1895. 


I-+0  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

John  O'Connor  entered  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  26,  at  the  land 
office  at  Marshall,  President  Benjamin  Harrison  signing  the  final  papers  on 
February  21,   1893. 

Ed  H.  Crumlett,  the  Tracy  land  office,  entered  the  southeast  quarter 
of  section  4.  and  his  papers  were  finally  signed  by  Presdient  Chester  A. 
Arthur,  October  10,  1882. 

ORGANIZATION. 

Delton  township  was  organied  by  the  county  commissioners  from  con- 
gressional township  107,  range  35  west,  on  September  17,  1872.  The  first 
township  meeting  was  held  at  the  house  of  J.  J.  Edwards,  September  27, 
1872.  The  judges  of  such  election  were  appointed  as  follow :  J.  J.  Ed- 
wards, Lyman  Parsons,  George  W.  Bailey,  and  the  clerk  was  P.  \V.  Oakley. 


GREAT    BEND    TOWNSHIP. 

Great  Bend  township,  which  derives  its  name  from  the  big  bend  in  the 
Des  Moines  river  within  its  borders,  is  situated  centrally  east  and  west,  on 
the  southern  line  of  Cottonwood  county,  with  Jackson  county  at  the  south, 
Springfield  township  on  the  west,  Dale  township  at  the  north  and  Lakeside 
township  at  the  east.  It  is  comprised  of  congressional  township  105,  range 
36  west.  Windom,  the  county  seat  of  Cottonwood  county,  is  located  within 
this  township,  of  which  later  account  is  given. 

This  township  had  some  of  the  very  earliest  settlers  in  the  county, 
owing  to  the  fact  that  the  river  courses  through  this  part  of  the  county. 
Streams  and  lakes  are  always  sought  out  by  the  pioneer,  and  this  settlement 
was  no  exception  to  the  rule. 

The  population  of  this  township  in  1805  was  320.  exclusive  of  the  city 
of  Windom,  which  then  had  a  population  of  1,523.  In  1900  the  township's 
population  was  435,  and  the  United  States  census  returns  in  1910  gave  it 
444,  with  the  city  of  Windom  as  having  1.749. 

ORGANIZATION. 

This  township  was  formed  by  the  county  commissioners  in  1870,  and 
was  the  original  civil  township  organized  in  the  county.  It  was  described 
thus :  Commencing  at  the  southwest  corner  of  township  106,  range  35,  or 
the  northeast  corner  of  township   105.  range  35  to  the  southeast   corner  of 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  I4I 

township  105,  range  36,  thence  west  along  the  line  of  township  104,  town- 
ship 36,  to  the  southwest  corner  of  township  105,  range  36,  thence  along 
the  east  line  of  township  105,  range  37.  to  the  northwest  corner  of  town- 
ship 105,  range  36;  from  thence  east  and  along  the  south  line  of  township 
106.  range  36  and  on  to  the  place  of  beginning. 

It  was  resolved  to  have  the  first  township  meeting  held  at  the  house 
of  Charles  Chamberlin,  August  27,  1870.  S.  B.  Stedman,  Paul  Hamilton 
and  Hosea  Eastgate  were  appointed  judges  of  election. 

EARLY    LAND    ENTRIES    AND    SETTLERS. 

The  record  shows  the  following  to  have  been  the  land  entries  in  Great 
Bend  township : 

William  Feehan,  at  the  Jackson  land  office,  filed  in  the  east  half  of 
the  southwest  quarter  of  section  10,  December  30,  1873.  the  papers  being 
signed  by  President  U.  S.  Grant. 

Mary  Feehan  filed  on  the  west  half  of  the  southwest  quarter  of  section 
10.  December  30,  1873,  and  it  bears  the  signature  of  President  U.  S.  Grant. 

Reuben  X.  Sackett  filed  on  the  south  half  of  the  northwest  quarter  of 
section  6,  September  13,  1878,  the  patent  being  signed  by  President  U.  S. 
Grant. 

George  W.  Russell  filed  on  January  18,  1878,  on  the  north  half  of  the 
northwest  quarter  of  section  24,  at  the  Worthington  land  office,  the  same 
being  signed  by  President  Rutherford  B.  Hayes. 

lohn  F.  Hamilton  claimed  a  homestead  in  the  southeast  quarter  of  sec- 
tion 10.  February  10,  1879:  this  was  also  signed  by  President  Hayes. 

Addison  G.  Hall  claimed  as  a  homestead  the  southeast  quarter  of  section 
28;  it  was  patented  from  the  Worthington  land  office  on  December  12, 
1879,  and  signed  by  President  U.  S.  Grant. 

John  E.  Teed  homesteaded  laud  in  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  18. 
It  was  patented  to  him  on  August  15,  1070,  and  signed  by  President  U.  S. 
Grant;  it  was  secured  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington. 

Elisha  B.  Owen  homesteaded  land  in  the  southwest  quarter  of  the 
northeast  quarter  and  the  southeast  quarter  of  the  northwest  quarter  of 
section  10;  it  was  patented  by  President  Haves.  November  5,  1878,  and 
was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington. 

Samuel  S.  Gillam  claimed  a  homestead  under  the  act  of  1862,  the  same 
being  situated  in  the  west  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  24.  This 
land  was  patented  to  him  by  President  Hayes  and  dated  June  10,  1871.  It 
was  secured  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington. 


I-M  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

George  L.  Macomber  homesteaded  land  described  as  being  in  the  east  half 
of  the  southwest  quarter  and  the  west  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of  sec- 
tion 34.  It  was  patented  to  him  on  June  10,  1879,  by  President  Hayes  and 
entered  at  the  land  office  in  Worthington. 

Arthur  Johnston  homesteaded  land  in  the  southwest  quarter  of  the 
northeast  quarter  of  section  30;  it  was  patented  to  him  by  President  James 
A.  Garfield,  and  signed  on  April  9,  1881. 

Amos  Rank  homesteaded  land  in  the  south  half  of  the  southeast  quar- 
ter of  section  30;  also  in  the  east  half  of  the  northeast  quarter  of  the  same 
section,  in  this  township.  It  was  patented  by  President  James  A.  Garfield 
and  signed  by  him  on  April  9,  1881. 

Oliver  S.  Bryant  homesteaded  land  in  the  southeast  quarter  of  the 
northwest  quarter  of  section  8;  also  the  northwest  quarter  of  the  southwest 
quarter  of  the  same  section.  It  was  patented  to  him  by  President  Hayes 
and  dated  June  5,  1880;  it  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington. 

James  Thompson  homesteaded  land  in  the  north  half  of  the  northwest 
quarter  of  section  6;  it  was  patented  to  him  on  November  5,  1878,  and  was 
signed  by  President  Hayes  and  entered  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington. 

Daniel  Gallagher  claimed  land  under  the  homestead  act  in  the  north- 
west quarter  of  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  6,  township  104.  range  36, 
and  also  in  the  same  range,  but  in  township  105,  he  entered  land  known  as 
lot  six.  This  was  patented  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur  and  dated  De- 
cember 20,  1881,  and  entered  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington. 

Calvin  Rank  homesteaded  land  in  the  north  half  of  the  southwest  quar- 
ter and  the  north  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  30.  It  was  pat- 
ented to  him  by  President  Hayes,  and  signed  on  December  30,  1880;  it  was 
entered  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington. 

\skel  K.  Trefol  homesteaded  land  in  the  east  half  of  the  northeast 
quarter  of  section  8;  it  was  patented  to  him  by  President  Hayes  through 
the  land  office  at   New  Ulm,  February  10,  1881. 

Allen  Gardner,  Jr.,  homesteaded  land  in  the  east  half  of  of  the  south- 
east quarter  and  the  northwest  quarter  of  the  southeast  quarter  and  in  the 
southwest  quarter  of  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  8.  It  was  patented  by 
President  Hayes,  and  signed  on  December  30,  1880.  It  was  entered  at  the 
land  office  at  Worthington. 

Lucius  A.  Knight  homesteaded  land  in  the  east  half  of  of  the  north- 
west quarter  of  section  4;  it  was  patented  to  him  by  President  Chester  A. 
Arthur,  and  signed  on  April  it.  1882;  it  was  entered  at  the  Worthington 
land  office. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  I43 

Ethan  Allen  homesteaded  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  6,  and  had 
same  patented  to  him  by  President  James  A.  Garfield,  April  9,  1881. 

James  E.  Fitch  homesteaded  the  northeast  quarter  of  the  northeasl 
quarter  of  section  22.  making  the  entry  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington, 
and  having  the  patent  finally  issued  by  President  Hayes,  June   15,   1880. 

Charles  F.  Warren,  at  the  Worthington  land  office,  entered  as  his  home- 
stead the  northeast  quarter  of  section  14;  the  same  was  entered  at  the  land 
office  at  Worthington,  and  the  final  patent  was  signed  by  President  Chester 
A.  Arthur,  August  3,  883. 

Arthur  Johnston  homesteaded  the  old  lot  in  section  30,  township  105, 
range  36,  and  his  filing  was  made  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington,  and  his 
final  patent  was  signed  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  June  5,  1884. 

Thomas  Faucett  homesteaded  the  west  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of 
section  20,  his  filing  being  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington,  and  his  patent 
was  signed  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  June  5,  1884. 

William  Tryon  homesteaded  in  the  west  half  of  the  northeast  quarter 
of  section  34;  his  entry  was  made  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington,  and  his 
patent  was  issued  and  signed  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  March  15, 
1882. 

Silas  D.  Allen  claimed  a  homestead  right  to  the  north  half  of  the  north- 
east quarter  of  section  26,  the  same  being  entered  at  the  land  office  at  Worth- 
ington, and  the  final  papers  signed  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  April 
5-  1883. 

Augustus  Halmer  homesteaded  the  south  half  of  the  northwest  quarter 
of  section  26;  it  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington  and  was 
patented  by  the  signature  of  President  Hayes,  November  5,   1878. 

Frank  L.  Jones  homesteaded  in  the  east  half  of  the  southeast  quarter 
of  section  18;  the  entry  was  made  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington,  and 
his  final  patent  was  issued  under  signature  of  President  Chester  A.  Arthur. 
January  IO.  1885. 

Ellison  D.  Mooers  claimed  under  the  homestead  act  of  1862  the  north- 
west quarter  of  section  8;  it  was  entered  at  Worthington  land  office  and 
finally  patented  to  him  by   President  Chester  A.  Arthur.  March  10,   [883. 

Charles  C.  Purdy  claimed  his  homestead  right  to  the  southwest  quarter 
of  section  12,  and  his  Tiling  was  at  the  land  office  at  Jackson,  while  his  final 
patent  was  signed  by  President  Hayes,  April  5,  1877. 

Peter  Devlin  homesteaded  the  south  half  of  the  southwest  quarter  of 
section  2;  it  was  filed  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington,  and  the  patent  was 
issued  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  October  1,  1883. 


144  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

Diantha  Clark,  at  the  Worthington  land  office,  filed  on  the  West  half 
of  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  10;  it  was  patented  on  August  25,  1882, 
by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur. 

Ed  Savage  homesteaded  the  south  half  of  the  northwest  quarter  of 
section  24,  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington,  and  it  was  patented  by  Presi- 
dent Chester  A.  Arthur,  May  10,  1882. 

PRE-EMPTION    CLAIMS. 

Squire  P.  Stedman  pre-empted  the  south  half  of  the*  southeast  quarter 
of  section  26,  at  the  land  office  at  Jackson,  his  papers  being  signed  by  Presi- 
dent U.  S.  Grant,  May  20,  1874. 

George  H.  Young  pre-empted  at  the  Worthington  land  office,  in  this 
township  and  range,  his  papers  being  signed  by  President  Hayes,  September 

4,   1879. 

William  Gray  pre-empted  land  at  the  Jackson  land  office,  the  same  being 
the  south  half  of  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  26;  President  U.  S.  Grant 
signed  his  papers  on  May  20,  1874. 

David  Evans.  Jr.,  at  the  Jackson  land  office,  pre-empted  the  north  half 
of  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  18,  and  his  papers  were  signed  by  Presi- 
dent U.  S.  Grant,  September  12,  1872. 

Collins  A.  Ludden  pre-empted  the  south  half  of  the  southwest  quarter 
of  section  24  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington.  and  his  final  papers  were 
signed  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  March  30,  1882. 

llosea  Eastgate  pre-empted  land  in  section  S,  at  the  Worthington  land 
office,  and  his  final  papers  were  signed  by  President  Hayes,  November   10. 

1877. 

Arthur  Miller,  at  the  Marshall  land  office,  pre-empted  the  northeast 
quarter  of  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  20,  and  his  final  papers  were 
signed  by  President  Benjamin  Harrison,  January  5,  1892. 

[ohn  T.  Smith,  at  the  Jackson  land  office,  pre-empted  the  southeast 
quarter  of  section  6.  and  his  papers  were  signed  by  President  U.  S.  Grant, 
May  20,    1874. 

|oseph  Devlin,  at  the  land  office  at  Marshall,  pre-empted  the  north  half 
of  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  2,  his  papers  being  signed  by  President 
Grover  Cleveland.  June  4,   1895. 

Richard  K.  Johnson  pre-empted  land  at  the  land  office  at  Marshall,  in 
section  22,  the  same  being  signed  by   President  Grover  Cleveland. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  I45 

Robert  Devlin  entered  the  north  half  of  the  southwest  quarter  of  sec- 
tion 2.  the  same  being  patented  by  President  Hayes,  April  20,  1883. 

Charles  W.  Hamilton,  at  the  Worthington  land  office,  entered  the  north- 
east quarter  of  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  26,  and  it  was  patented  to 
him  by  President  U.  S.  Grant,  May  10,  1875. 

John  T.  Smith  came  to  Cottonwood  county  in  1870  or  1871  and  built 
a  store  at  Big  Bend,  where  it  was  supposed  that  the  railroad  would  cross 
the  river  and  the  county  seat  finally  located.  He  had  about  five  or  six  hun- 
dred dollars  and  began  business  with  a  very  small  stock  of  goods.  The  rail- 
road did  not  cross  at  the  bend,  where  Charles  Chamberlin  had  induced  a 
preliminary  survey  and  located  the  capital  of  the  county.  Windom  "was 
born"  in  187 1  and  with  it  the  bright  prospects  and  fond  hopes  of  Big  Bend 
were  blighted.  Mr.  Smith's  store  was  soon  removed  and  no  trace  of  Cham- 
berlin's  citv  nor  his  papers  remains.  Mr.  Smith  built  a  modest  little  store 
at  Heron  Lake  about  the  time  the  railroad  reached  Worthington  and  began 
business  there.  Possessing  good  business  tact,  he  entered  upon  a  very  suc- 
cessful era,  gradually  increasing  his  trade.  Later,  he  opened  stores  in  other 
towns,  where  he  was  quite  successful  and  gained  considerable  wealth. 


HIGHWATER    TOWNSHIP. 

Congressional  township  108.  range  37  west,  is  styled  Highwater  town- 
ship, and  of  which  name  further  mention  will  be  made.  In  this  connection 
it  may  be  stated  that  when  the  government  surveyors  came  here  to  do  their 
work,  they  found  a  white  man  named  Charles  Zierke,  but  known  as  "Dutch 
Charlie,"  living  with  an  Indian  woman  in  this  township,  and  he  is  supposed 
to  have  been  the  first  white  man  in  the  limits  of  the  count}'. 

Highwater  township  is  bounded  at  the  north  by  Redwood  county,  on 
the  east  by  Germantown  township,  on  the  south  by  Storden  township,  and 
at  its  west  is  Ann  township.  Tts  surface  is  a  beautiful,  undulating  prairie 
country,  with  frequent  small  prairie  creeks,  some  of  which,  with  the  settle- 
ment of  the  country,  have  dried  up.  This  has  come  t<>  be  one  of  the  wealthy 
agricultural  sections  of  Cottonwood  county,  and  the  land  has  long  since  all 
been  taken  up  and  well  improved.  The  present  owners  are  a  prosperous 
people,  who  are  enjoying  life,  as  but  few  of  the  first  settlers  could  do.  on 
account  of  the  early-day  drawbacks — prairie  fires,  drought,  grasshoppers, 
etc.  There  are  no  villages  or  railroads  within  the  northern  tier  of  town- 
(10) 


I46  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

ships,  including  Highwater.     General  farming-  and  stock  raising  are  the  chief 
pursuits  of  the  landowners  of  this  portion  of  the  county. 

In  1895  trie  township  had  a  population  of  569;  in  1900  it  had  512  and, 
according  to  the  19 10  United  States  census  returns,  there  were  591  inhabi- 
tants in  the  township. 

ORGANIZATION. 

Highwater  was  organized  by  the  board  of  county  commissioners  at  the 
session  of  January,  1874,  when  township  108,  range  37,  was  declared  a 
civil  township  of  Cottonwood  county.  The  county  commissioners  called  the 
first  election  to  be  held  in  the  new  township  for  January  24,  1874,  the  same 
to  be  held  at  the  school  bouse  in  district  Xo.  3.  The  name  was  fixed  as 
"Highwater,"  after  the  creek  of  the  same  name,  which  was  thus  called  at  an 
early  day  on  account  of  its  quick  rising  after  a  rain  storm.  This  territory 
was  detached  from  Amo  township  of  former  days. 

PIONEER  SETTLEMENT. 

Some  of  the  earliest  land  entries  in  the  county  were  effected  within 
Highwater  township.  Without  regard  to  who  might  have  been  first,  second 
or  third,  the  following  brief  transcript  from  the  public  records  show  many 
of  the  early  land  entries.  Most  all  of  the  persons  who  thus  homesteaded  or 
pre-empted  land  in  this  township  in  the  seventies  and  eighties  became  per- 
manent settlers  and  reared  families,  and  much  of  the  land  originally  entered 
is  still  held  by  members  of  the  family,  while  not  a  few  of  the  settlers  are 
still  residing  in  the  places  in  which  they  located  more  than  a  third  of  a 
century  ago. 

Andrew  Larson  claimed,  as  a  homestead,  land  in  the  north  half  of  the 
southwest  quarter  and  the  south  half  of  the  northwest  quarter  of  section 
26,  of  this  township,  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office,  under  President  U.  S. 
Grant's  administration  and  signed  by  him  on  January  10.  1878. 

John  Larson  claimed  land  under  the  homestead  act  of  1862,  in  the 
north  half  of  the  southwest  quarter  and  the  southwest  quarter  of  the  north- 
west quarter  of  section  2,  September  14,  1878,  signed  by  1  "resident  U.  S. 
Grant,  and  the  entry  was  effected  at  the  Xew  Ulm  land  office. 

Jeremiah  Lott  homesteaded  land  in  the  east  half  of  the  southwest  quar- 
ter of  section  14;  it  was  patented  to  him  by  President  U.  S.  Grant  and  dated 
August  20,  1875;  it  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm. 

Francis   M.   Smith  claimed,   under  his   homestead  rights,   land  situated 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN'    COUNTIES,     MINN.  I47 

in  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  24.  and  it  was  patented  to  him  by  Presi- 
dent U.  S.  Grant,  dated  September  15.  1874:  it  was  entered  at  the  land 
office  at  Jackson. 

Halvor  Knudtson  homesteaded  land  in  the  west  half  of  the  southeast 
quarter  of  section  iS;  it  was  patented  to  him  on  January  20.  1881,  and  the 
instrument  was  signed  by  President  Hayes,  the  entry  being  made  at  the  land 
office  at  New  Ulm. 

Knud  Olson  homesteaded  land  in  the  west  half  of  the  northwest  quar- 
ter of  section  28.  and  it  was  patented  to  him  by  President  James  A.  Gar- 
field, dated  June  20,  1881.  This  land  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at 
Tracy. 

Elias  Warner  homesteaded  land  in  the  south  half  of  the  southwest 
quarter  of  section  18;  it  was  patented  to  him  on  February  20,  1882.  by 
President  Chester  A.  Arthur ;  the  land  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  New 
Ulm. 

Frederick  Jauck  homesteaded  land  in  the  north  half  of  the  southwest 
quarter  of  section  10;  it  was  patented  to  him  by  President  Hayes  and  dated 
February  10,   t88i  ;  it  was  entered  through  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm. 

Ole  Esteson  located  a  homestead  in  the  west  half  of  the  southeast  quar- 
ter of  section  18,  and  it  was  patented  to  him  by  President  James  A.  Garfield 
and  signed  on  June  20,  1881  :  it  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  Tracy. 

Frithjof  Riis  selected  a  homestead  in  the  east  half  of  the  northeast 
quarter  of  section  28.  and  it  was  patented  to  him  by  President  Hayes  and 
dated  January  20,  1881  ;  it  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  Xew  Ulm. 

John  Olson  lv>me>teaded  land  in  the  west  half  of  the  southwest  quarter 
and  the  southeast  quarter  of  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  24.  It  was 
patented  by  President  James  A.  Garfield  and  signed  by  him  on  .May  3,  1881; 
it  was  entered  in  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm. 

George  1!.  Walker  homesteaded  the  south  half  of  the  northwest  quarter 
of  section  30,  and  it  was  patented  to  him  by  President  Hayes  and  was 
signed  by  him  on  June  24,  1878. 

Alse  H.  Ophime  homesteaded  land  in  the  north  half  of  the  southeast 
quarter  of  section  28;  it  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  Tracy  and  was 
patented  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  who  signed  it  on  November  1, 
1 881. 

Wilhelm  Jeick  homesteaded  land  in  the  south  half  of  the  northeast 
quarter  of  section  10,  and  it  was  patented  by  President  James  A.  Garfield, 
who  signed  same  June  20,  1881. 


I4§  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

Hartman  Loomis  homesteaded  land  in  the  southwest  quarter  of  section 
6;  it  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm  and  was  patented  by  Presi- 
dent Chester  A.  Arthur,  signed  by  him  on  June  20,  1882. 

Svend  S.  Loeny  had  patented  to  him  a  homestead,  signed  by  President 
U.  S.  Grant,  March  1,  1876,  the  entry  being  made  at  the  land  office  at  Xew 
Ulm.  This  land  is  situated  in  the  north  half  of  the  northwest  quarter  of 
section  32. 

Lars  Halvorson  homesteaded  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  14,  the 
patent  was  signed  by  President  Hayes.  February  ip,  1881,  and  the  land 
entry  was  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington. 

Christian  Oleson  claimed,  under  the  homestead  act  of  1862,  the  south 
half  of  the  northeast  quarter  and  the  northeast  quarter  of  the  southwest 
quarter  of  section  24;  it  was  signed  by  President  James  A.  Garfield,  June 
20,  1 88 1.  and  was  entered  at  the  Tracy  land  office. 

Andrew  Overson  homesteaded  the  north  half  of  the  southeast  quarter 
of  section  30 ;  it  was  patented  by  President  James  A.  Garfield  and  signed 
by  him  on  June  20.  1881. 

Ole  Nelson  Beck  had  patented  to  him  the  east  half  of  the  southeast 
quarter  of  section  26,  the  land  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm 
during  President  Hayes'  administration  and  was  signed  by  him  on  January 
20,   1881. 

Peter  Pettersen,  at  the  Tracy  land  office,  secured  land  under  the  home- 
stead act,  the  same  was  described  as  being  the  south  half  of  the  northeast 
quarter  of  section  34.  This  homestead  was  signed  by  President  James  A. 
Garfield  on  June  20.  188 1. 

Aslask  Torgerson,  at  the  land  office  at  Tracy,  had  patented  to  him  by 
President  James  \.  Garfield,  the  west  half  of  the  southwest  quarter  of  sec- 
tion  18;  the  instrument  was  signed  by  President  Garfield  on  June  20,   1881. 

William  <  reik,  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office,  claimed  under  the  homestead 
act,  land  in  the  south  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  and  the  south  half  of  the 
southwest  quarter  of  section  to;  the  patent  was  signed  by  the  hand  of  Presi- 
dent U.  S.  Grant,  October  5,  1873. 

John  Roth  homesteaded  land  in  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  22. 
and  had  it  patented  to  him  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur  and  signed  on 
February  10.  1883. 

Andreas  11.  Rongstad,  at  the  Xew  Ulm  land  office,  secured  his  right 
to  a  homestead  in  the  east  half  of  tin'  northeasl  quarter  of  section  34;  the 
patent  was  signed  by  President  James  A.  Garfield,  May  3.   [881. 

Andrew    Pederson  homesteaded  the  north  half  of  the  northeast  quarter 


COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  I49 

of  section  34,  at  the  Tracy  land  office  and  had  his  patent  finally  issued  hy 
President  James  A.  Garfield  on  June  20,   1881. 

Ole  A.  Thollongbakken.  at  the  Tracy  land  office,  entered  as  his  home- 
stead the  north  half  of  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  6,  and  he  had  the 
same  patented  to  him  by  President  Grover  Cleveland,  who  signed  it  April 
25,   1885. 

Ollare  Hanson,  at  the  Tracy  land  office,  entered  his  homestead  in  the 
north  half  of  the  southwest  cjuarter  of  section  34,  and  had  his  patent  issued 
to  him  by  President  James  A.  Garfield,  June  20,  1881. 

PRE-EMPTION   CLAIMS. 

Jens  Jacobson  pre-empted  the  land  in  section  2,  of  this  township,  the 
entry  being  filed  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm,  and  the  papers  were  signed 
by  President  U.  S.  Grant,  May  20,  1874. 

Lowitz  Larson  Tatdal,  at  the  Xew  Ulm  land  office,  pre-empted  the 
south  half  of  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  32,  and  his  papers  were  signed 
by  President  U.  S.  Grant,  in  May,  1874. 

John  A.  Monson,  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm.  pre-empted  the  north- 
east quarter  of  the  northwest  quarter  and  the  northwest  of  the  northeast 
of  section  8,  his  final  papers  being  signed  by  President  U.  S.  Grant,  X«  mem- 
ber 10,   1875. 

Martin  Erickson  claimed  land  under  the  pre-emption  act  at  the  land 
office  at  New  Ulm,  and  his  papers  were  signed  by  President  U.  S.  Grant, 
May  20.  1874. 

A.  Torgerson,  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office,  pre-empted  the  south  half 
of  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  18,  the  same  being  issued  to  him  by 
President  U.  S.  Grant,  May  20,  1874. 

Henry  A.  Piredli,  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office,  pre-empted  the  land  in 
this  township  and  his  papers  were  signed  by  President  Hayes,  January  20, 
1881. 

A.  G.  Quale  pre-empted  land  in  the  west  half  of  the  southeast  quarter 
of  section  8,  the  papers  being  signed  by   President  Hayes  on  January    10, 

1879. 

Christian  Olen,  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm,  pre-empted  land  in  the 
south  half  of  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  22,  the  papers  being  signed 
by  President  Hayes  on  May  24,  187a 

Lars  Larson  Evanger,  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm,  pre-empted  the 


I50  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINX. 

east  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  24,  and  had  his  papers  verified 
by  President  U.  S.  Grant,  April  10,  1875. 

Ingeborg  Erickson  pre-empted  land  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm,  the 
same  being  the  west  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  20;  the  papers 
were  signed  by  President  U.  S.  Grant,  May  20,  1874. 


LAKESIDE    TOWNSHIP. 

Lakeside  township  is  the  second  township  from  the  eastern  line  of 
Cottonwood  county,  and  is  on  the  south  line,  comprising  all  of  congressional 
township  105,  range  35  west.  It  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Carson  town- 
ship, on  the  east  by  Mountain  Lake,  on  the  south  by  Jackson  county  and 
on  the  west  by  Great  Bend  township.  In  this  section  some  of  the  earliest 
settlements  in  the  county  were  effected.  The  village  of  Bingham  Lake  is 
situated  within  Lakeside  township,  the  history  of  which  appears  further  on 
in  this  chapter.  The  township  is  traversed  by  the  Chicago,  St.  Paul,  Min- 
neapolis &  Omaha  railroad.  The  township  once  had  a  large  number  of 
lakes,  some  of  which  have  long  since  disappeared  through  drainage  systems, 
but  there  are  others  still  in  existence — Bingham  lake,  near  the  village;  Fish 
lake,  in  the  south  part  of  the  township;  Cottonwood  lake.  Clear  lake.  etc. 
This  is  an  ideal  farming  township — good  soil,  near  to  good  market  towns, 
close  to  the  county  seat  and  a  population  of  intelligent  citizens,  whose  aim 
in  life  is  to  thrive  and  do  all  they  can  for  the  advancement  of  churches  and 
public  schools. 

The  population  of  Lakeside  township  in  1S95  was  547;  in  T9°°  it  was 
592  and  according  to  the  census  returns  in  1910  it  had  449  population. 

ORGANIZATION. 

This  township  became  a  separate  civil  township  by  an  act  of  the  board 
of  county  commissioners  at  their  meeting  in  the  month  of  August.  1870, 
as  comprising  all  of  congressional  township  105.  range  35  west. 

FIRST    SETTLERS    AND    LAND    ENTRIES. 

The  best  evidence  of  names  and  dates  concerning  the  settlement  of  this 
township  is  the  record  shown  at  the  court  house  at  Windom,  which  discloses 
the  following  entries  of  homesteads  and  pre-emption  claims : 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  1 5 1 

August  L.  Brown  had  patented  to  him  a  homestead  in  the  southwest 
quarter  of  section  22;  the  filing  was  dated  at  the  Worthington  land  office 
and  bore  the  signature  of  President  U.  S.  Grant. 

Charles  F.  Sheldon  claimed  the  east  half  of  the  southwest  quarter  of 
section  32,  of  this  township,  as  a  homestead,  the  same  being  patented  on 
December  24,   1877,  and  signed  by  President  U.  S.  Grant. 

Charles  Breech  claimed  the  southwest  quarter  of  the  southeast  quarter 
of  section  32  for  a  homestead  on  December  24,  1877,  the  papers  bearing  the 
signature  of  President  U.  S.  Grant. 

Osgood  H.  Dinnell.  on  May  23,  1878,  homesteaded  the  northwest  quar- 
ter of  section  2,  at  the  Jackson  land  office,  with  the  signature  of  President 
U.  S.  Grant  attached  thereto. 

M.  Mathews  homesteaded  the  northeast  quarter  of  the  northeast  quar- 
ter of  section  4,  May  29,  1878;  the  patent  was  signed  by  President  U.  S. 
Grant;  the  transaction  was  made  at  the  Worthington  land  office. 

Samuel  C.  Taggert  homesteaded  the  northeast  of  section  22,  June  5, 
187;  the  patent  was  signed  by  President  U.  S.  Grant,  from  the  Worthington 
land  office. 

Ebenezer  A.  Hatch  homesteaded,  at  the  Worthington  land  office,  the 
north  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  10,  the  papers  being  signed 
August  26,  1878,  by  President  U.  S.  Grant. 

Kirk  W.  Sheldon  claimed  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  28  and  had 
it  patented  to  him  by  President  U.  S.  Grant,  who  signed  it  July  1,  T875. 
The  entry  was  made  through  the  land  office  at  Worthington. 

Henrv  W.  Burbank  homesteaded  land  in  the  west  half  of  the  northeast 
quarter  of  section  34,  the  patent  being  issued  by  President  Hayes  on  De- 
cember 13,  1870.  through  the  Worthington  land  office. 

David  P.  Jaqua  claimed  a  homestead  under  the  act  of  E862,  in  the 
southeast  quarter  of  the  nordieast  quarter  of  section  4,  the  patent  being 
signed  by  President  Hayes,  through  the  Worthington  land  office,  December 
12,    1877. 

Myron  Parr  homesteaded  the  south  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of 
section  10,  President  Hayes  signing  the  patent  on  December  13,   1879. 

Eber  Morton  claimed  a  homestead  in  the  south  half  of  the  southeasl 
quarter  of  section  18,  the  patent  being  signed  by  I 'resident  Hayes,  June  15, 
1880,  through  the  Worthington  land  office. 

Jacob  W.  Grant  homesteaded  the  east  half  of  the  southeasl  quarter  of 
section  28,  the  patent  being  signed  by  President  Hayes  on  December  13. 
1880,  the  entry  being  made  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington. 


I52  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

Frank  Parso  homesteaded  land  in  the  northwest  quarter  of  the  south- 
west quarter  and  the  south  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  32.  His 
patent  was  signed  by  President  Hayes  on  June  10,  1879,  and  the  entry  was 
made  at  the  Worthington  land  office. 

Henry  C.  Barr  homesteaded  land  in  the  east  half  of  the  northeast  quar- 
ter of  section  20,  and  had  his  patent  signed  by  President  Hayes  on  January 
20,  1 88 1,  the  entry  being  effected  through  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm. 

Chester  X.  Lewis  homesteaded  land  in  the  south  half  of  the  southwest 
quarter  of  section  20.  His  patent  was  issued  under  the  signature  of  Presi- 
dent Hayes  and  was  dated  June  15,  1880;  the  entry  was  made  at  the  land 
office  at  Worthington. 

William  C.  Banks  homesteaded  land  in  the  southeast  quarter  of  section 
28,  and  it  was  patented  to  him  by  President  Hayes,  signed  on  August  5, 
1877,  the  entry  being  made  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington. 

William  J.  Leisure  claimed  a  homestead  under  the  act  of  1862,  in  the 
southeast  quarter  of  section  14;  it  was  patented  to  him  by  President  U.  S. 
Grant  and  signed  on  February  1,  1873;  tne  entry  was  effected  at  the  land 
office  at  Jackson. 

John  W.  Mathews  homesteaded  land  in  the  west  half  of  the  northeast 
quarter  of  section  10.  It  was  patented  to  him  by  President  Hayes,  through 
the  land  office  at  Worthington,  December  30.   1879. 

Judson  F.  Pearson  homesteaded  land  in  the  southwest  quarter  of  the 
southwest  quarter  of  section  4,  and  his  patent  was  signed  by  President 
Hayes  on  December  30.  1880;  the  entry  was  made  at  the  land  office  at 
Worthington. 

John  Edwin  Hemme  homesteaded  land  in  the  north  half  of  the  south- 
east quarter  of  section  20;  it  was  patented  to  him  by  President  Hayes, 
signed  by  him  on  December  20,  1877;  the  entry  was  effected  at  the  land 
office  at  Worthington. 

Simeon  Greenfield  claimed  a  homestead  under  the  act  of  March  20, 
1862,  in  the  southwest  quarter  of  the  southwest  quarter  and  lot  No.  1.  in 
section  28..  It  was  patented  to  him  by  President  Hayes  and  signed  by  him 
Decemher  3c,    [880,  and  entered  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington. 

James  C.  Porter  claimed  a  homestead  in  the  east  half  of  the  southeast 
quarter  of  section  30;  also  in  the  west  half  of  the  southeast  quarter.  His 
patent  was  signed  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  ami  was  dated  Decem- 
ber 20.  1 88' 1. 

Charles  Maxon  homesteaded  land  in  the  west  half  of  the  northeast 
quarter  of  section  20;  it  was  patented  to  him  by  President  Hayes  and  signed 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  1 53 

by  him  on  November  5,  1N7S;  it  was  secured  at  the  land  office  at  Worth- 
ington. 

Elizabeth  P.  Carpenter  homesteaded  the  northwest  quarter  of  the 
northeast  quarter  and  lot  No.  2,  in  section  4.  The  patent  was  issued  by 
President  Hayes,  and  signed  by  him  on  December  20,  1S77;  the  entry  was 
made  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington. 

Polly  R.  Young  homesteaded  the  west  half  of  the  southwest  quarter 
of  section  2.  and  had  the  same  patented  to  her  by  President  Haves,  June  15, 
1881.     This  entry  was  at  the  Worthington  land  office. 

Seth  S.  Johnson  homesteaded,  April  9.  1881,  at  the  Worthington  land 
office,  the  south  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  18,  this  township. 
The  patent  was  signed  by  President  James  A.  Garfield,  and  the  entry  was 
made  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington. 

Albert  C.  Innes  homesteaded,  at  the  Worthington  land  office,  the  east 
half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  12,  the  patent  being  signed  on 
March  15,  1882,  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur. 

John  J.  Young  homesteaded  the  land  in  lot  4,  in  the  southeast  quarter 
of  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  4.  It  was  patented  by  President  Chester 
A.  Arthur,  and  signed  on  October  1,  1883,  the  entry  being  effected  through 
the  land  office  at  Worthington. 

Elizabeth  Moffatt  homesteaded  land  in  the  southwest  quarter  of  section 
24,  the  same  beiiiL;"  filed  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington,  and  finally  pat- 
ented by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur  on  October  26,   1883. 

Andrew  Greenlee  homesteaded  land  under  the  act  of  1862  at  the  land 
office  located  at  Worthington,  and  had  same  patented  to  him  on  June  5, 
1884.  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur.  Tt  was  situated  in  the  east  half  of 
the  southeast  quarter  of  section  30. 

Andrew  L.  Ely  homesteaded  land  by  entry  at  the  land  office  at  Worth- 
ington. the  same  being  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  22;  it  was  patented 
by  President  Hayes  "ti  December  13,  1879. 

David  Fast  claimed  a  homestead  in  the  north  half  of  the  northeast 
quarter  of  section  2;  it  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington,  and 
patented  by  President  Cleveland,  January  9,    [886. 

Montgomery  Milford  homesteaded  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  20, 
at  the  land  office  at  Worthington,  and  the  patent  was  issued  by  President 
Chester  A.  Arthur,  June  5,   1884. 

Israel  Burbank  homesteaded  lot  No.  3.  in  section  34,  at  the  land  office 
at  Jackson;  the  same  was  patented  by  President  U.  S.  Grant.  May  26,   1873. 


154  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

PRE-EMPTION    CLAIMS. 

John  D.  Cook,  at  the  Worthington  land  office,  pre-empted  the  west  half 
of  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  14,  and  on  September  10,  1880,  it  was 
patented  to  him  by  President  Hayes. 

Joseph  A.  Hoople,  at  the  Worthington  land  office,  entered  the  west 
half  of  the  northwest  quarter  and  the  west  half  of  the  southwest  quarter  of 
section  12,  and  his  papers  were  signed  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur. 
January  20,   1885. 

John  Button  entered  the  west  half  of  the  northeast  quarter  of  section 
26,  this  township,  and  had  his  papers  signed  by  President  U.  S.  Grant, 
April  1.  1875. 

Phillip  Linscheid,  at  the  Marshall  land  office,  entered  the  northeast 
quarter  of  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  10.  the  final  papers  being  signed 
by  President  Grover  Cleveland,  June  4,  1895. 

Marcellus  H.  Better,  at  the  Jackson  land  office,  entered  the  west  half  of 
the  northeast  quarter  and  the  southeast  quarter  of  the  northeast  quarter  and 
the  northwest  quarter  of  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  8.  President  U.  S. 
Grant  signed  his  patent  papers. 

Henry  Clark  filed  on  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  10  at  the  Jackson 
land  office,  and  the  same  was  patented  to  him  by  President  U.  S.  Grant. 
September  2,   1872. 

Tames  W.  Thorn  entered  land  in  this  township,  in  the  north  half  of  the 
northwest  quarter  of  section  34:  it  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  Jackson, 
and  finally  patented  by  President  U    S.  Grant,  May  15.  1873. 


VILLAGE    OF    BINGHAM     LAKE. 

This  sprightly  little  village  is  situated  in  Lakeside  township,  in  section 
9,  township  105,  range  35  west,  and  was  platted  by  the  officers  of  the  St. 
Paul  &  Siimx  City  Railroad  Company.  July  28,  1S75. 

The  village  of  Bingham  Lake  was  made  a  separate  corporation  from 
Lakeside  township  in  1900,  Its  municipal  improvements  have  not  as  yet 
materialized  to  any  great  extent;  it  has  no  water  or  lighting  system. 

The  postomce  at  Bingham  Lake  was  established  in  1872  and  the  first 
postmaster  was  Daniel  Davis,  who  held  the  office  until  1886.  Among  the 
postmasters  who  have  served  since  that  time  are  Samuel  Taggert.  John  J. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  155 

Goertzen  and  C.  F.  Hiebert.  The  present  postmaster  is  John  J.  Gaertzen. 
The  postal  receipts  for  the  last  fiscal  year,  exclusive  of  money  orders, 
amounted  to  one  thousand  two  hundred  and  four  dollars  and  twenty-nine 
cents.  The  money  order  department  yielded  one  thousand  five  hundred 
dollars.     Two  rural  routes  serve  the  country  communities. 

TILE   FACTORY. 

The  tile  factory  at  Bingham  Lake  has  in  the  past  been  operated  with 
various  degrees  of  success.  However,  not  until  the  business  management 
of  the  concern  came  under  the  direction  of  John  Henderson,  has  the  plant 
attained  a  perfect  success.  At  the  present  time  the  plant  is  running  at  its 
full  capacity,  employing  eleven  men  and  making  six  to  eight  thousand  tile  a 
day. 

PIONEER    BUSINESS    MEN. 

Daniel  C.  Davis  was  the  first  permanent  settler  in  the  village  of  Bing- 
ham Lake  and,  in  company  with  R.  P.  Mathews,  established  all  the  corners 
of  the  townsites.  Upon  coming  to  the  village,  Mr.  Davis  opened  a  general 
store  and  continued  to  operate  it  for  three  years.  He  was  appointed  post- 
master in  1S72,  and  served  until  1886/  It  is  rather  of  an  interesting  fact 
that  at  the  end  of  the  first  three  months,  after  taking  out  his  own  salary 
and  office  expenses,  the  government's  share  of  the  receipts  was  three  cents. 

Mr.  Davis  bought  his  first  stock  of  goods,  amounting  to  three  thousand 
•six  hundred  dollars,  in  Xew  York,  as  goods  could  be  bought  much  cheaper 
in  the  East  than  at  St.  Paul  or  Minneapolis.  However,  he  greatly  over- 
estimated the  needs  of  the  people  and  bad  to  dispose  of  a  great  amount  of 
his  stock  to  Windom  merchants.  During  the  grasshopper  days  he  supplied 
many  needy  people  with  provisions,  trusting  that  when  they  were  able  he 
would  receive  payment,  but  in  many  cases  his  accommodations  and  sacrifices 
were  lost  sight  of  and  the  money  was  never  forthcoming. 

In  1R72  the  plat  of  ground  set  aside  for  a  park  was  broken  up  by  Mr. 
Davis  and  planted  with  trees.  They  were  not  taken  as  good  care  of  as  they 
should  have  been,  with  the  result  that  the  prairie  fires  destroyed  most  of 
them.  A  few  of  the  original  trees  are  still  standing,  but  the  majority  have 
been  planted  within  the  last  thirty  years. 

Among  the  early  business-men,  besides  Mr.  Davis,  were,  Mr.  ("lines, 
who  came  from  Lake  City.  He  sold  bis  business  to  Mr.  Young,  who  was 
burned  out.     A.   J.   Bueller  was  another  one  of  the  early  merchant-.      He 


I56  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

remained  in  the  village  for  a  while  and  finally  sold  out  and  went  to  Mon- 
tana. D.  J.  Hiehert  was  also  one  of  the  early  business-men  and  did  a  large 
and  profitable  business  for  many  years. 

One  of  the  early  landmarks  of  the  village  is  still  standing,  and  that  is 
the  first  house  erected  in  the  village  by  Mr.  Davis  and  now  occupied  by 
William  Evans.  It  is  in  a  good  state  of  preservation  and  looks  better  than 
many  of  the  houses  erected  in  the  last  few  years. 

By  noticing  the  present  business  directory  one  can  see  that  there  has 
been  a  great  change  since  the  early  settlement  of  the  village.  Almost  every 
line  of  business  is  now  represented,  and  although  the  village  is  destined  to 
never  become  a  large  town,  yet  it  is  growing  because  the  merchants  are 
wideawake  and  prosperous  and  the  village  is  located  in  the  midst  of  a  fine 
farming  community,  which  is  the  chief  basis  for  all  growth. 

COMMERCIAL  INTERESTS   IN    I916. 

The  business  interests  of  Bingham  Lake  were  represented  by  the  fol- 
lowing people  in   1916: 

Bank — First  State  Bank. 

Barber — Frank  E.  Hyde. 

Blacksmith— W.  J.  Butler. 

Brick  Plant — John  Henderson. 

Creamery — Bingham  Lake  Creamery. 

Elevator — St.  John  Grain  Company,  The  Liem  Elevator. 

General  Dealer — Holt  &  Wickland. 

Harness  Shop — Erickson  &  Anderson. 

Implement  Dealer — Charles  A.  Liem. 

Meat  Market— Henry  Wessel. 

Livery — Joseph  Morton. 

Lumber  Dealer — S.  L.  Rogers  Lumber  Company. 

Restaurant — J.  J.  Soltau. 

Stock  Buyer — C.  S.  Cain.  X.   P.  Minion. 

Telephone — Windom  Mutual,  Northwestern. 


MIDWAY    TOWNSHIP. 


Midway   township   is   the  central    sub-division   of   the   county,   on   the 
eastern  border,  and  comprises  all  of  congressional  township  106,  range  34 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINX.  157 

west.  It  is  south  of  Selma  township,  west  of  the  line  between  Cottonwood 
and  Watonwan  counties,  and  north  of  Mountain  Lake  township.  The  village 
of  Mountain  Lake  is  within  this  township  and  was  named  "Midway,''  but 
latter  changed  on  petition  of  the  citizens.  Originally,  this  township  had 
numerous  swamps  and  lakelets,  but  with  the  flight  of  years  they  have  nearly 
all  been  reclaimed,  and  now  growing  crops  wave  over  their  surface.  The 
soil  is  of  unexcelled  fertility  in  these  old  lake  and  pond  beds.  Hundreds  of 
miles  of  private  farm  tiling  have  made  this  one  of  the  best  sections  in  the 
county,  and  still  the  work  is  going  on. 

This  township,  as  are  others  adjoining  it,  is  largely  settled  by  Russians, 
who  came  in  to  this  part  of  the  county  in  great  colonies  about  1870  and 
later.  They  still  retain  many  of  their  foreign  notions,  but  are  thorough 
farmers  and  good  citizens.  If  they  have  any  special  hobby  it  is  that  of 
supporting  an  almost  endless  number  of  different  kinds  of  Mennonite 
churches,  which  practically  are  the  same,  only  for  some  special  feature. 

The  population  in  1895  was  52&:  H1  '9°°  it  had  reached  607,  and  ac- 
cording to  the  United  States  census  reports  of  1910  it  was  placed  at  658. 

TOWNSHIP   ORGANIZATION. 

This  township  was  organized  by  the  count}-  commissioners  board  in 
.March.  1895,  from  territory  once  included  in  Mountain  Lake  township,  the 
new  town-hip  taking  in  township  100,  range  34,  west.  The  first  meeting  and 
township  election  were  called  by  the  board  to  meet  at  the  house  of  Cor- 
nelius Janzen,  March  16.  1895. 

EARLY  SETTLERS. 

The  records  show  the  following  land  entries  in  this  township: 

Joseph  A.  Belling  homesteaded,  March  [8,  [878,  at  the  New  Ulm  land 
office,  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  4,  the  patent  being  signed  by  Presi- 
dent U.  S.  Grant. 

William  Seeger  homesteaded  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  2,  at  the 
Xew  Ulm  land  office,  the  patent  being  signed  by  President  Haves.  March  1  }. 
1879. 

F.  Tow-  homesteaded  the  south  half  of  the  northwest  quarter  of  sec- 
tion 28,  at  the  land  office  located  at  Tracy  and  it  was  patented  t<>  him  by 
President  ('buster  A.  Arthur.  March   10,  1883. 

Apollos  S.  Yale,  on  February   to.   [883,  had  patented  to  him  by  Presi- 


I58  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

dent  Chester  A.  Arthur,  a  homestead  in  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  30, 
the  same  haying  heen  entered  in  the  land  office  at  Tracy. 

*  Thomas  Curley,  at  the  Tracy  land  office,  had  a  homestead  which  was  situ- 
ated in  the  south  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  2,  the  same  was 
patented  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  May  10,  1883. 

Asa  L.  Warren  homesteaded  the  south  half  of  the  southwest  quarter  of 
section  34,  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm,  and  had  the  same  patented  to  him  by 
President  U.  S.  Grant,  February  20,  1877. 

Morris  Dunn  homesteaded  the  west  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of 
section  10  and  the  south  half  of  the  northeast  quarter  of  the  same  section,  all 
within  township  106,  range  34,  west.  It  was  patented  to  him  by  President 
Chester  A.  Arthur,  May  3,  1884. 

Martin  Carty  homesteaded  the  northeast  half  of  the  southeast  quarter 
of  section  2,  the  entry  being  made  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office;  the  patent 
was  issued  to  him  by  President  Hayes,  January  20,  1881. 

Henry  Goosen,  at  the  Tracy  land  office,  entered  as  his  homestead  the 
west  half  of  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  12;  the  same  was  patented  by 
President  .Arthur,  March  10,  1883. 

Henry  F.  Billings  homesteaded  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office  the  east  half 
of  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  34;  it  was  patented  by  President  U.  S. 
Grant,  December  1,  1873. 

Paul  Seeger  homesteaded  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  20;  it  was 
entered  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm  and  patented  by  President  U.  S.  Grant, 
May  20,  1873. 

PRE-EMPTION    CLAIMS. 

Alonzo  R.  Phillips,  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office,  pre-empted  the  south- 
west quarter  of  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  8;  President  Haves  signed 
the  papers  on  May  24,  1879. 

I  lenry  M.  Kroeker,  at  the  land  office  at  Marshall,  entered  the  southeast 
quarter  of  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  30,  the  final  papers  being  certi- 
fied to  by  I'resident  Benjamin  Harrison,  March  9,  1893. 

Ruth  M.  Chandler,  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm.  entered  the  north  half 
of  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  34,  President  U.  S.  Grant  signing  the 
final  papers  on  May  15,  1876. 

Caroline  Quiring,  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office,  entered  the  south  half  of 
the  southeast  quarter  of  section  4.  President  Hayes  signing  the  papers  on 
January  20,   1881. 

Albert  Wigton  entered  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office,  the  west  half  of  the 


rONWOOD    AND    WATOXWAX    COUNTIES,    MINN.  159 

southeast  quarter  of  section  6,   President  Hayes  issuing  the  papers  on  July 
24.  [879. 

MOUNTAIN    LAKE   VILLAGE. 

The  village  of  Mountain  Lake  received  its  name  from  the  lake  of  the 
same  name,  located  about  two  miles  southeast  of  the  village.  In  the  center 
of  the  lake  was  an  island  almost  circular  in  form,  flat  on  top  and  rising  out 
of  the  water  about  forty  feet.  The  upper  part  of  the  island  was  covered 
with  trees  which  could  be  seen  for  many  miles.  This  spot  served  as  a  land- 
mark and  a  guide  for  many  of  the  early  settlers. 

Xear  this  lake  and  island  the  railroad  station  was  first  located.  In  time 
the  station  was  moved  to  the  present  site  and  the  name  of  the  village  was 
changed  to  Midway,  but  the  name  proving  unsatisfactory,  was  changed  back 
t< '  Mountain  Lake. 

The  village  was  platted  in  1870,  but  made  little  progress  until  after  the 
building  of  the  railroad  in  1873.  In  this  year,  three  general  stores  were 
doing  business  in  the  village  and  were  owned  by  S.  J.  Soule,  J.  Lynch  and 
Paul  Seeger.  The  store  owned  by  Seeger  was  probably  the  first  and  was 
located  on  the  site  of  the  State  Bank.  The  store  room  was  very  small,  but 
was  quite  adequate  to  the  needs  of  the  times.  Mr.  Seeger  came  from  Curnea, 
Russia,  in  1873.  and  settled  on  the  first  claim  in  the  vicinity  of  .Mountain 
Lake.  He  was  also  among  the  first  postmasters.  The  first  blacksmith  was 
Carl  Penner,  who  later  moved  away  and  died  in  California.  Among  other 
earlv  business  men  in  the  village  were  Howard  Soule,  Jacob  Reiner,  John 
Janzen  and  Abraham  Penner. 

With  the  coming  of  the  railroad,  immigration  set  in  rapidly  and  the 
village  grew  by  leaps  and  bounds.  In  1886  the  village  was  incorporated 
with  a  population  of  three  hundred  people,  mostly  Mennonites  from  south- 
ern Russia. 

Among  other  business  factors  in  the  village  have  been  the   following: 

Jacob  Heier.  who  began  the  furniture  business  in  1878  south  of  the 
railroad  track,  settled  in  Mountain  Lake  in  1874  and  began  work  as  a  car- 
penter. David  Ewert,  who  in  1880  opened  a  lumber  yard  and  store  in 
partnership  with  H.  P.  Goertz,  came  to  the  village  in  1878.  P.  II.  Goosen, 
the  blacksmith,  who  came  into  the  village  in  1875.  H.  P.  Goertz,  one  of 
the  very  earliest  settlers  and  among  the  very  few  living  in  the  town,  started 
business  with  David  Ewert  and  in  1882  started  in  the  lumber  business  for 
himself.  He  also  settled  in  the  village  in  1875.  Henry  Hammer  located 
in  the  village  in  1883  and  opened  up  a  harness  shop  in  1877.     Mr.  Hammer 


ibO  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

first  settled  on  a  tree  claim,  eight  miles  north  of  the  village.  Frank  Balzer 
entered  into  the  lumber  business  in  1886  and  still  operates  his  place  of  busi- 
ness. Balzer  &  Hiebert  opened  a  general  store  in  1888.  Mr.  Balzer,  the 
druggist,  began  the  drug  business  in  1889.  John  C.  Hiebert  became  a  dealer 
in  general  merchandise  in  1891.  Abraham  Nickel,  the  harness  man,  began 
business  in  1891.  Edward  Rupp,  merchant,  began  business  in  1892.  A.  E. 
Woodruff  opened  a  large  merchandise  store  in-  1894.  Thiessen  Brothers 
began  their  implement  business  in  1895  .  In  1896  Julien  Glasman  opened  a 
new  meat  market.  John  Jungas  began  the  operation  of  a  shoe  store  in 
1897.     In  1898  P.  P.  Goertzen  a  jewelry  store  and  was  cptite  successful. 

One  of  the  early  physicians  to  locate  in  the  village  was  Dr.  John  Wat- 
son, a  graduate  of  Bellone  Medical  College,  New  York  City.  He  began  the 
practice  of  medicine  in  Mountain  Lake  in  1901. 

Among  other  men  who  have  contributed  to  the  business  welfare  of  the 
town  are,  J.  D.  Schroeder,  J.  J.  Unruh,  Theo.  Nickel  and  G.  D.  Schroeder. 

Among  other  early  settlers  have  been  the  following:  Abraham  Funk, 
1875;  H.  Goosen  and  G.  Gerdes  in  the  early  seventies;  Abraham  J.  Fa-t, 
[875;  Henry  J.  Fast,  1875;  Gerhard  Neufeld,  1878;  Jacob  P.  Harder.  1873: 
John  Janzen,  1873;  Henry  Dickman  and  Peter  Dick  (Krim). 

MUNICIPAL. 

The  village  of  Mountain  Lake  became  separated  from  the  township  in 
1886.  A  Penner  was  the  first  president  of  the  town  council  and  John  Jan- 
zen, the  first  recorder.  The  present  officers  are  inclusive  of  the  following: 
President,  J.  H.  Dickman;  treasurer,  F.  F.  Schroeder;  recorder.  M.  S.  Han- 
son; trustees,  John  Jungas,  D.  Heppner  and  A.  Janzen;  marshal,  William 
Burk;  justices,  Herman -Teichroew  and  John  P.  Rempel ;  constables,  J.  J. 
Brown  and  W.  Burk ;  assessor,  Herman  Teichroew. 

Tlie  town  is  very  active  in  the  way  of  improvements.  Twenty  thousand 
dollars  have  been  spent  in  installing  a  water-works  system.  The  town  is 
furnished  with  water  from  a  drilled  well  four  hundred  and  fifty  feet  deep. 
three  hundred  feet  of  which  is  drilled  through  solid  rock. 

POSTOFFICE. 

The  postoffice  at  Mountain  Lake  was  one  of  the  first  government  offices 
established  in  the  county  and  at  the  present  time  its  receipts  are  the  second 
largest   in   the  county,  amounting   to    four  thousand   three  hundred   dollars. 


BETHEL  CHURCH,  MOUNTAIN'  LAKE. 


FARM  VIEW  NEAR  MOUNTAIN  LAKE. 


GERMAN  SCHOOL,  MOUNTAIN  LAKE. 


HICH   SCHOOL,   MOUNTAIN   LAKE. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  l6l 

exclusive  of  money  orders,  for  the  last  fiscal  year.  Four  rural  routes  serve 
the  country  people  from  this  office.  Among  the  postmasters  who  have  held 
the  office  are  the  following:  Howard  Sonler,  John  Janzen,  Abraham  Siem- 
ens, Joe  Wigton,  J.  D.  Schroeder  and  I.  I.  Rargen.  Mr.  Bargen,  the  present 
postmaster,  has  served  in  the  capacity  continuously  for  the  last  fourteen 
years  and  although  a  Republican,  received  his  last  appointment  under  a 
Democratic  administration. 

THE    COMMERCIAL   CLUB. 

The  Mountain  Lake  Commercial  Club  began  its  existence  on  March  i, 
1915.  In  the  beginning  the  membership  numbered  nearly  one  hundred,  but 
since  the  number  has  decreased  until  there  are  only  about  eighty  members. 
The  club  is  composed  of  business  and  professional  men  in  Mountain  Lake 
and  neighboring  communities.  A  great  many  public  questions  have  been 
brought  up  and  discussed  at  the  meetings  with  the  result  that  a  great  deal 
of  good  has  been  accomplished.  Among  the  questions  have  been  those  of 
sewerage,  roads,  a  public  rest  room,  etc.  The  officers  who  were  first  elected 
still  retain  their  offices.  They  include  the  following:  President,  Frank 
Balzer;  vice-president,  Henry  P.  Goertz;  secretary,  D.  G.  Hiebert;  treas- 
urer, F.  F.  Schroeder;  executive  committee,  Dr.  W.  A.  Piper,  D.  C.  Balzer 
and  A.  A.  Penner. 

The  purpose  of  the  club  is  to  bring  into  one  organization,  the  business 
and  professional  men  of  Mountain  Lake  and  vicinity,  so  that  by  frequent 
meetings  and  the  full  interchange  of  views,  they  may  secure  an  intelligent 
unity  and  harmony  of  action,  that  shall  result  to  their  own  benefit,  as  well 
as  the  future  development  of  the  community  in  which  they  live. 

MENNONITE  HOSPITAL. 

The  Mennonite  hospital  of  Mountain  Lake  began  its  existence  about 
1905.  The  organization  included  only  local  men,  among  whom  were,  H.  P. 
Goertz,  D.  Ewert,  J.  D.  Hiebert,  F.  Balzer,  J.  H.  Dickman,  J.  G.  Hiebert. 
For  a  few  years  the  institution  was  run  without  much  success.  Finally, 
in  1912.  the  company  was  reorganized  and  the  institution  sold  to  the  Bethel 
Deaconess  Home,  of  Newton,  Kansas,  and  is  now  considered  as  a  branch 
of  it.  The  hospital  is  managed  by  a  local  board  consisting  of  one  member 
from  each  of  the  five  Mennonite  churches.  H.  P.  Goertz  is  president  of 
the  board ;  D.  P.  Eitzen,  secretary ;  Aaron  Peters,  treasurer. 


1 62  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

The  physicians  in  charge  are  Doctor  Piper,  of  Mountain  Lake,  and 
Doctor  Sogge,  of  Windom,  who  are  assisted  by  three  sisters  and  two  or  three 
helpers.  In  19 15  the  institution  had  sixty-four  patients  and  thirty-two 
operations  were  performed. 

ELECTRIC    LIGHT    AND    FIRE    COMPANY. 

Ill  1913  the  Mountain  Lake  Milling  Company  installed  an  electric  light 
plant  which  furnishes  the  town  with  electricity.  However,  arrangements 
have  been  made  whereby  connections  are  to  be  made  with  the  Rapidan  sys- 
tem and  hereafter  light  will  be  furnished  by  that  concern. 

The  rire  company  is  composed  of  fourteen  men,  well  supplied  with  a 
fire  engine,  hose,  ladders,  chemical  tanks  and  other  necessary  fire  equip- 
ment. The  present  indebtedness  of  the  town  is  about  thirteen  thousand 
dollars. 

INDUSTRIES. 

David  Hiebert,  who  came  from  Russia,  started  the  Mountain  Lake 
flour-mill  in  1875.  He  conducted  the  business  for  a  period  of  ten  years  of 
time.  He  sold  to  Neuheld  &  Friesen,  who  after  two  or  three  years  sold  to 
Abraham  Penner.  Mr.  Penner  was  not  a  miller  and  therefore  was  not  very 
successful.  He  soon  sold  out  to  Diedricks  &  Hiebert,  the  present  owners,  who 
after  running  the  business  for  four  years,  formed  an  incorporated  company 
known  as  the  Mountain  Lake  Roller  Milling  Company.  The  officers  at 
present  are :  President,  J.  J.  Diedricks ;  vice-president,  J.  J.  Hiebert ;  sec- 
retary-treasurer, D.  G.  Hiebert.  The  company  is  incorporated  for  forty 
thousand  dollars.  The  capacity  of  the  mill  is  one  hundred  and  twenty  bar- 
rels per  day.  Their  special  brands  of  flour  are  "White  Rose,"  a  first-grade 
flour,  and  "Natural  Patent,"  a  second-grade  flour.  Besides  they  make  rye, 
graham,  wheat  graham,  corn  meal  and  rye  flour.  An  elevator  is  run  in  con- 
nection with  the  mill  which  has  a  capacity  of  ten  thousand  bushels. 

At  the  time  of  incorporation,  an  electric  plant  was  installed  in  connec- 
tion with  the  mill  and  was  very  successful.  Recently,  however,  an  oppor- 
tunity presented  itself  of  securing  better  service  by  connecting  with  the  Con- 
sumers Power  Company.  The  Milling'  Company  has  just  entered  into  a 
ten-year  contract  with  the  above  company,  service  to  begin  on  October  1, 
1916.     The  Milling  Company  continues  to  distribute  light  and  power. 

The  Farmers'  Co-operative  Creamery  at  Mountain  Lake  was  organized 
about  June   1,    1908.     The  company  owns   their  own   building,   which   was 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  163 

built  especially  for  the  purpose  and  is  doubtless  the  best  and  most  completely 
equipped  of  any  in  the  county.  The  plant  has  a  capacity  of  about  ten  thou- 
sand pounds  of  butter  per  week,  but  the  amount  turned  out  at  the  present  time 
amounts  to  about  four  thousand  pounds  per  week,  all  of  which  has  a  ready 
market  in  the  local  community  and  Chicago.  During  the  month  of  July, 
1916,  the  creamery  had  one  hundred  and  ten  patrons. 

SMALL    CONFLAGRATIONS. 

Mountain  Lake  has  been  very  fortunate  in  not  having  many  destructive 
fires.  In  1897  tne  elevators  belonging  to  H.  P.  Goertz  and  E.  G.  Ter- 
williger  were  burned,  causing  a  loss  of  six  thousand  dollars.  It  was  the 
general  belief  at  the  time  that  the  fire  was  of  incendiary  origin,  but  it  was 
never  proven. 

In  1900  the  creamery  owned  by  P.  C.  Hiebert  burned,  causing  a  loss  of 
four  thousand  dollars,  covered  by  insurance  to  the  extent  of  two  thousand 
dollars. 

On  April  13,  1898,  the  Hubbard  &  Palmer  elevator  burned,  causing  a 
loss  of  six  thousand  dollars.  Seven  thousand  bushels  of  wheat  were 
destroyed. 

Hiebert  Brothers'  elevator  was  burned  on  January  30,  1899.  At  the 
same  time  an  attempt  was  made  to  burn  the  elevator  belonging  to  Hubbard 
&  Palmer.     All  the  losses  were  covered  bv  insurance. 


MOUNTAIN    LAKE    TOWNSHIP. 

The  southeastern  corner  township  in  Cottonwood  is  Mountain  Lake. 
It  comprises  all  of  congressional  township  105,  range  34,  west,  and  is  a 
full  thirty-six  section  township.  It  is  situated  south  of  Midway  township, 
west  of  the  Watonwan  county  line,  north  from  Jackson  county  and  east  of 
Lakewood  township.  It  derives  its  name  from  the  lake  of  that  name  within 
its  borders,  of  which  further  mention  will  be  made.  The  lake,  as  known 
to  pioneers,  is  no  more;  it  has  long  since  been  drained  and  grains  and  gras^ :s 
grow  in  its  old  bed.  There  are  a  few  small  prairie  creeks  in  the  township, 
but  none  of  any  considerable  size.  Except  the  southern  suburbs  of  the 
village  of  Mountain  Lake,  which  is  in  Midway  township,  there  are  no 
villages  within  Mountain  Lake  township,  ft  is  excellent  land  and  produces 
immense  crops  of  all  grains  and  grasses  common  to  this  latitude.     It  is  set- 


164  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

tied  very  largely  by  Russians,   who   make  first-class  agriculturists,   though 
many  have  methods  peculiar  to  themselves. 

The  population  of  the  township  in   1895  was  612;  in  1900  it  was  561 
and  the  United  States  census  for  1900  gave  it  as  having  only  512. 

ORGANIZATION. 

Mountain  Lake  township  was  organized  at  a  board  meeting  in  187 1, 
by  a  petition  presented  the  board  by  Daniel  D.  Bates  and  many  more,  ask- 
ing that  township  105,  range  34  be  set  off  and  called  Mountain  Lake  town- 
ship. The  prayer  was  answered  and  the  township  organized  by  calling  the 
first  election  at  the  house  of  A.  A.  Soule,  Saturday,  May  6,  1871.  Daniel 
D.  Bates,  A.  A.  Soule  and  M.  Jacobson  were  appointed  judges  of  such  elec- 
tion, and  S.  H.  Soule  was  appointed  clerk.  The  legal  description  of  the 
new  townships  was:  "Commencing  at  the  northeast  corner  of  township  105, 
range  34,  thence  south  to  the  southeast  corner  of  said  township  and  range; 
thence  west  to  the  southwest  corner  of  said  township,  thence  east  to  the 
northeast  corner  of  said  township  and  to  the  northeast  corner  of  said  town- 
ship, thence  to  the  place  of  beginning." 

PIONEER   AND   LATER   LAND   ENTRIES. 

The  subjoined  list  of  homesteads  and  pre-emption  claims  has  been  tran- 
scribed from  the  books  in  the  register  of  deeds  in  the  court  house  at  Win- 
dom,  and  shows  many  entries,  name  of  land  office  and  by  whom  patented. 

A  homestead  claim  was  filed  on  August  25,  1873,  by  William  H.  Drake 
in  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  4,  township  105,  range  34,  west,  at  the 
Jackson  land  office,  and  signed  by  President  U.  S.  Grant. 

Under  the  Soldiers  Bounty  Act  of  1820,  Abraham  Mace,  a  private  in 
Captain  Wooster's  company,  Vermont  militia,  at  the  invasion  of  Plattsburg, 
during  the  War  of  1812.  was  entitled  to  land,  and  his  heirs  laid  claim  to 
the  southwest  quarter  of  section  30,  township  [05,  range  34,  at  the  Jackson 
laud  office:  the  same  contains  one  hundred  and  fifty-six  acres. 

1 'resident  U.  S.  Grant  signed  the  patent  for  a  homestead  on  November 
4,  1874,  for  Julia  T.  Knowlton,  from  the  Worthington  land  office,  the  same 
being  land  in  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  30,  township   105.  range  34. 

Alfred  ,\.  Smile  lmmcstcadcd,  at  the  Jackson  land  office,  the  east  half 
of  the  northwest  quarter  and  the  southwest  quarter  of  the  northwest  quarter 
of  section  2,  in  1872.  the  same  being  signed  by  President  U.  S.  Grant. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  165 

Ed.  O.  Zimmerman  homesteaded  at  die  Worthington  land  office  die 
southwest  quarter  of  section  20,  the  patent  being  signed  by  President  Hayes, 
July  23,  1S78. 

James  Cooney  claimed,  as  a  homestead,  July  23,  1878,  the  east  half  of 
the  northeast  quarter  of  section  4,  the  patent  was  signed  by  President  U.  S. 
Grant:  the  papers  came  through  the  land  office  at  Worthington. 

James  B.  Jones  claimed  a  homestead  in  the  southeast  quarter  of  section 
14.  and  had  it  patented  to  him  by  President  Hayes  and  signed  on  February 
10,  1881 ;  it  was  secured  at  the  Worthington  land  office. 

Eliza  C.  Huntington  homesteaded  the  east  half  of  the  northeast  quarter 
of  section  30;  it  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington  and  was 
patented  by  President  Hayes  and  by  him  signed  on  December  13,  1880. 

Simon  Huntington  homesteaded  land  in  the  west  half  of  the  northeast 
quarter  of  section  30;  it  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington  and 
patented  by  President  Hayes,  who  signed  it  on  June  15,  1880. 

Cornelius  Quiring  homesteaded  land  in  the  west  half  of  the  southwest 
quarter  of  section  28;  it  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington  and 
patented  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur  and  signed  by  him  on  April  5,  1883. 

Ole  Christensen  homesteaded  the  east  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of 
section  12.  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington  and  had  same  patented  to  him 
by  President  U.  S.  Grant,  who  signed  it  on  November  3,  1876. 

Peder  Christensen  claimed,  as  his  homestead,  the  east  half  of  the  north- 
east quarter  of  section  12,  and  the  same  was  patented  to  him  by  President 
U.  S.  Grant,  and  signed  on  December  1,  1876;  the  entry  was  made  at  Worth- 
ington land  office. 

John  Oglesby  at  the  land  office  located  at  Worthington,  claimed  as  his 
homestead  the  west  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of' section  34  and  his  patent 
was  issued  by  President  Hayes,  June  15,  1880. 

George  Baumann.  at  the  Worthington  land  office  homesteaded  the  west 
half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  18,  and  had  same  patented  to  him 
by  President  Hayes,  who  signed  the  papers  on  December  30,  1879. 

Joseph  Meixell  claimed  as  a  homestead  at  the  land  office  at  Worthing- 
ton, the  northwest  quarter  of  section  28,  and  same  was  patented  by  President 
Have-.  November  5,  1878. 

William  Weibe  homesteaded  the  north  half  of  the  northeast  quarter  of 
section  22,  the  entry  being  made  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington  and  pat- 
ented by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  April  5,  1883. 

Christian  Reinert  homesteaded  the  northeast  quarter  of  the  southea  1 
quarter  of  section  22;  also  the  northeast  of  the  southwest  of  same  section, 


1 66  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

the  entry  being  made  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington  and  the  final  patent 
issued  to  him  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  March  10,   1883. 

Charles  F.  Barnes  homesteaded  the  west  half  of  the  northwest  quarter 
of  section  34,  the  entry  being  made  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington;  the 
patent  was  issued  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  March  15,  1884. 

Samuel  E.  Ford  homesteaded  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  18,  and 
it  was  patented  to  him  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  April  5,  1883;  the 
land  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington. 

Heinrich  Regehr,  at  the  Worthington  land  office  filed  on  the  east  half 
of  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  34,  and  the  same  was  patented  to  him 
by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  June  5,  1884. 

Henry  H.  Winter  homesteaded  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  26. 
The  entry  was  effected  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington  and  was  finally  pat- 
ented to  him  by  President  U.  S.  Grant,  November  5,  1874. 

Thomas  S.  Potter  homesteaded  the  north  half  of  the  northwest  quarter 
of  section  18,  and  the  same  was  patented  to  him  by  President  Grover  Cleve- 
land, April  20,  1885. 

Martin  Pepper  homesteaded  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  14  and 
his  patent  was  signed  by  President  Hayes,  November  5,  1878;  the  entry  was 
made  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington. 

Andreas  Pleiler,  at  the  land  office,  Worthington,  filed  on  a  homestead 
in  northwest  quarter  of  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  10,  this  township; 
it  was  patented  to  him  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  January  10,   1885. 

Jacob  Dickson  homesteaded  the  east  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of 
section  28  and  had  the  same  patented  to  him  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur, 
April  5,  1883.     ft  was  filed  on  at  the  land  office  in  Worthington. 

Wilhelm  Holzrichter  had  patented  to  him  a  homestead  by  President 
Chester  A.  Arthur,  October  26,  1883,  the  same  being  the  south  half  of  the 
southwest  quarter  of  section  18.  It  was  filed  on  at  the  Worthington  land 
office. 

David  Wade  homesteaded  the  south  half  of  the  northeast  quarter  of 
section  22,  the  same  being  entered  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington  and 
finally  patented  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur.  March   10,   1883. 

Jacob  Neufeld  entered  as  a  homestead  at  the  land  office  at  Worthing- 
ton, the  northeast  quarter  of  section  20,  and  had  the  same  patented  to  him 
by  President  Grover  Cleveland,  August  10,   1S86. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  1 6/ 

PRE-EMPTION    CLAIMS. 

Paul  Seeger,  at  the  Jackson  land  office,  pre-empted  the  northeast  quarter 
of  section  4,  President  U.  S.  Grant  signing  his  final  papers. 

Martin  Henderson  pre-empted  two  quarters  in  this  township  at  the 
land  office  at  Jackson  and  the  final  papers  were  signed  by  President  Chester 
A.   Arthur.  May  20,   1884. 

William  H.  Race,  at  the  Worthington  land  office,  pre-empted  west  half 
of  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  12,  the  papers  finally  being  verified  hy 
President  Hayes.  March  20,  1877. 

D.  D.  Olfert  pre-empted  at  the  land  office  at  Marshall,  the  southwest 
quarter  of  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  20,  the  papers  being  issued  by 
President  Benjamin  Harrison,  November  15,   1893. 

William  Leder,  at  the  land  office  at  Marshall,  pre-empted  the  south  half 
of  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  6,  the  papers  being  signed  by  President 
William  McKinley,  September  9,   1897. 

Frederick  Maker  pre-empted  the  east  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of 
section  6,  the  papers  being  signed  lay  President  U.  S.  Grant,  May  20,  1874. 

Keziah  M.  Tingley,  at  the  Jackson  land  office,  entered  the  north  half 
of  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  34;  President  U.  S.  Grant  signed  his 
papers  on  April  1,  1875. 

Peter  K.  Voth  entered  land  at  the  land  office  at  Marshall,  the  same 
being  described  as  the  north  half  of  the  southeast  quarter,  and  the  south- 
east quarter  of  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  20;  the  final  papers  were 
signed  by  President  Benjamin  Harrison,  March  1,   1892. 

The  business  interests  and  professions  of  Mountain  Lake  were  repre- 
sented by  the  following  in  1916: 

Auto  garage — H.  P.  Goertz  Auto  Company,  Peter  Stoesz. 

Banks — First  National,  First  State. 

Barber  shop — Rempel  &  Harder. 

Blacksmith  shops — Peter  Go<>sen,  Herman  Kremin. 

Confectionery— J.  J.   Yogt,  "The  Pleasant  Comer." 

Clothing — Janzen  Brothers,  J.  N.  Fast. 

Creamery — Farmers  Co-operative  Association. 

Creamerv  station — Fairmount  Creamery  Company,  Worthington 
Creamery  Company,  Hansford  Creamery  Company. 

Drug  store— S.  Balzer. 

Dray  lines— J.  P.  F.  Derksen,  Dick  &  Heppner. 


l68  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

Dentist — E.  A.  Rieke. 

Elevator — F.  Schroeder,  Hubbard  &  Palmer,  Farmers  Elevator  Com- 
pany, Schaefer  Brothers. 

Furniture  dealer — Jacob  Heir,  J.  J.  Janzen. 

Feed  store — D.  D.  Enns. 

General  dealers — Balzer,  Hiebert  and  Company,  David  Ewert,  P.  Geyer- 
man  &  Sons,  Ed.  Rupp. 

Hotel — The  Commercial. 

Harness  shop — Mens  S.  Hanson. 

Hardware  dealers — J.  J.  Janzen,  John  Jungas. 

Implement  dealers — Schroeder  &  Becker,  Thiessen  Brothers,  Mountain 
Lake  Implement  Company. 

Jeweler — W.  A.   Nickel. 

Lumber  dealers — H.  P.  Goertz,  Frank  Balzer  and  Company. 

Livery — George  Hutgler. 

Mill — Mountain  Lake  Roller  Milling  Company. 

Milliners — Hiebert  Sisters. 

Meat  markets — George  P.  Derkson,  T.  J.  Eickholt. 

Merchant  tailor — Phil  Nerstheimer. 

Newspaper — Mountain  Lake  Viczv  and  Unscr  Beuucher. 

Physicians— Dr.  P.  W.  Pauls,  Dr.  W.  A.  Piper. 

Photograph  gallery — Cornelius  J.   Brown. 

Produce  dealers — Han  ford  Produce  Company,  Worthington  Produce 
Company. 

Real  estate  dealers — Aug  Buche  Land  Company,  J.  C.  Koehn,  D.  A. 
Lahart  Land  Company. 

Shoemaker — Henry  Fiel. 

Tin  shop — J.  V.  Dueck. 

Telephone — North  Star  Telephone  Company.  Tri-State. 

Veterinary — Sidney  Meyers. 


ROSE   HILL  TOWNSHIP. 

Rose  Plill  township  is  situated  on  the  western  line  of  Cottonwood 
county  and  is  the  second  from  the  southern  line.  It  comprises  all  of  con- 
gressional township  1 06,  range  38  west.  It  is  bounded  on  the  north  by 
Westbrook  township,  on  the  east  by  Amu,  on  the  south  by  Southbrook  and 
on  the  west  is  the  county  line  between  Cottonwood  and  Murray  counties. 
Originally,  there  were  numerous  lakes  and  prairie  ponds  within  the  limits 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  169 

of  this  township,  and  there  are  still  a  few,  but  many  of  the  lakes  have  been 
drained  and  their  beds  are  utilized  for  pasture  and  field  purposes.  Among 
the  lakes  are  Berry,  Long  and  Carey  lakes. 

This  is  an  excellent  agricultural  and  dairy  section  and  the  farmers  are 
rapidly  becoming  forehanded  and  wealthy.  They  have  the  modern  con- 
veniences of  life,  and  are  reaping  the  reward  for  the  long  years  of  struggle 
they  had  as  homesteaders,  against  prairie  fires  and  grasshoppers. 

The  population  of  the  township  in  1895  was  4^o;  in  1900  it  was  535 
but  by  1910,  according  to  the  United  States  census  returns  it  had  decreased 
to  510. 

ORGANIZATION. 

By  an  act  of  the  board  of  county  commissioners  in  the  month  of  March, 
1S79,  Rose  Hill  township  was  organized,  and  the  board  ordered  the  first 
township  meeting  and  election  of  officers  to  take  place  on  April  5,  1879,  at 
the  house  of  John  Carey. 

SOME    EARLY    LAND    ENTRIES. 

Maria  Carey  homesteaded  land  in  the  south  half  of  the  northwest 
quarter  of  section  24.  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm,  and  had  her  patent 
issued  to  her  from  President  Hayes,  September  10,   1880. 

Samuel  Hoveland,  at  the  Tracy  land  office,  had  a  homestead  entry  on 
the  northeast  quarter  of  section  2,  and  had  the  same  patented  to  him  by 
President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  May  15,  1884. 

William  Johnson  homesteaded  the  south  half  of  the  northwest  quarter 
of  section  22,  and  had  the  entry  made  at  the  land  office  at  Tracy  and  his 
patent  was  issued  him  by  President  Chester  A.   Arthur.  January  15,   1885. 

Henry  Olsen  homesteaded  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  14,  in  the 
land  office  at  Tracy  and  the  same  was  patented  to  him  by  President  Grover 
Cleveland,  April  27,  1885. 

Frank  White,  at  the  land  office  at  Tracy,  was-  given  his  homestead 
right  in  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  14,  and  the  same  was  patented  to 
him  by  President  Grover  Cleveland,  January  9,  1886. 

PRE-EMPTION   CLAIMS. 

Clark  W.  Seeley,  at  the  land  office  at  Xew  Ulm,  entered  the  southw 
quarter  of  section  4,  this  township;  his  final  papers  were  signed  by  Pn 
dent  Hayes,  January  20,  188 1. 


1JO  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

Martin  Kauchbauns,  entered  land  at  the  land  office  at  Marshall,  described 
as  lot  No.  3,  in  section  26.  President  Benjamin  Harrison  signed  the  final 
papers,  granting  the  patent. 

George  F.  Robison,  at  the  Marshall  land  office,  entered  the  land  known 
as  lot  No.  1,  in  section  12,  the  same  having  been  signed  by  President  Theo- 
dore Roosevelt,  September  2,  1902. 


SELMA   TOWNSHIP. 

The  extreme  northeastern  congressional  township  in  Cottonwood 
county  is  known  as  Selma;  it  comprises  township  107,  range  34  west,  and  is 
situated  directly  south  of  Brown  county,  west  of  Watonwan  county,  north 
of  Midway  township,  Cottonwood  county,  and  east  of  Delton  township,  this 
county. 

A  branch  of  the  Chicago  &  Northwestern  railway  crosses  this  town- 
ship, entering  in  section  3,  running  directly  southeast,  leaving  the  township 
and  county  from  section  13.  The  Watonwan  river  and  small  tributaries 
are  found  flowing  through  this  township.  The  soil  is  excellent  and  all  the 
tillable  land  is  now  under  a  high  state  of  cultivation.  The  village  of  Com- 
frey,  Brown  county,  extends  over  into  this  township  to  a  certain  extent. 
Of  the  churches  and  schools  of  the  township  other  separate  chapters  will 
treat.  The  population  of  the  township  in  1895  was  405;  in  1900  it  was 
placed  at  427  and  the  United  States  census  returns  for  1910  gave  it  as  hav- 
ing 530.     There  are  no  towns  or  villages  within  Selma. 

ORGANIZATION. 

Selma  township  was  organized  by  the  board  of  county  commissioners 
at  their  regular  meeting  in  March,  1874,  and  was  then  named  Clinton  town- 
ship and  why  changed,  or  when,  the  records  seem  silent.  Tt  comprises  town- 
ship 107,  range  34  west.  The  first  election  was  called  to  be  held  at  the 
house  of  D.  T.  Woodward,  April  4.  1874. 

"Ripley"  township  was  organized  at  the  same  time  and  comprised  town- 
ship 108,  range  34  west,  which  civil  township  has  no  history  in  this  county, 
as  it  was  immediately  taken  over  by  Brown  county  with  another  con- 
gressional township. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  171 

HOMESTEADS    AND    PRE-EMPTIONS. 

Just  who  was  the  first  white  man  to  set  stakes  and  make  for  himself 
a  permanent  home  in  this  township  is  not  now  well  established,  even  by 
tradition.  But  a  careful  search  through  the  books  of  the  register  of  deeds 
of  the  county,  shows  that  the  following  were  the  original  land  entry  per- 
sons, either  as  homesteaders  or  pre-emptors  : 

John  W.  Golden,  homesteaded  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office,  the  south 
half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  18,  January  18,  1878,  and  his  patent 
was  signed  by  President  U.  S.  Grant,  and  the  entry  was  effected  at  New 
Ulm  land  office. 

Lewis  Coville  entered,  as  a  homestead  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office,  July 
12,  1878,  the  south  half  of  the  northeast  quarter  and  the  north  half  of  the 
southwest  quarter  in  section  32,  his  patent  being  signed  by  President  U.  S. 
Grant. 

David  .Archibald  claimed  a  homestead  in  the  northeast  quarter  of  sec- 
tion 12,  October  6,  1878,  and  the  patent  was  signed  by  President  U.  S. 
Grant. 

Mathias  Stoffel  homesteaded  on  May  22,  1879,  the  south  half  of  the 
southeast  quarter  of  section  26,  the  patent  being  signed  by  President  Hayes. 
The  entry  was  made  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office. 

Charles  Anderson  homesteaded  land  under  the  Homestead  Act  of  1862, 
in  the  west  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  10.  It  was  entered  at 
the  land  office  in  Xew  Ulm  and  was  patented  by  President  Hayes  and  signed 
by  him  on  January  20,  1881. 

Thomas  Cullen  claimed  his  homestead  rights  in  the  west  half  of  the 
northeast  quarter  of  section  6;  it  was  entered  through  the  land  office  at 
New  Ulm  and  was  patented  by  President  Hayes  and  signed  on  March  13, 
1879. 

Caroline  Knudson  homesteaded  the  west  half  of  the  northeast  quarter 
of  section  34;  it  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  Xew  Ulm.  and  was  pat- 
ented by  President  James  A.  Garfield,  June  20,  1881. 

Thomas  Coen  homesteaded  land  in  the  ea>(  half  of  the  southeast  quarter 
of  section  6,  and  had  the  same  patented  t<i  him  by  President  Hayes,  who 
signed  it  on  March  13,  1879;  it  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm. 

Greta  Jones  Dater  homesteaded  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  14, 
at  the  land  office  at  Tracy;  the  patent  lor  this  land  was  issued  by  President 
Chester  A.  Arthur,  February  20,  1882. 


1/2  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

01  f  Peterson  homesteaded  the  north  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of 
section  26;  it  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm  and  patented  by 
President  Hayes. 

John  Cullen  homesteaded  the  east  half  of  the  northwest  quarter  of  sec- 
tion 6;  it  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm  and  patented  by  Presi- 
dent Hayes,  March  13,  1879. 

Christian  Anaker  homesteaded  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  24  at 
the  land  office  at  Tracy,  and  had  the  same  patented  to  him  by  President 
Grover  Cleveland,  January  9,  1886. 

Theodore  P.  Eickholt  homesteaded  the  south  half  of  the  southeast 
quarter  of  section  26,  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm,  and  received  his  patent 
from  President  Hayes,  January  20,   1881. 

Howard  M.  Goss  homesteaded  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  34,  at 
the  land  office  at  New  Ulm,  and  received  a  patent  signed  by  President  U.  S. 
Grant,  September  15,  1874. 

Ogden  D.  Warner  homesteaded  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  34, 
at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm,  and  received  his  patent  from  President  U.  S. 
Grant,  March  20,  1876. 

PRE-EMPTION    CLAIMS. 

Theodore  J.  Brandt,  at  the  Marshall  land  office,  entered  under  the  Pre- 
emption Act,  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  20,  and  his  final  papers  were 
signed  by  President  Grover  Cleveland,  January  3,  1894. 

Lemuel  Randall,  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office,  pre-empted  the  north  half 
of  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  8,  and  April  10,  1875;  President  U.  S. 
Grant  certified  to  his  papers  and  signed  the  same. 


SPRINGFIELD   TOWNSHIP. 

Springfield  township  is  the  second  from  the  western  line  of  the  county 
and  is  on  the  south  line,  with  Southbrook  township  at  its  west,  Anio  town- 
ship at  its  north.  Great  Bend  township  at  its  east  and  Jackson  county  at  the 
south.  It  comprises  all  of  congressional  township  105,  range  37  west.  The 
main  stream  and  south  branch  of  the  Des  Moines  river  flow  from  the  south- 
east to  the  northeast  of  this  township,  forming  the  great  bend,  after  leaving 
and  entering  Great  I 'end  township.  This  is  an  excellent  township  and  the 
farming  interests  are  good.     The  people  are  of  the  thrifty  type,  who  always 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  1 73 

succeed  in  accumulating  wealth.  Once  a  barren  prairie  domain,  it  has, 
under  the  touch  and  labor  of  its  settlers,  come  to  be  known  as  one  of  the 
finest  in  the  county.  Its  groves,  which  were  planted  out  by  the  thoughtful 
settlers,  have  come  to  be  of  great  beauty  and  utility,  both  for  the  fuel  and 
shelter  thev  afford  against  the  severe  elements. 

The  population  of  Springfield  township  in  1895  was  35 r  •  >n  1900  it 
was  361  and  in  the  United  States  census  reports  for  1910  its  population  was 
given  as  only  332. 

ORGANIZATION. 

Springfield  became  a  separate  civil  township  by  an  act  of  the  board  of 
county  commissioners  in  1870,  when  Great  Bend  and  a  few  more  townships 
were  organized.  By  a  petition  of  a  majority  of  the  legal  voters  within 
township  105,  range  ^~,  west,  the  county  commissioners  decided  to  form 
this  township,  and  fixed  the  day  for  the  first  township  election  for  August 

27.  1870,  and  appointed  John  Wilford,  George  W.  McGaughey  and  R.  A. 
Nichols  as  judges  of  the  election.  This  was  done  at  the  county  commis- 
sioners' meeting  at  Great  Bend,  before  Windom  had  been  made  the  seat  of 
justice,  the  exact  date  being  August  15,   1870. 

PIONEERS    AND    LAND    ENTRIES. 

The  following  is  a  transcript  of  the  homestead  and  pre-emption  entries 
in  this  township : 

Charles  L.  Hecox  claimed  the  west  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  and 
the  east  half  of  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  34,  of  this  township,  March 

28,  1878;  signed  by  President  U.  S.  Grant,  and  entered  at  the  Worthington 
land  office. 

Cyrus  N.  Peterson  homesteaded  land  in  the  south  half  of  the  north- 
east quarter  of  section  12,  this  township.  His  patent  bears  the  date  of  July 
20,  1877,  and  is  signed  by  President  Hayes.  The  land  office  issuing  the 
papers  was  at  Worthington. 

Legrand  B.  Rolph  homesteaded  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington,  land 
in  the  east  half  of  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  4;  it  was  patented  on 
November  5,  1878,  and  was  signed  by  President  Hayes. 

Augustus  McNeely  claimed  a  homestead  in  the  west  half  of  the  south- 
east quarter  of  section  32,  also  in  the  east  half  of  the  southwest  quarter  of 
the  same  section.     His  entry  was  effected  at  the  land  office  at  Jackson,  and 


174  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

the  patent  was  signed  by  President  U.  S.  Grant,  the  date  being  February 
i,   1873. 

Marshall  C.  Cummings  homesteaded  land  in  the  west  half  of  the  south- 
west quarter  of  section  14;  his  patent  bears  the  date  of  December  30,  1880, 
and  is  signed  by  President  Hayes.  The  land  was  secured  through  the  Jack- 
son land  office. 

Freeman  Trowbridge  claimed  land  in  the  northwest  quarter  of  section 
4;  his  patent  was  dated  June  15,  1880,  and  is  signed  by  President  Hayes; 
it  was  issued  from  the  land  office  located  at  Worthington. 

William  W.  Frost  homesteaded  land  in  the  southwest  quarter  of  sec- 
tion 22 ;  the  patent  was  signed  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur  and  dated 
March  15,  1882;  it  was  secured  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington. 

Abigail  J.  Green  located  a  homestead  in  the  east  half  of  the  southeast 
quarter  of  section  4.  The  patent  was  issued  on  November  5,  1878,  and  was 
signed  by  President  Hayes.  This  was  secured  through  the  land  office  at 
Worthington. 

William  B.  Williams  homesteaded  land  in  the  southeast  quarter  of  sec- 
tion 2.  It  was  patented  on  June  15,  1880,  and  was  signed  by  President 
Hayes;  it  was  secured  through  the  land  office  at  Worthington. 

Delia  R.  Norris  homestead  land  in  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  30. 
It  was  patented  on  June  15,  1879,  and  signed  by  President  Hayes;  the  land 
was  granted  to  the  widow  of  William  Norris  and  was  secured  at  the  land 
office  at  Worthington. 

John  W.  Cummings  homesteaded  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  8, 
at  the  land  office  at  Worthington,  and  his  patent  was  signed  by  President 
Chester  A.  Arthur,  April  5,  1883. 

William  Kane  claimed  as  his  homestead  the  south  half  of  the  north- 
east quarter  of  section  30,  the  entry  being  made  at  the  Worthington  land 
office  and  the  final  patent  papers  were  signed  by  President  Hayes  on  Decem- 
ber 15,  1880. 

Thomas  R.  Brown  homesteaded  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  12; 
it  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington  and  the  patent  was  furnished 
and  signed  by  President  U.  S.  Grant.  July  5,  1876. 

Ploratio  M.  McGatighey  homesteaded  at  the  Jackson  land  office,  the 
north  half  of  the  northeast  quarter  and  the  west  half  of  the  northeast  quarter 
of  section  24;  it  was  patented  to  him  by  President  U.  S.  Grant,  April   15, 

1874. 

James  E.   Williams   homesteaded   the  northeast   quarter  of  section  20, 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  1 75 

at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm ;  the  patent  was  granted  to  him  by  President 
U.  S.  Grant  and  signed  on  June  13,   1876. 

John  Surratt  homesteaded  the  east  half  of  the  northeast  quarter  of 
section  32;  it  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington  and  patented  by 
President  Hayes,  June   15,   1880. 

John  H.  Reisdorph  had  patented  to  him  on  November  22,  1877,  a  home- 
stead instrument  signed  by  President  U.  S.  Grant. 

Charles  F.  Morley  homesteaded  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  30; 
it  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington  and  patented  to  him  by 
President  Hayes,  December  30,  1879. 

Vinzing  Fried  homesteaded  the  southwest  quarter  of  the  southwest 
quarter  of  section  7,2;  it  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington  and 
his  patent  was  signed  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur.  March  10,  1883. 

Orrin  Nasson,  at  the  Worthington  land  office,  entered  as  a  homestead 
the  west  half  of  the  northeast  quarter  and  the  north  half  of  the  northeast 
quarter  of  section  12;  it  was  patented  to  him  by  President  U.  S.  Grant, 
January  12,  1875. 

Zadock  Day  homesteaded  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  8,  at  the 
land  office  at  Worthington,  and  had  same  patented  to  him  by  President 
Grover  Cleveland,  April  10,  1886. 

Josef  Neufeld  homesteaded  the  south  half  of  the  northeast  quarter  of 
section  7,2.  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington  and  had  the  same  patented  to 
him  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur.  March  10,  1883. 

George  H.  Aubrey,  at  the  Worthington  land  office,  entered  a  home- 
stead in  the  north  half  of  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  28,  and  had  the 
same  patented  to  him  by  President  Hayes  December  30,  1879. 

PRE-EMPTION    CLAIMS. 

Charles  I..  Hecox  entered  as  a  pre-emption  claim  at  the  land  office  at 
Jackson,  the  south  half  of  the  northwest  quarter  and  the  west  half  of  the 
northeast  quarter  of  section  34.  His  patent  was  granted  him  by  President 
{'.  S.  Grant,  December  15,  1870. 

Lewis  L.  Miner,  at  the  Jackson  land  office,  claimed  under  the  Pre- 
emption Act  of  1820,  the  north  half  of  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  31, 
the  same  was  patented  to  him  by  President  U.  S.  Grant,  September  17,  187J. 

Jason  Foss  pre-empted  the  south  half  of  tin-  northeast  quarter  of  sec- 
tion 28,  at  the  Worthington  land  office,  tin-  same  being  patented  by  President 
U.  S.  Grant,  November  3,  1876. 


1/6  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

Polly  Cone,  at  the  Jackson  land  office,  pre-empted  the  northeast  quarter 
of  section  10,  the  same  being  signed  by  President  U.  S.  Grant,  May  20,  1874. 

Mary  L.  Briggs  pre-empted  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  24,  at  the 
Jackson  land  office,  the  instrument  was  signed  by  President  U.  S.  Grant  and 
signed  February  1,  1872. 

Orrin  Nason  pre-empted  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  4,  the  trans- 
action was  made  at  the  land  office  at  Marshall,  and  it  was  under  President 
Grover  Cleveland's  administration  and  by  him  signed  April  12,  1893. 


SOUTHBROOK   TOWNSHIP. 

Southbrook  township  is  the  southwestern  civil  sub-division  of  Cotton- 
wood county  and  comprises  congressional  township  105,  range  38  west.  It 
is  bounded  on  the  west  by  Murray  county,  on  the  north  by  Rose  Hill  town- 
ship, on  the  east  by  Springfield  township  and  on  the  south  by  the  county 
line  between  Cottonwood  and  Jackson  counties. 

Besides  two  good  sized  lakes  in  the  southwestern  part  of  this  township, 
the  Des  Moines  river  flows  from  the  west  out  of  Murray  county,  entering 
this  township  in  section  6  and  flows  through  the  southern  portion,  leaving 
the  township  from  section  31,  entering  Springfield  township. 

This  township  has  neither  village  nor  railroad  station,  but  is  settled  by 
a  thrifty  class  of  people,  who  are  fast  becoming  independent.  Many  of  the 
early  homestead  and  pre-emption  claims  of  the  county  were  selected  from 
parts  of  this  township. 

The  population  in  1895  was  318;  in  1900  it  was  350,  but  in  1910  it  had 
decreased,  on  account  of  removals,  to  303. 

ORGANIZATION. 

This  township  was  organized  by  the  county  commissioners  at  their  meet- 
ing in  July,  1871,  as  comprising  all  of  congressional  township  105,  range 
38,  west. 

EARLY   SETTLERS. 

The  records  show  the  following  persons  to  have  been  among  the  first 
to  claim  lands  within  this  township : 

Francis  II.  Moon,  homesteaded  the  east  half  of  the  southwest  quarter 
and  the  west  h.di  of  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  32,  of  this  township, 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  I " 

December  7,  1877,  ihe  patent  being  signed  by  President  U.  S.  Grant;  the 
transaction  was  at  the  Jackson  land  office. 

Manley  T.  White  claimed  the  south  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of 
section  26,  on  March  1.  187S.  under  President  Grant's  administration,  the 
papers  being  issued  from  the  Worthington  land  office. 

Joseph  Kane  claimed  a  homestead  in  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  6, 
at  the  Jackson  land  office,  the  same  being  signed  by  President  U.  S.  Grant, 
September  9,   1878. 

Peter  Olson  homesteaded  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  20,  at  the 
land  office  at  Worthington.  and  his  patent  is  signed  by  President  Hayes, 
June  10,  1879. 

Ole  Rued  claimed,  as  his  homestead,  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington, 
the  east  half  of  the  southwest  quarter  and  the  northwest  quarter  of  the 
southwest  quarter  of  section  20,  also  land  in  the  southwest  quarter  of  the 
northwest  quarter  of  section  26,  same  township.  The  patent  was  signed 
by  President  Hayes  and  dated  November  5,   1878. 

Lyman  W.  Oaks  claimed  as  his  homestead  right  land  in  lots  2  and  3 
of  section  8;  he  secured  it  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington  and  the  patent 
was  signed  by  President  Hayes,  December  13,  1880. 

"William  Mcl'heeters  homesteaded  land  in  the  northwest  quarter  of  sec- 
tion 30,  at  the  Xew  Ulm  land  office;  the  patent  was  signed  by  President 
U.  S.  Grant,  October  5,  1875. 

Thomas  A.  Jones  secured  a  homestead  in  the  east  half  of  the  northeast 
quarter  of  section  22,  the  patent  was  signed  by  President  Hayes,  June  15, 
1880;  the  entry  was  made  at  the  Worthington  land  office. 

John  Crapsey  homesteaded,  at  the  Worthington  land  office,  the  south- 
east quarter  of  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  30  and  the  lot  known  as 
No.  2,  of  the  same  section,  all  being  within  section  30.  The  date  of  the 
patent  was  November  20,  1880,  and  the  papers  were  signed  by  President 
Hayes. 

Norman  Freeman  homesteaded  land  in  section  32,  the  entry  was  made 
at  the  land  office  in  Worthington  and  the  patent  was  signed  by  President 
Chester  A.  Arthur,  April  5,  1883. 

Josef  Lerk  homesteaded  land  in  the  north  half  of  the  northeast  quarter 
and  the  north  half  of  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  18,  the  date  of  the 
patent  being  April  5,  1883,  signed  by  Presidenl  I  Chester  A.  Arthur;  the  same 
was  secured  through  the  Worthington  land  office. 

Charles  Robbins  homesteaded  land  in  the  east  half  of  the  southeast 
(12) 


1/8  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

quarter  of  section  30,  this  township.  It  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at 
Worthington  and  the  patent  is  signed  by  President  Hayes,  December  30, 
1880. 

Roswell  Dunsmore  homesteaded  land  in  the  south  half  of  the  northeast 
quarter  of  section  26;  it  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington  and 
was  patented  by  President  U.  S.  Grant,  March  1,  1876. 

John  Erickson  claimed  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  34  this  town- 
ship and  his  patent  for  his  homestead  was  issued  June  5,  1884,  and  signed 
by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur;  the  entry  was  effected  at  the  Worthington 
land  office. 

Watkin  H.  Jones  homesteaded  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  22, 
his  patent  being  signed  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur.  June' 5,  1884;  the 
entry  was  made  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington. 

Charles  W.  Aldrich  homesteaded  land  in  the  west  half  of  the  southwest 
quarter  of  section  32 ;  it  was  patented  to  him  by  Persident  Chester  A.  Arthur 
and  entered  at  the  Worthington  land  office  and  signed  on  June  5,  1884. 

Charles  B.  Handy.  June  5,  1884,  had  patent  issued  to  him  for  a  home- 
stead in  the  lots  numbered  3,  4  and  5  of  the  section  30,  the  same  being  issued 
by  President  Hayes. 

Annie  K.  Jentjen,  at  the  Worthington  land  office,  had  issued  to  her 
as  a  homestead  the  land  contained  in  the  west  half  of  the  southwest  quarter 
of  section  2.  The  papers  were  signed  by  President  Hayes,  February  10, 
1 881. 

Stephen  Miranowski  homesteaded  land  in  the  north  half  of  the  south- 
east quarter  of  section  10,  the  same  being  patented  by  President  Hayes  and 
signed  on  February  10,  1884;  it  was  entered  through  the  land  office  at 
Worthington. 

James  M.  King  homesteaded  the  land  in  northwest  quarter  of  section 
12,  this  township  and  same  was  patented  to  him  by  President  Hayes  and 
signed  on  June  10,  1879;  the  entry  was  made  at  the  land  office  at  Worth- 
ington. 

John  Kane  homesteaded  the  east  half  of  the  southwest  quarter  of  sec- 
tion 6,  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington,  the  same  being  patented  by  Presi- 
dent Chester  A.  Arthur,  April   10,   1880. 

Thomas  A.  Jones  homesteaded  the  west  half  of  the  northeast  quarter 
of  section  22,  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington,  and  had  his  patent  issued 
by  President  Hayes,  February  10,  1881. 

Anton  Reidl  homesteaded  the  south  half  of  the  northwest  quarter  of 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  179 

section  10.  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington,  and  had  the  same  patented  to 
him  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur.  April   10,   1882. 

Tohn  Mathias  entered  as  a  homestead  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington 
the  east  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  2,  and  the  tract  was  pat- 
ented to  him  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  August  1,  1883. 

John  Schneider,  at  the  Worthington  land  office,  entered  as  a  homestead 
the  west  half  of  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  10.  and  had  the  same  pat- 
ented to  him  by  President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  March  10,   1883. 

Florian  Liepold  entered,  as  a  homestead  at  the  land  office  at  Worth- 
ington, the  west  half  of  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  12.  and  it  was 
later  patented  to  him  by  President  Grover  Cleveland,  April  10,  1886. 

PRE-EMPTION    CLAIMS. 

Henry  G.  Conrad  pre-empted  land  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington, 
described  as  the  south  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  and  the  northwest  quarter 
of  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  28,  the  papers  being  signed  by  President 
Hayes,  September  4.   1879.  . 

Bertha  M.  Johnson  pre-empted  the  land  known  as  lot  No.  7  in  section 
30.  The  entry  was  effected  at  the  land  office  at  Worthington  and  the  final 
papers  were  executed  by  President  U.  S.  Grant,  May  10,  1875. 

Peter  Jentzen,  at  the  Worthington  land  office,  entered  under  the  pre- 
emption act,  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  14;  the  final  papers  were 
signed  by  President  Hayes,  November  1,  1880. 

Adam  Fahe,  at  the  Marshall  land  office,  entered  lot  No.  1  in  section  8, 
the  papers  being  signed  by  President  Benjamin   Harrison,   March    1,    1892. 

Andrew  J.  Streeter,  at  the  Jackson  land  office,  pre-empted  the  cast  half 
of  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  26,  the  papers  being  executed  and  signed 
by  President  U.  S.  Grant,  May  20,  1874. 


STORDEN    TOWNSHIP. 

Storden  is  situated  in  the  northwestern  part  of  Cottonwood  county,  it 
being  the  second  from  the  north  and  the  second  from  the  western  line  of 
the  county,  with  Highwater  at  the  north,  Amboy  at  the  east,  Amo  at  the 
south  and  Westbrook  township  at  the  west.  It  comprises  all  of  congressional 
township    107,   range   ^7'   west-      The   Scandinavian   people  are   the   largest 


ISO  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

landowners  in  this  part  of  the  county.  The  village  of  Storden  is  within 
this  township. 

Like  many  parts  of  the  county,  Storden  originally  had  many  low  tracts 
of  land,  and  small  lakes  abounded,  but  the}-  were  really  little  more  than 
prairie  swamps  or  sloughs,  which,  with  the  advent  of  the  settlers,  soon  van- 
ished by  draining,  until  today  the  waste  land  in  this  township  is  quite  small. 
The  soil  is  of  a  rich  quality  and  the  grains  and  grasses  grow  in  great  luxuri- 
ance. 

The  population  of  the  township  in  1895  was  439;  in  1900  it  was  548  but 
by  the  taking  of  the  Federal  census  in  1910  it  was  placed  at.  659. 

ORGANIZATION. 

This  township  was  set  apart  as  a  separate  civil  township  at  the  meet- 
ing of  the  county  commissioners  in  March,  1875,  and  was  first  named  Norsk, 
but  subsequently  changed  to  Storden.  It  comprises  township  107,  range  37, 
west,  and  was  detached  from  Westbrook  township.  The  first  election  was 
held  at  the  house  of  Martin  Hallan,  March  30,  1875. 

ORIGINAL   SETTLERS. 

The  county  records  show  the  following  to  have  entered  land  either  as 
homesteaders  or  pre-emption  claimants : 

Jorgen  Jensen  homesteaded  land  in  the  lots  known  as  Nos.  1  and  2, 
of  section  21,  the  same  being  entered  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm  and 
patented  by  President  Hayes,  February  10,   1881. 

Soren  Sorenson  claimed  a  homestead  in  the  northwest  quarter  of  the 
northwest  quarter  of  section  30;  it  was  patented  to  him  by  President  Hayes, 
February  10,  1881. 

Christian  A.  Kaihor  homesteaded  in  the  north  half  of  the  northeast 
quarter  of  section  30,  the  same  being  entered  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm; 
it  was  patented  to  him  by  President  Hayes,  February  10,  1881. 

Halver  E.  Lohre  homesteaded  land  in  the  east  half  of  the  southeast 
quarter  of  section  6;  it  was  patented  to  him  by  1 'resident  James  A.  Garfield, 
June  20,   1 88 1. 

C.  Swenson  claimed  a  homestead  in  the  southeast  quarter  of  the  north- 
cast  quarter  and  the  northeast  quarter  of  the  southeast  quarter  of  section 
4.  It  was  patented  by  President  Hayes,  February  10,  1881  ;  it  was  entered 
at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  l8l 

Eston  Erikson,  claimed  his  homestead  rights  under  the  act  of  1S62,  in 
the  west  half  of  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  6.  It  was  entered  at  the 
land  office  at  New  Ulm  and  was  patented  by  President  Hayes,  January 
zo,  1881. 

Xels  Gunderson  homesteaded  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  2,  at  the 
land  office  located  at  Tracy,  and  hail  the  same  patented  to  him  by  President 
Chester  A.  Arthur,  March  10,   1883. 

Samuel  S.  Wheeler  claimed  as  a  homestead  the  southwest  quarter  of 
section  24  at  the  land  office  at  Tracy  and  had  the  same  patented  by  Presi- 
dent Chester  A.  Arthur,  February  10,  1883. 

John  Nelson  homesteaded  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  20,  at  the 
land  office  at  Tracy  and  the  same  was  finally  patented  to  him  by  President 
Chester  A.  Arthur.  May  31,  1884. 

Ole  Christopherson  homesteaded  the  north  half  of  the  northeast  quarter 
at  the  land  office  at  Tracy,  and  the  patent  was  issued  to  him  by  President 
James  A.  Garfield,  June  21,  1881. 

Hans  Anderson  homesteaded  the  north  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of 
section  18,  at  the  land  office  located  at  Tracy,  and  had  his  patent  granted 
him  by  President  James  A.  Garfield,  June  20,  1881. 

Leopold  Hansen  homesteaded  land  in  the  west  half  of  the  southwest 
quarter  of  section  2,  and  had  the  entry  made  in  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm, 
while  his  patent  was  granted  by  President  Hayes,   Decemljer  30,    1879. 

Julia  A.  Khurd  homesteaded  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  28,  at 
the  land  office  located  at  Tracy  and  her  patent  was  issued  and  signed  by 
President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  January  15,  1885. 

Albert  X.  Jeffers,  at  the  Tracy  land  office,  entered  a  homestead  in  the 
south  half  of  the  northeast  quarter  and  the  north  half  of  the  southeast  quar- 
ter of  section  12,  and  had  the  same  patented  to  him  by  President  Chester  A. 
Arthur,   May  5,    18S4. 

Christian  O.  Mikkelson  claimed  as  his  homestead  the  northwest  quarter 
of  section  18,  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm;  President  Hayes  signed  his 
patent  on  February  10.   1881. 

Charles  H.   Reipke  homesteaded   the   northeast   quarter  of   section 
the  entry  being  made  at  the  land  office  at  Tracy  and  the  patent  was  signed 
by  President  Grover  Cleveland.  May  _'i>,   (885. 

George  Downs  homesteaded  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  10.  the 
entry  being  effected  at  the  land  office  at  Tracy  and  his  patent  was  issued  by 
President  Chester  A.   Arthur  and  by  him  signed  on  January  15,  [885. 


l82  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

Peter  M.  Paulson  homesteaded  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  34;  the 
patent  was  issued  by  President  James  A.  Garfield,  June  20,   1881. 

PRE-EMPTION  CLAIMS. 

Charles  Dietz,  at  the  New  Ulm  land  office  entered  the  west  half  of  the 
northwest  quarter  of  section  24,  the  papers  being  signed  by  President  Hayes, 
January  20,  1881. 

Rasmus  Anderson,  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm,  entered  the  south- 
west quarter  of  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  8,  this  township;  his  final 
papers  were  signed  by  President  U.  S.  Grant,  April  10,  1875. 

Andrew  P.  Fortstrom,  at  the  land  office  at  Marshall,  entered  the  land 
described  as  lot  No.  9  in  section  20,  and  had  the  same  patented  to  him  by 
President  Benjamin  Harrison,  August  24,  1891. 

August  Pufahl,  at  the  land  office  at  Tracy  entered  the  southwest  quar- 
ter of  section  12;  the  final  papers  were  signed  by  President  Grover  Cleveland, 
January  20,  1886. 

VILLAGE   OF   STORDEN. 

Storden  was  platted  by  the  Inter-state  Land  Company,  July  8,  1903, 
and  is  situated  in  the  northwest  quarter  of  the  southwest  quarter  of  section 
29,  township  107,  range  ^J,  west.  It  is  on  the  Curry  branch  of  the  Chicago, 
St.  Paul,  Minneapolis  &  Omaha  railroad.  Among  the  first  historic  events 
of  this  village  were  the  following: 

The  auction  sale  of  lots  in  what  is  now  the  village  of  Storden  took 
place  on  July  9,  1903.  The  village  is  located  in  the  southwest  quarter  of 
the  southwest  quarter  of  section  29.  The  village,  although  quite  young, 
shows  great  signs  of  growth  and  prosperity,  new  and  modern  buildings 
being  erected  as  fast  as  workmen  can  put  them  up. 

The  first  man  on  the  ground  to  do  business  was  Mr.  C.  H.  Shaner,  who 
conducted  a  general  store,  where  the  confectionery  store  now  stands.  Nelson 
&  Redding  came  next  and  occupied  the  store  room  now  used  by  Mr.  A.  11. 
Anderson. 

The  first  school  teacher  to  teach  in  the  village  was  Laura  Person,  who 
taught  in  the  school  building  moved  in  from  the  Kahoi  Anderson  farm, 
about  three-fourths  of  a  mile  north  of  the  town. 

John  Sorenson  built  the  fust  residence  in  the  village,  the  one  now  occu- 
pied by  the  postmaster,  James  Morris.  The  house  now  occupied  by  Andrew 
Skobv  was  built  about  the  same  time. 


COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  183 

The  first  brick  building  was  erected  by  the  Farmers'  State  Bank  in 
the  summer  of  1916. 

The  first  concrete  building  in  the  village  was  constructed  in  the  spring 
of  1916  and  is  now  occupied  by  XcNmi  &  Christopherson  as  a  garage,  the 
first  of  its  kind. 

Anions:  the  very  first  business  men  and  mechanics  of  the  village  were: 
C.  H.  Shaner,  grocer;  A.  P.  Frederickson,  hotel;  Roy  Egger,  blacksmith; 
John  Skovley  &  Son.  livery;  A.  M.  Clark  &  Son.  hardware;  Henry  Peter- 
son, drayman;  L.  Dolliff,  lumber  company;  St.  John,  elevator. 

The  depot  at  Storden  was  erected  in  1904.  The  first  business  was 
that  of  C.  H.  Shaner;  the  first  residence  was  erected  by  John  N.  Sorenson. 

John  Sorenson  formerly  owned  the  land  now  occupied  by  the  village. 
The  town  was  platted  by  the  Inter-state  Land  Company,  of  Minneapolis,  to 
whom  Mr.  Sorenson  gave  a  one-half  interest  in  the  lots. 

The  plat  of  Storen  is  high,  dry  and  sightly  and  not  a  finer  and  more 
natural  business  site  exists  on  the  Curry  branch.  The  village  is  surrounded 
by  hardy  and  industrious  farmers,  whose  land  is  under  a  high  state  of 
cultivation.  The  main  products  of  the  farms  are  corn  and  oats,  although 
an  abundance  of  wheat,  rye  and  barley  are  marketed  each  year.  Five 
years  ago,  land  could  be  procured  in  the  community  at  sixty  dollars  per 
acre,  while  most  of  the  land  is  now  worth  around  one  hundred  and  twenty- 
five  dollars  per  acre. 

POSTOFFICE. 

The  Storden  postoffice  was  established  in  1903,  with  John  Sorenson  as 
tlie  first  postmaster.  He  served  until  December  1,  1905,  when  James  Morris. 
the  present  postmaster,  was  appointed.  The  large  postal  receipts,  which 
are  larger  than  towns  several  times  its  size,  bespeak  credit  for  the  post- 
master and  the  community.  For  the  past  year  they  amounted  to  four  thou- 
sand five  hundred  and  eighty-seven  dollars  and  twenty-six  cents.  One  rural 
route  serves  the  rural  community. 

BUSINESS    INTERESTS. 

Iii  19 16  the  business  interests  of  Storden  were  in  the  hands  of  the 
following : 

Auto  garage — Nelson  &  Christopher 

Bank — First  State,  Farmers'  State. 

Blacksmith — Andrew  Jorgenson,  Edward  Smestad. 


184  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

Barber — Roy  Smestad. 

Creamery — Storden  Creamery  Association. 

Confectionery — John  Rongstad. 

Dray  line — Adolph  Olson. 

Elevator — Farmers'   Elevator,  Olaf  Lande. 

Grocer — Farmers'  Coo-perative  Store. 

General  dealers — A.  H.  Anderson,  Storden  Co-operative  Company. 

Hardware  dealer — Storden  Hardware  Company. 

Harness  dealer — A.  H.  Nacarinus. 

Hotel — Prime  Hotel. 

Implement  dealer — Saleen  &  Jenson  Company. 

Lumber  dealer — L.  P.  Dolliff  &  Company. 

Livery — Adolph  Olson. 

Meat  market — John  Spiecker. 

Newspaper — Storden  Times. 

Produce  dealer — C.  H.  Shaner. 


WESTBROOK  TOWNSHIP. 

Tbe  second  township  from  the  county  line  on  the  north  is  Westbrook, 
which  comprises  all  of  congressional  township  107,  range  38,  west.  It  is 
bounded  on  the  north  by  Ann  township,  on  the  east  by  Storden,  on  the 
south  by  Rose  Hill  township  and  on  the  west  by  Murray  county.  Westbrook 
village  is  within  this  civil  township  and  is  mentioned  at  length  in  this 
chapter.  Originally,  the  township  had  many  lakes  and  ponds,  with  several 
creeks,  most  of  which  water-courses  have  disappeared  from  the  surface  of 
the  county  as  time  has  changed  the  conditions;  ditches  have  been  cut,  til- 
ing carried  on  for  a  number  of  years  and,  today,  the  waste  land  within  the 
territory  is  small.  The  soil  is  very  fertile  and  produces  all  the  grain  and 
grasses  common  to  this  latitude. 

The  school  and  churches  have  ever  been  prominent  factors  in  the  town- 
ship and  those  are  treated  with  others  of  the  county  in  special  chapters  in 
this  volume. 

The  population  of  the  township  in  1895  was  509:  in  iQoo  it  was  placed 
at  688  and  in  the  United  States  census  returns  for  1910  it  is  given  as  579. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  1N5 

ORGANIZATION. 

Westbrook  township  was  organized  at  the  meeting  of  the  county  board, 

September  6,  1870,  upon  the  petition  of  thirty  legal  voters  in  township  107, 
range  30,  west,  and  township  108,  ranges  37  and  38,  west,  they  asking  that 
four  congressional  townships  be  organized  into  one  civil  township  and  that 
it  be  named  Westbrook,  and  the  board  of  county  commissioners  ordered 
it  done  and  called  the  first  election  for  the  township  to  be  held  at  the  house 
of  Morton  Engebriztson,  Saturday,  September  17.  1S70,  with  election  judges 
as  follow :  John  Hanson,  John  Rotte  and  Hogan  Anderson ;  the  clerk  was 
George  \Y.  Walker. 

PIONEER  SETTLEMENT. 

The  first  comers  to  this  township  were  very  largely  homesteaders  and 
pre-emption  claim  men  and  women,  who  selected  at  some  one  of  the  Minne- 
sota land  offices  such  lands  as  they  wanted  on  which  to  locate  and  build 
homes.  Among  such  land  entries  the  following  is  a  complete  list,  as  shown 
in  the  records  at  the  Cottonwood  court  house : 

Xels  Engebretson,  homesteaded  the  east  half  of  the  northwest  quarter 
of  section  12,  July  9,  1878,  and  the  patent  for  the  same  was  signed  by 
President  U.  S.  Grant. 

Hernt  Johnson  homesteaded  the  north  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of 
section  20,  at  the  Xew  Ulm  land  office,  November  7,  1879,  and  his  patent 
was  signed  by  President  R.  B.  Hayes. 

Erick  Anderson  claimed  a  homestead  in  the  southeast  quarter  of  sec- 
tion 18,  this  township,  the  same  being  secured  at  the  land  office  at  Tracy, 
and  the  patent  is  signed  by  President  James    \.  ( iarlield.  June  20,  1881. 

Ole  Sorenson  homesteaded  land  in  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  24, 
and  the  patent  is  dated  February  to,  1881,  and  signed  by  President  R.  B. 
Hayes. 

Olof  Johnson  homesteaded  land  in  the  east  hall'  of  the  northeast  quar- 
ter of  section  12;  also  in  the  southwest  quarter  of  the  northeast  quarter  of 
section  12.  This  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  Tracy,  and  hears  date  of 
June  20,  1881,  and  is  signed  by  President  James    \.  (iarlield. 

Ole  Anderson  homesteaded  land  in  the  west  half  of  the  southeast  quar- 
ter of  section  10,  and  it  was  secured  at  the  land  office  at  Xew  I'lm  and 
the  patent  is  signed  by  President    Hayes,   February   [O,   [881, 

Syver    Xielson   homesteaded    land    in    the    west    half   of   the    northwest 


j85  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

quarter  of  section   12,  the  patent  being  signed  by  President  James  A.  Gar- 
field, June  20,  1 88 1  ;  the  entry  was  effected  at  the  Tracy  land  office. 

Jacob  Hansen  homesteaded  land  in  the  west  half  of  the  northwest  quarter 
of  section  10;  it  was  entered  at  the  land  office  at  Xew  Ulm  and  was  pat- 
ented by  President  Hayes,  January  20,  1881. 

Forjus  T.  Einertson  homesteaded  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  2, 
at  the  Tracy  land  office,  and  the  same  was  patented  by  President  Grover 
Cleveland,  August  5,  1884. 

Bernt  Johnson  homesteaded  the  south  half  of  the  northeast  quarter 
of  section  20,  at  the  land  office  located  at  Tracy;  his  patent  was  granted  by 
President  Chester  A.  Arthur,  February  10,  1883. 

Edward  Erickson  homesteaded  the  west  half  of  the  northwest  quarter, 
of  section  8,  at  the  land  office  at  Tracy,  the  same  being  patented  by  Presi- 
dent Chester  A.  Arthur,  January  15,  1885. 

Peter  G.  Lundman  homesteaded  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  18,  at 
the  land  office  at  Tracy,  the  patent  being  granted  by  President  Chester  A. 
Arthur,  May  15,   1884. 

PRE-EMPTION    CLAIMS. 

Albert  Olson  pre-empted,  at  the  St.  Peter  land  office,  the  northwest 
quarter  of  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  1,  this  township,  President  U.  S. 
Grant  signing  the  papers,  April  1,  1872. 

Jacob  A.  Anderson,  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm,  pre-empted  the 
northeast  quarter  of  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  2,  President  U.  S. 
Grant  signing  the  papers,  May  20,  1874. 

Ole  Andreas  Pederson,  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm,  entered  the  east 
half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  8,  the  papers  being  signed  by  Presi- 
dent  Hayes,  .May  24,  1S79. 

Olf  Jonsson,  at  the  land  office  at  New  Ulm.  entered  land  in  the  north- 
west quarter  of  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  12.  President  U.  S.  Grant 
signing  the  papers.  May  20,  1874. 

John  Christenson  entered  the  south  half  of  the  northeast  quarter  of 
section  2,  the  papers  being  signed  by  President  Haves.  November  io,  [877. 

Xels  Engebretson  entered  land  in  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  12. 
at  the  Xew  Ulm  land  office  and  his  papers  were  certified  by  President  Hayes, 
January  20,   1881. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINX.  1 S7 

THE    VILLAGE    OF    WESTBROOK. 

Westbrook  was  platted  June  8,  1900,  by  the  Inter-Slate  Land  Com- 
pany, in  section  29,  township  107,  range  38  west. 

Westbrook  township  contained  the  first  settlers  of  the  county,  one 
authority  stating  that  the  first  settler  after  the  Indian  massacre  of  1862  was 
Joseph  F.  Bean  and  next,  George  B.  Walker,  followed  by  other  families 
settling  in  Westbrook  township.  Thus  it  was  that  when  the  Currie  branch 
of  Omaha  railroad  was  built  through  here  in  iqoo,  it  tapped  a  magnificent 
farming  region,  well  settled,  rich  and  productive,  the  trade  of  which  for 
many  years  was  far  from  market.  On  nth  of  July,  1900,  the  sale  of  lots 
was  held  for  the  now  prosperous  town  of  Westbrook,  the  buyers  wading 
around  in  an  oats  field,  which  yielded  forty  bushels  per  acre,  looking  for 
corner  stakes.  This  was  the  beginning  of  Westbrook.  Previous  to  this 
time  there  had  been  an  effort  made  to  have  the  town  started  on  what  is 
now  known  as  the  west  side,  and  for  a  while  there  was  a  restaurant,  store 
and  several  "blind  pigs."  The  present  site  of  the  town  was  the  result  of  a 
disagreement  between  the  townsite  company  and  Adolph  Peterson. 

At  the  lot  sale  the  highest  price  paid  was  six  hundred  dollars  for  the 
corner  lot,  now  occupied  by  the  First  National  Bank.  The  first  people  on 
the  ground  to  do  business  was  the  L.  P.  Dolliff  Lumber  Company,  with 
G.  F.  Streates  as  manager,  and  the  Laird-Norton  yards,  with  H.  E.  Daffer 
as  manager.  Sivert  Norum  had  moved  a  shed  from  Storden  in  which  he 
started  a  boarding  house  for  the  workmen,  until  he  got  up  the  building 
known  as  the  Commercial  Hotel,  later  occupied  by  the  saloon  of  John 
Stitz.  This  was  the  first  building  in  town  and  in  addition  to  keeping  board- 
ers, .Mr.  Norum  also  sold  the  first  groceries  of  the  town  in  one  room  and 
was  also  the  first  postmaster.  At  that  time,  before  the  railroad  was  built, 
he  carried  the  mail  three  times  a  week  from  Storden. 

The  next  building  was  that  of  J.  E.  Nelson,  the  harness  man,  and  about 
this  time  the  town  got  busy  and  was  a  veritable  beehive  of  all  kinds  of 
mechanics. 

Schippel  &  Malschke  started  their  large  two-story  brick  block,  twenty- 
five  by  one  hundred  feet,  and  the  State  Bank,  later  the  First  National,  rushed 
to  completion  the  finest  two-story  brick  and  stone  building  in  the  town,  at 
a  cost  of  five  thousand  five  hundred  and  eighty  dollars.  This  hank  \ 
organized.  December  1,  1900,  with  an  authorized  capital  of  two  hundred 
thousand   dollars,   twenty-live  thousand   of   which   was   paid   up.     The   first 


l8S  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN; 

officers  were:  President,  J.  W.  Benson,  of  Heron  lake;  vice-president,  B. 
N.  Bodelson,  of  Dundee;  cashier,  J.  O.  Pearson,  of  Heron  lake.  Farmers 
and  business  men  took  an  active  interest  in  the  bank  and  very  soon  it  was 
among  the  strongest  in  the  county. 

St.  John  Brothers  were  the  first  in  the  field  with  a  first-class  store 
building,  forty-six  by  seventy-two  feet,  with  a  storage  house  thirty  by  forty 
feet,  all  of  which  was  opened  for  business  on  September  30.  The  post- 
office  was  moved  into  this  building,  January  7,  1901,  and  M.  A.  Tohnson 
was  appointed  postmaster,  Mr.  Norum  having  resigned. 

Wild  &  Spaulding  built  a  large  two-story  frame  building,  together  with 
a  large  warehouse  for  buggies  and  farm  machinery.  Other  improvements 
made  during  the  fall  of  1900  were  the  Erickson  two-story  building,  the 
Theo.  Miller  building,  later  occupied  by  J.  E.  Villa;  the  Dick  Needhaus  city 
meat  market  building,  John  Holland's  saloon,  Dorster  &  Fritsche's  two- 
story  implement  house,  later  owned  by  Peterson  &  Norum;  Silliman  Brothers' 
big  store  and  hall  building,  J.  J.  Hubin's  furniture  store  and  residence,  the 
building  occupied  by  O'Neill  &  McCormick's  saloon  and  the  building  occu- 
pied by  Rehnelt's  pool  hall.  The  city  drug  store  and  building  was  moved 
here  from  Dundee  by  E.  F.  Fricke. 

The  Kane-Slice  Implement  Company  was  the  first  to  engage  in  the 
implement  business.  They  constructed  a  large  two-story  warehouse,  twenty- 
four  by  sixty  feet,  just  west  of  the  First  National  Bank. 

Peter  Anderson  conducted  the  first  livery  in  the  bam  to  the  rear  of  the 
hotel.  Very  soon  afterwards  Frank  G.  Myres  put  in  the  Westbrook  livery 
and  early  on  the  ground  with  a  well  equipped  blacksmith  shop  was  John 
Bendixen. 

Brown  &  Roberts  had  the  barber  shop,  Getty  &  Green  conducted  a  real 
estate  office,  W.  G.  Owens,  attorney,  and  Dr.  C.  P.  Nelson  were  the  pro- 
fessional men. 

At  this  time  Dolliff  &  Company  and  Laird-Norton  Company  erected 
mammoth  lumber  sheds  which  were  necessar)  in  order  to  keep  a  sufficient 
supply  nf  lumber  on  hands  for  the  numerous  buildings  that  were  being  con- 
structed. Four  large  and  first-class  elevators  were  put  up  to  meet  the 
demands  of  the  farmers,  they  being  the  ones  of  the  St.  John  Brothers,  Hub- 
bard &  Palmer,  Renke  Brothers  and  K.  Krueger. 

Evidently  anticipating  the  rush  <>!'  business  the  railroad  company  put 
in  commodious  yards  and  sidings  connecting  with  the  elevator  and  stock- 
yards, dug  a  deep   well   and   installed   a   large  water  tank  and   just   west   of 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  l8o 

town  opened  a  gravel  pit  from  which  they  ballasted  the  line  from  Currie 
to  Bingham  Lake. 

Schueller  &  Welter,  of  Morgan,  bought  the  Commercial  Hotel,  which 
was  conducted  by  Frank  Scheffert  until  April,  1002,  after  which  time  the 
town  was  several  months  without  a  hotel. 

The  west  side  continued  to  make  show  for  business  and  J.  D.  Bevier 
and  family  hail  a  restaurant  and  boarding  house,  a  small  general  store  and 
blacksmith  shop.  There  was  also  a  full  fledged  "reading  room"  besides 
several  "restaurants."  The  county  attorney  closed  the  last  named  places 
and  business  on  the  west  side  declined  until  nothing  is  left  except  some  of 
the  buildings  and  the  Krueger  elevator.  The  west  side  is  now  one  of  the 
fine  resident  districts  of  the  town  and  no  longer  is  there  any  feeling  of 
separation  or  distinction  from  the  rest  of  the  town. 

Two  large  ice  houses  were  built,  one  operated  by  Chris  Hanson  for 
the  Westbrook  Ice  Company  and  one  by  Peterson  &  Carlson. 

Up  to  May.  1 901,  some  sixteen  or  eighteen  residences  had  been  built. 
B.  E.  Low  was  the  first  to  move  to  town  to  live  as  a  retired  farmer,  he 
coming  from  his  farm  near  Lake  Eliza.  Johnson  Brothers  built  and  occu- 
pied the  first  good  residence,  later  the  property  of  Walter  Larson.  The 
homes  of  J.  A.  Pearson,  Chris  Hanson,  George  Spooner,  S.  Norum,  P.  D. 
Peterson,  J.  J.  Christy.  I.  C.  Freeman,  Frank  Meyers,  W.  F.  Wenholz,  B.  E. 
Low.  K.  Krueger  and  Gustav  Grams  were  among  the  principal  residence 
improvements  of  the  fall  and  winter  of  1900. 

INCORPORATION,    ETC. 

Previous  to  March,  1001,  the  village  had  no  officers,  and  every  man 
was  a  law  unto  himself,  but  at  this  time  incorporation  was  made,  an  election 
held  and  the  first  set  of  officers  chosen.  They  were  as  follow:  Mayor, 
M.  A.  Johnson;  councilmen,  Augusl  Wild,  W.  II.  Wenholz,  G.  A.  Schippel; 
recorder,  G.  F.  Streater;  treasurer.  J,  A.  Pearson;  justices  of  peace,  George 
Spooner  and  D.  Needham;  constable,  D.  J.  Green;  assessor,  S.  B.  Stockwell; 
I.  C.  Freeman,  marshal;  attorney,  W.  D.  Owen.  The  work  of  the  first 
council  for  the  good  of  the  town  will  ever  stand  as  a  monument  to  their 
business  sagacity  and  wise  administration.  At  this  time  three  saloons  were 
licensed,  at  one  thousand  dollars  each. 

About  May  1,  I'.  II.  Rupp  built  a  shoe  -tore.  F.  II.  Fricke  also  put  up 
a   small   shoe   store.     Among   other   improvements    was    the   completion    of 


IQO  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINX. 

Doctor  Nelson's  corner  drug  store  at  a  cost  of  two  thousand  dollars;  Schip- 
pel's  two-story  brick  block,  adjoining  the  First  National  Bank,  in  the  fall, 
at  a  cost  of  three  thousand  dollars;  Sampson's  restaurant,  twenty  by  thirty- 
six  feet,  at  a  cost  of  five  hundred  dollars.  D.  H.  Flynn  bought  and  finished 
the  two-story  frame  building  started  by  John  Kaeding.  The  Sentinel  built 
a  home,  twenty  by  forty-eight  feet,  at  a  cost  of  nine  hundred  dollars.  Lin- 
schied's  two-story  building,  used  as  a  photograph  gallery,  constituted  the 
business  improvements  of  the  year.  The  Standard  Brewing  Company  put 
up  a  large  cold  storage  house  the  same  year. 

In  1902  the  Commercial  Club  was  formed  and  as  a  result  of  their  hustle 
the  town  secured  a  splendid  one  hundred  barrel  flour-mill,  costing  sixteen 
thousand  dollars.  Land  for  the  mill  was  secured  between  Hubbard  & 
Palmer's  and  Krueger's  elevators  and  the  first  active  work  was  begun  on 
May  8,  by  Bert  Milligan,  who  started  the  mill.  Mr.  Gress.  of  the  Sleepy 
Eye  Milling  Company,  was  at  the  head  of  the  new  enterprise.  The  mill 
was  later  destroyed  by  fire,  and  never  rebuilt. 

The  following  is  a  record  of  the  tons  of  freight  and  car-load  lots 
received  and  forwarded  from  January  1,  1902,  to  May  1,  1902.  When 
these  figures  are  compared  with  those  of  the  same  period  of  time  today,  it 
may  be  seen  how  great  has  been  the  growth  of  trade. 

Freight    forwarded.  Car  loads. 

Total  tonnage,  merchandise,   5,981,125  pounds 160 

Live  stock 45 

Total 205 

Freight    received.                      Car  loads. 
Total  tonnage,  merchandise,  4,861,033  pounds 115 

A  glance  at  the  village  will  show  that  it  has  been  quite  active  in  the 
way  of  improvements.  In  1902  the  town  installed  a  complete  water-works 
system,  at  a  cost  of  seven  thousand  dollars.  The  water  is  furnished  by  a 
well  sixty-three  feet  deep,  resting  in  lake  sand.  At  one  time  a  test  was 
made  tn  ascertain  the  strength  of  the  well.  Water  was  pumped  out  at  the 
rate  of  Forty-five  gallons  per  minute,  with  the  result  that  the  water  in  the 
well  was  lowered  only  twelve  feet,  after  which  it  was  impossible  to  lower 
the  supply.  Water  is  pumped  into  a  tank  holding  thirty-five  thousand  gal- 
lons and  thereby  the  town  is  furnished  with  an  abundance  of  water  by 
means  of  strong  pressure. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

Tn  January.  1915.  an  electric  plant  was  put  in  at  a  cost  of  eight  thou- 
sand dollars.  The  plant  runs  from  about  dusk  in  the  evening  until  mid- 
night. In  the  way  of  fire  protection,  they  have  an  organized  fire  company 
of  twenty-six  men  and  an  ample  supply  of  fire  equipment,  such  as  hose, 
ladders,  etc.  The  town  has  five  miles  of  cement  walks  and  each  year  more 
are  added.  The  order  in  the  town  must  be  pretty  good,  because  no  marshal 
or  policeman  is  on  the  pay  roll  and  the  "lock  up"  has  a  deserted  appearance. 

The  president-  that  have  served  the  village  are  herein  given  in  their 
order  of  service:  M.  A.  "Johnson,  C.  A.  Zieske,  D.  H.  Flynn,  T.  D.  Annis, 
V.  T.  Miller,  R.  C.  Soil,  O.  C.  Anderson,  J.  E.  Villa  and  W.  F.  Mead. 

The  present  officers  are  inclusive  of  the  following:  President,  \Y.  E. 
Mead;  trustees.  M.  J.  Breen,  Reinhold  Ewy  and  A.  L.  N.  Christianson; 
recorder,  Jos  Budish. 

POSTOFFICE. 

The  Westbrook  postoffice  was  established  at  about  the  same  time  the 
town  was  incorporated,  Mr.  Si  vert  Norum  being  appointed  the  first  post- 
master. Other  men  who  have  served  in  the  same  capacity  are  Andrew  Lorsi  >n, 
M.  A.  Johnson,  Clark  \Y.  Seely  and  John  L.  Sammons.  The  receipts  for 
this  office  are  the  largest  in  the  county,  with  the  exception  of  Windom. 
Three  rural  routes  distribute  mail  through  the  rural  districts  from  this  office. 
The  receipts  for  the  last  fiscal  year,  exclusive  of  the  money  department, 
amounted  to  three  thousand  three  hundred  and  sixty  dollars. 

WESTBROOK    STREET    FAIR. 

On  October  1,  igoi,  a  meeting  was  held  in  Ancient  Order  of  United 
Workmen  hall  for  the  purpose  of  organizing  a  street  fair  association.  Will- 
iam G.  Owens  was  made  the  temporary  chairman.  The  meeting  proceeded 
to  elect  officers  and  the  following  were  chosen:  President,  William  G. 
Owens;  vice-president,  M.  A.  Johnson;  secretary,  \Y.  B.  Leo;  treasurer, 
J.  A.  Pearson;  executive  committee,  J.  E.  Villa,  Ed.  Loomis  and  J.  J. 
Christy.  Six  hundred  dollars  were  offered  in  premiums.  The  first  fair 
was  a  success,  as  were  those  which  followed.  It  was  estimated  that  live 
thousand  people  attended  and  enjoyed  the  features  usually  found  at  a  county 
fair,  such  as  the  baby  -how,  wild  west,  merry-go-round,  vaudeville,  etc. 

BUSINESS   DIRECTORY   FOR    IQl6. 

The  business  interests  of  Westbrook  in  July.  1916,  were  in  charge  of 
the  following: 


I92  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

Auto  garage — Pederson  &  Ludwickson,  E.  Paetznick,  Grant  Ross. 

Attorney — John  L.   Sammons. 

Banks — First  National,  Citizens  State. 

Barber — Edward  Dietchman. 

Blacksmith — E.  A.   Paetznick,  James  Sorenson. 

Clothing — Cohrs  &  Ewy. 

Dray  line — John  Simning. 

Drugs — Walter  E.   Mead. 

Dentist— F.  M.  Miller. 

Elevator — John   J.   Christy,   Farmers   Elevator  Company,   C.   Krueger, 
F.  Romke. 

Furniture — Hans  J.  Christianson. 

General  dealer — George  Woodward,  Westbrook  Co-operative  Company. 

Grocer — G.  A.  Scheppel. 

Hotel — The  Westbrook. 

Harness — J.  E.  Nelson. 

Hardware — Footh  Brothers,  Bengton  &  Sons. 

Ice  dealer — John  Simning. 

Implement  dealer — Westbrook  Implement  Company,  R.  Ewy. 

Jeweler — Theo.  J.  Arneson. 

Lumber  dealer — Botsford  Lumber  Company,  L.  P.  Dolliff  &  Company. 

Livery — John  E.  Anderson. 

Milliner — Anastacia  Travel. 

Meat  market — Falk  Brothers. 

Motion  picture  show — The  Dixie. 

Newspaper — The  Sentinel. 

Physician — H.  A.  Schmidt. 

Produce   dealer — Hansford   Produce  Company. 

Photograph  gallery — T.   F.  Leavitt. 

Restaurant — T.  P.  Anderson. 

Real  estate — R.  L.  Eckert  Land  Company. 

Stock  dealer — Westbrook  Stock   Buyers  Association,  Charles  Pasmore. 

Veterinary — E.  R.  Tillisch. 

Telephone — Windom  Mutual  and   Northwestern. 

Westbrook,  although  in  its  infancy,  impresses  a  stranger  as  being  the 
most  city-like  village  in  the  county.  It  has  wide  and  well-improved  streets, 
which  are  clean  and  unusually  well  lighted  with  electric  lights.  It  is  one 
of  the  very  few   towns  of  its  size  in  southern  .Minnesota  that  owns  its  own 


HIGH   SCHOOL.  WESTBROOK. 


.       1 


MAIN    STREET,   WESTBROOK. 


%N^i^ 


FARM    SCENE   NEAR   WESTBROOK. 


DOUBLE    LAKES    DRIVE    NEAR    WESTBROOK. 


COTTOXWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  [93 

power  and  water  plant.  It  can  boast  of  a  newspaper  that  has  a  wide  circu- 
lation, a  model  of  its  kind  and  one  which  does  credit  to  the  town  and  the 
community. 

Westbrook  is  a  town  of  beautiful  homes  and  well-kept  lawns;  a  place 
especially  well  suited  and  inviting  to  the  homeseeker,  because  there  is  found 
almost  any  religious  denomination  one  may  seek  and  a  school  system  that 
would  do  credit  to  a  town  many  times  its  size. 

In  the  western  part  of  town  is  a  park  that  the  town  board  bought  of 
Whited,  the  townsite  man,  a  short  time  after  the  town  was  laid  out,  for  the 
nominal  sum  of  one  thousand  dollars.  The  park  is  not  merely  a  square 
lot  With  a  few  trees  scattered  here  and  there,  but,  instead,  one  sees  trees 
of  various  species,  symetrically  placed  and  of  a  uniform  size.  The  park- 
is  well  supplied  with  inviting  ^eats  and  chairs  and  is  thoroughly  lighted  with 
electric  lights.  Westbrook's  first  annual  chautauqua,  held  July  9  to  14, 
1916.  was  held  in  the  park,  which  made  an  ideal  location.  Up  to  this  time 
there  were  many  people  in  the  village  and  vicinity  who  did  not  realize  what 
a  fine  place  for  such  a  gathering  the  town  has.  The  chautauqua  was  a 
success  in  every  detail. 

It  has  been  stated  upon  good  authority  that  Westbrook  has  as  much 
business  as  the  other  towns  on  the  Currie  branch  combined,  which,  if  true, 
we  predict  that  in  the  next  decade  she  will  be  second  to  none  in  the  county 
as  a  business  center.  At  the  time  the  townsite  was  laid  out,  it  was  con- 
sidered the  best  on  the  Currie  branch,  as  it  was  surrounded  by  a  magnificent 
territory  of  rich  farming  lands,  which  had  been  settled  for  many  years 
by  thrifty  and  progressive  farmers,  many  of  whom  were  homesteaders 
twenty-five  to  thirty  years  ago.  The  location  of  Westbrook  is  an  admir- 
able one  from  a  business  standpoint,  speaking  geographically.  It  is  on  the 
west  side  of  Cottonwood  county,  a  little  over  a  mile  from  the  Murray 
county  line  and  is  about  the  center  of  the  county  on  a  north  and  south  line. 
twenty-eight  miles  from  Windom  and  ha-  a  wide  trade  territory  in  every 
direction. 

As  an  index  of  the  growth  and  improvements  in  the  town  from  July 
11,  1900,  to  May  1.  1901.  one  need  notice  only  the  assessed  valuations. 
The  assessed  value  of  building  improvements  was  forty-four  thousand  dol- 
lars. On  May  1,  the  personal  property  valuation  was  seventy-four  thousand 
five  hundred  and  twenty-two  dollars.  These  values  did  not  include  real 
estate. 

(13)     ■ 


CHAPTER  VII. 

AGRICULTURAL    INTERESTS    OF    COTTONWOOD    COUNTY. 

Agriculture  in  all  ages  of  the  world's  history  has  been  man's  chief 
industry  and  substantial  support.  There  is  only  a  comparatively  small  per- 
centage of  the  earth's  surface  on  which  good  crops  can  be  produced.  The 
grains  and  grasses  and  fruits  and  vegetables  can  only  be  found  growing 
in  limited  portions  of  the  globe,  and  the  man  who  lives  in  a  crop  belt  and 
owns  a  farm,  be  it  small  or  large,  is  the  most  independent  being  on  earth. 
When  all  other  industries  fail,  he  still  is  called  upon  to  provide  food  for  the 
earth's  population.  There  are  certain  localities  where  the  great  harvests  of 
wheat,  corn  and  other  bread-stuff  products  can  be  seen  in  their  annual 
beauty  and  wealth.  This  section  of  the  United  States  is  confined  largely 
to  the  great  Mississippi  and  Missouri  valleys.  Hence,  he  who  is  fortunate 
enough  to  have  his  farm  located  in  any  one  of  the  central  western  states,  in- 
cluding Minnesota,  is  indeed  fortunate.  Among  the  counties  where  corn, 
wheat,  oats,  grasses,  fruits  and  vegetables  grow  in  abundance,  and  a  crop 
failure  is  seldom  recorded,  we  find  Cottonwood  classed  among  the  foremost. 

The  manner  of  farming  and  the  class  of  products  have  changed 
materially  in  the  last  third  of  a  century.  Then  it  was  wheat  ami  oats  and 
flax  almost  entirely;  now  the  successful  farmer  is  a  believer  in  and  grower 
of  corn  and  the  feeding  of  stock  and  butter-making.  Not  alone  have  the 
crops  changed,  but  the  machinery  with  which  all  farm  work  is  now  clone 
is  vastly  different  from  that  employed  when  Cottonwood  county  was  organ- 
ized forty-six  years  ago.  True,  they  had  harvesters  and  mowers,  but  not 
such  as  we  use  today.  We  had  to  wait  years  for  a  successful  self-binder; 
first,  the  Walter  A.  Wood  wire  binder;  then  the  real  "binder."  the  Appleby, 
invented  by  a  Minnesota  man,  came  into  universal  use.  The  harvesting 
peril  id  has  been  shortened.  The  hay-making  machinery  is  another  innova- 
tion of  the  farm.  The  old  "bull"  rakes  with  wooden  teeth  are  no  more 
known.     This  generation  never  operated  one. 

The  hav-rakes,  the  hav-forks  and  all  stacking  machinery  are  built  on  a 
different  plan  than  those  our  fathers  used.  We  can  put  up  twenty  times  as 
much  hay  in  a  given  time  as  they  could.     The  corn-planter,  cultivator,  walk- 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  I95 

ing  and  riding  plows,  and  disks  and  a  hundred  and  one  machines,  including 
the  thresher  and  the  corn  harvesters,  have  all  come  into  use  long  since  the 
homesteader  plodded  over  this  county,  content  to  use  what  machinery  his 
time  afforded.  He  worked  longer  days  and  rode  in  nothing  like  an  auto- 
mobile, yet  to  him  we  owe  the  present  prosperity  of  Cottonwood  county. 
He  remained  here  through  all  sorts  of  adversities,  until  the  sun  of  better 
days  began  to  light  up  the  former  gloom. 

A  day's  drive  through  any  one  of  the  townships  of  this  county  will 
present  to  the  tourist  a  scene  at  once  charming  and  one  which  is  ever  a  feast 
to  the  eye  of  one  who  has  an  eye  for  beauty  and  an  appreciation  of  the  great 
agricultural  interests  of  southern  Minnesota.  Here  one  sees  the  well-tilled 
farms,  the  tame  grasses,  the  fattening  stock,  the  well-built,  well-painted 
farm  houses,  and  the  surrounding  barns  and  shedding,  with  silos  towering 
up  to  show  what  modern  agriculture  really  has  accomplished.  With  the 
farm,  the  stock,  the  dairy,  the  poultry,  the  fruit  orchard  and  excellent 
garden,  no  one  can  question  the  statement  that  these  people  are  a  favored 
people. 

POULTRY    SHOW. 

Windom'  first  annual  poultry  show  took  place  in  December,  1907,  and 
was  one  of  the  best  and  biggest  this  part  of  the  state  ever  saw.  Birds  were 
brought  from  many  parts  of  Minnesota  and  Iowa,  and  a  great  interest  was 
manifested.  It  was  organized  with  the  intent  inn  of  making  it  a  permanent 
institution  and  of  doing  lasting  good  to  the  county  and  community. 

.  EARLY   AND    PRESENT   STOCK    FARMS. 

Among  the  first  great  horse-breeding  farms  of  Cottonwood  county 
was  that  established  in  the  spring  of  1892  by  Charles  Thompson.  It  was 
known  as  the  "Riverside  Stock  Farm,"  and  is  situated  just  opposite  Win- 
dom, across  the  Des  Moines  river  and  comes  down  to  the  water's  edge. 
Here  more  than  one  hundred  thousand  dollars  was  expended  for  stock  anil 
building,  including  a  twelve-thousand-dollar  imported  stallion.  Both  the 
barns  and  residence  were  constructed  on  modern  plans.  The  grounds  were 
laid  out  by  landscape  gardeners  and  the  lawn  was  viewed  by  hundreds,  who 
pronounced  it  among  the  finest  in  Minnesota.  Mr.  Thompson  buill  a  tine 
race  track,  a  half-mile  in  length,  the  whole  being  enclosed  by  a  high  tight 
board  fence,  so  that  neither  animals  nor  drivers  could  in  any  possible  main 
be  injured.     A  large  pasture  was  fenced  in  with  boards,  the  enclosure  hav- 


Iq6  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINX. 

ing  about  three  hundred  acres  within  it.  This  pasture  has  the  Des  Moines 
river  running  through  it  for  at  least  a  distance  of  one  mile,  and  it  was 
skirted  with  sufficient  timber  to  insure  shelter  and  shade  from  the  sun's  hot 
rays.  It  was  divided  into  large  paddocks  where  the  brood  mares  were  safely 
kept  on  the  finest  growth  of  blue  grass.  In  his  barns  and  pastures  there 
were  kept  some  of  the  most  valuable  and  handsome  horses  to  be  found  in 
the  United  States,  some  of  which  were  closely  related  to  "Nancy  Hanks," 
which  animal  in  1892  broke  all  records  for  speed  in  trotting  races  in  this 
country.  The  superintendent  in  1892-3  was  W.  D.  Wright  and  the  fore- 
man was  James  Hanton,  together  with  trained  horsemen  from  the  Kentucky 
horse  farms. 

After  the  death  of  Mr.  Thompson,  the  enterprise  went  down  and 
gradually  the  place  was  subdivided  and  allowed  to  go  out  of  the  horse 
breeding  business  and  is  now  used  for  general  farming  purposes,  but  not 
particularly  devoted  to  blooded  horses.  Mr.  Thompson  was  a  mute  and  the 
son  of  a  wealthy  land-owner  of  St.  Paul ;  both  father  and  son  are  now  de- 
ceased, and  the  vast  landed  estate  includes  the  largest  farm  land  acreage  in 
Minnesota  by  any  one  family.  It  is  cared  for  now  by  Air.  Kendall,  for- 
merly of  Windom. 

In  the  nineties,  the  following  appeared  in  the  local  newspaper: 
"One  of  the  wide-awake  progressive  stock  men  of  the  county  is  John 
Paulson,  who  is  the  owner  and  proprietor  of  the  "Three  Lake  Stock  Farm." 
He  makes  a  specialty  of  Shorthorn  cattle,  Poland  China  hugs  and  Shrop- 
shire sheep.  He  has  quite  a  reputation  as  a  breeder  of  thoroughbred  stock 
and  his  blooded  animals  are  found  throughout  the  state  of  Minnesota." 

The  present  blooded-stock  raisers  include  the  following:  Ole  O.  Knut- 
son,  Ann  township;  Helga  Johnson,  Ann  township:  Hanson  &  Nackerund, 
Ann  township:  Peter  Nelson  (Shorthorn  cattle).  Westbrook  township;  O. 
H.  Smeby,  Westbrook  township,  fancy  hogs,  etc.;  J.  A.  Christiansen  (Hol- 
stein  cattle),  Westbrook  township;  .\T.  J.  Henkels,  Southbrook  township; 
J.  P..  Savage,  Delton  township;  X.  P.  Minion.  Delton  township:  Charles  W. 
Stark,  Selma  township;  John  J.  Quiring,  Midway  township;  Emil  Paulson, 
Dale  township;  1''..  J.  Gove,  Lakeside  township;  D.  W.  Weld.  Windoin; 
Henrv  D.  Peters,  Dale  township;  T.  V.  &  Lula  Fisk,  Selma  township.  Be- 
sides the  foregoing  there  are  many  more  smaller  farms  where  line  stock- 
breeding  is  carried  on  to  quite  an  extent.  The  county  has  prospered  more 
since  the  line  stock  and  dairy  business  has  been  established  than  in  all  the 
previous  years  in  the  history  of  Cottonwood  county. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  l()J 

THE    CREAMERY    INDUSTRY. 

Men  and  women  still  living  in  Cottonwood  county,  remember,  when 
children  and  youths,  the  old  dash  churn  and  what  a  tedious  task  it  was  to 
get  butter  "to  come"  by  the  constant  plying  of  the  old  upright  dasher.  In 
winter  the  cream  was  said  to  be  too  cold  and  hot  water  was  turned  into  the 
stoneware  churn,  and  in  summer  it  was  said  to  be  too  hot,  so  the  housewife 
placed  cold  water  in  the  churn.  Sometimes  it  never  did  come  as  first-class 
butter,  but  usually  the  patience  of  the  good  housekeeper  was  rewarded  with 
a  crock  of  butter  which  had  to  be  worked  and  packed  in  tubs  or  jars  and 
finally  sold  or  exchanged  for  groceries,  at  from  seven  to  twelve  cents  per 
pound. 

A  little  later  the  system  was  changed  and  what  was  known  as  the  "sub- 
merged can"  was  brought  into  use.  Deep  cans  holding  several  gallons  of 
milk  were  placed  in  tanks  filled  with  water  and  kept  cool,  till  the  cream  was 
fully  raised  to  the  top  when  it  was  skimmed  out  and  sold  to  the  butter 
dealer,  who  sometimes  collected  and  at  other  times  demanded  it  be  brought 
to  the  butter  factory. 

Then,  again,  the  dealer  preferred  to  have  the  farmer  bring  him  "un- 
salted"  butter,  and  the  butter-maker  would  then  take  all  grades  of  unsalted 
butter  and  mix  them  together  and  usually  add  plenty  of  Wells-Richardson's 
butter  color,  which  was  the  staple  article  from  ocean  to  ocean,  for  making 
the  otherwise  white  butter  an  even  yellow  color.  Times  have  changed; 
now  the  pure  food  laws  will  not  admit  of  colored  butter  in  many  states  of 
the  Union. 

Then  came  the  modern  creamery  with  the  improved  Danish  separator, 
which  in  a  few  moments  extracts  every  particle  of  the  butter-fat  from  the 
milk.  This  was  a  great  change  and  the  system  has  spread  throughout  the 
entire  dairy  section  of  the  country.  Creameries  have  been  established  in 
almost  every  township  of  the  counties.  Some  are  private,  some  corporation 
and  many  are  farmer's  co-operative  concerns,  but  of  whatever  character 
they  may  be,  they  have  proven  of  great  financial  l>enefit  to  the  community 
in  which  they  are  operated.  Cottonwood,  with  many  of  her  sister  counties 
i-  by  nature  a  good  dairy  section.  The  farmer  who  in  the  last  two  decades 
has  paid  strict  attention  to  keeping  and  caring  for  good  milk  cows,  has  come 
to  be  the  most  successful  of  any  of  the  agriculturists  in  the  country.  The 
bank  accounts  have  constantly  increased  and  the  farmer's  family  have  been 
able  to  indulge  in  many  of  the  luxuries  which  the  early  wheat-growing 
farmer  knew  nothing  of. 


198  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

It  is  to  be  regretted  that  the  statistics  of  the  dairy  and  creamery  in- 
dustry of  this  county  have  not  been  collected  and  made  a  matter  of  record, 
save  in  a  few  instances.  The  raising  of  fine  stock  and  the  production  of 
butter  are  important  factors  in  the  wealth  of  the  county.  The  creamery, 
especially,  is  what  has  made  Minnesota  famous.  The  immense  crops  of 
wheat  for  flour-making  purposes,  together  with  these  creameries,  have  given 
the  state  the  name  of  the  "bread  and  butter  state."  Cottonwood  county,  so 
long  ago  as  the  World's  Fair  at  Chicago,  in  1893,  was  styled  the  "Blue  Grass 
county"   of  Minnesota. 

During  1907  the  Dovary  Creamery  Company,  of  this  county,  issued 
the  following  statement:  Total  number  of  patrons,  one  hundred  and 
seventy-five;  pounds  of  butter-fat,  one  hundred  and  sixty-two  thousand; 
total  number  of  pounds  of  butter,  one  hundred  and  eighty-seven  thousand; 
per  cent  of  over-run,  fourteen  and  nine-tenths;  average  price  per  pound  for 
butter-fat,  twenty-five  and  one-half  cents;  total  amount  paid  patrons,  forty- 
one  thousand  four  hundred  and  thirty  dollars  and  sixty-one  cents. 

The  present  Farmers'  Co-operative  Creamery  at  Storden  began  its 
operations  in  the  month  of  May,  1916,  under  the  management  of  Anton 
Madson.  The  old  creamery  burned  and  was  replaced  by  the  present  one  in 
[915.  This  plant  has  a  capacity  of  six  thousand  pounds  of  butter  fat  per 
week,  but  the  present  output  is  averaging  about  three  thousand  five  hundred 
pounds  per  week.     The  entire  products  are  marketed  in  New  York  City. 

At  Bingham  Lake  the  creamery  is  a  private  concern  and  is  now  the 
property  of  George  O.  Fisher,  who  recently  purchased  it  of  H.  E.  Hakes. 
now  of  Windom.  This  is  one  of  the  few  creameries  that  calls  for  and 
delivers  milk  and  cream.  At  this  date  the  owner  has  two  delivery  routes. 
Aboul  cue  hundred  and  fifty  patrons  are  served  by  this  plant,  which  is 
turning  out  on  an  average  of  three  thousand  five  hundred  pounds  of  butter- 
fat  per  week,  all  of  which  finds  a  ready  sale  at  a  fair  price  in  the  markets 
of  New  York  City. 

AGRICULTURAL    SOCIETIES. 

The  first  fair  association,  or  agricultural  society,  organized  in  this  county 
was  the  one  formed  al  a  meeting  at  the  school  house  in  Windom,  July  15. 
1882,  at  which  date  the  following  officers  were  elected:  President,  C.  F. 
Warner,  and  about  twenty  vice-presidents  from  the  various  townships  and 
villages  in  the  county.  On  July  29,  [882,  a  constitution  and  by-laws  were 
adopted  and  the  membership  Fee  fixed  at  fifty  cents  per  member.  About  one 
hundred  joined  the  society  in  the  county  and  two  hundred  fair  premium  lists 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  I  <  j< ) 

were  printed  and  distributed.  At  the  first  annual  fair  the  marshal  of  the 
day  was  Paul  Seeger.  In  18S6  the  society  purchased  forty  acres  of  land, 
including  the  present  line  fair  grounds  at  Windom.  They  paid  one  thousand 
two  hundred  dollars  for  this  tract  of  land  and  in  1889  sold  sixteen  acres  of  it 
for  the  same  sum 

In  autumn,  1916,  Cottonwood  county  held  its  thirty-fifth  annual  county 
fair  on  the  grounds  located  in  Windom,  and  which  are  provided  with  the 
best  improvements  to.  be  found  in  any  county  in  the  state,  outside  the  large 
cities  like  St.  Paul  and  Minneapolis.  The  county  now  draws  from  two  to 
four  hundred  dollars  per  year  from  the  state  fund,  per  legislative  enactment 
of  several  years  ago. 

Cottonwood  has  had  several  organizations  for  agricultural  fair  pur- 
poses, but  they  all  come  within  the  period  since  1874.  The  following  is 
gleaned  from  the  Windom  Reporter,  connecting  the  first  organization  of  a 
county  agricultural  society : 

"The  first  agricultural  society  in  Cottonwood  county  was  organized  in 
Windom,  Fehruarv  1,  1874,  with  thirty  or  forty  members.  The  first  offi- 
cers included  the  following:  A.  A.  Soule,  president;  S.  B.  Stedman,  vice- 
president;  William  Prentiss,  secretary;  S.  O.  Taggart.  treasurer;  executive 
committee,  S.  E.  Ford,  George  Haigh  and  J.  F.  Bean.  J.  W.  Benjamin 
and  D.  C.  Davis  were  elected  delegates  to  attend  the  meeting  of  the  State 
Agricultural  Society,  Fehruarv  4,   T874." 

In  July,  1882,  a  meeting  was  held  at  the  school  building  for  the  pur- 
pose of  reviving  the  Agricultural  Society.  C.  F.  Warren  called  the  meeting 
to  order.  After  stating  the  purpose  of  the  meeting,  the  subject  of  a  county 
fair  for  the  coming  fall  was  discussed  and  it  was  unanimously  decided  to 
hold  one.  A  new  election  of  officers  took  place,  with  the  following  result: 
C.  I'".  Warren,  president;  Fred  Carpenter,  vice-president;  I'".  M.  Dyer,  secre- 
tarv;  executive  committee.  John  (lark,  J.  F.  French,  A.  E.  Woodruff  and  J. 
Cutler.  Vice-presidents  were  chosen  according  to  townships.  S.  H.  Soule, 
Mountain  Pake;  S.  Blackman,  Selma;  J.  S.  Narmore,  Delton;  M.  T.  Dewolf, 
Lakeside;  S.  M.  Espey,  Great  Bend;  A.  A.  Start.  Dale;  II.  H.  Potter, 
Amboy;  Chris  Brand,  Germantown;  '  ieorge  Quevli,  Highwater;  Rasmus 
Anderson.  Storden;  D.  < '.  Ashley,  \mo;  (i.  S.  Redding,  Springfield;  W.  J. 
Jones,  Southbrook;  Henry  Trautfether,  Rose  Hill;  A.  L.  Larson,  West- 
brook;  Chris  Anderson,  Amo.  Tin-  old  constitution  was  adopted,  subjed 
to  amendment.  The  management  was  to  be  almost  entirely  in  the  hands 
of  the  farmers. 

Officers:     W    I".   Sanger,  president;  L.  C.  Churchill,  secretary;  T.   A. 


200  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES.    MINX. 

Perkins,  treasurer ;  C.  E.  Ware,  C.  C.  Morey  and  W.  W.  Hunter,  vice-presi- 
dents; P.  G.  Neufeld,  Gus  Miller,  Fred  Moser  and  Dr.  F.  E.  Judd,  directors. 

Superintendents:  Horses — Dr.  F.  .  Judd;  cattle — D.  A.  Noble;  sheep 
and  swine,  C.  E.  Ware;  grain,  seeds,  vegetables  and  fruits — \Y.  \Y.  Hunter; 
floral,  domestic,  fancy  work — P.  G.  Neufeld;  machinery  and  automobiles — 
F.  Moser;  rural  and  graded  schools — Alf  R.  Person;  races  and  privileges — 
W.  F.  Sanger. 

Cottonwood  county  has  long  been  noted  for  its  excellent  county  fairs. 
This  bespeaks  much  for  the  intelligence  as  well  as  enterprise  of  its  farmers 
and  business  men,  all  doing  their  full  share  to  make  these  annual  exhibits  a 
success.     This  year  is  its  thirty-fifth  fair. 

PRIZES  FOR  FARM  EXHIBITS. 

The  customary  amount  of  $80  will  be  offered  for  farm  exhibits  again 
this  year.  This  feature  has  become  so  popular  that  other  fairs  have  adopted 
it,  and  we  want  to  still  retain  the  lead  by  having  some  splendid  exhibits. 
The  prizes  will  be  divided  as  follow:  $30.  $20,  $15  and  $5.  This  exhibit, 
which  must  be  grown  during  1916,  and  the  points  upon  which  they  will  be 
marked  when  judging  is  done,  shall  consist  of  threshed  grain,  100  plants; 
sheaf  grain,  100  points;  corn  200;  native  grass,  50;  tame  grass,  100;  for- 
age, 100;  potatoes,  100;  stock,  vegetables,  50;  miscellaneous,  100.  Every 
article  exhibited  must  be  raised  by  the  exhibitor.  A  space  will  be  allotted 
to  each  exhibitor,  if  they  will  notify  the  secretary,  L.  C.  Churchill,  that  they 
intend  to  enter  the  contest.  This  space  can  be  fixed  up  as  tastily  as  the 
exhibitor  may  desire,  and  the  booth  decorations  will  count  in  the  awarding 
of  the  prizes,  100  points. 

FARM    NAMES. 

By  a  wise  provision  of  the  state  of  Minnesota  law-makers,  each  register 
of  deeds  is  provided  with  a  book  in  which  may  be  recorded  the  name,  loca- 
tion and  owner's  name  of  farms  within  the  county.  A  fee  of  fifty  cents  is 
all  that  is  charged  for  such  recording,  and  all  who  value  a  name  and  are 
landowners  in  a  county  should  have  pride  enough  to  so  record  a  name  for 
their  farm.  The  following  have  so  far  taken  advantage  of  this  opportunity 
in  Cottonwood  county  since  the  law  became  effective: 

The  "New  Leland  Farm,"  by  E.  C.  Morck,  June  21,  1910,  in  section  9, 
township   107,  range  37  west. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  201 

"Willow  Glen,"  March  n,  191 1.  in  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  28, 
township  107,  range  36  west,  by  John  A.  Kees,  Jr. 

"Valley  Dale  Stock  Farm,"  March  12,  1912,  by  Alvin  Rand,  in  the 
northwest  quarter  and  the  north  half  of  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  35, 
township  106,  range  36  west. 

"Eureka  Farm,"  in  the  north  half  of  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  30, 
and  the  east  half  of  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  19,  township  108,  range 
3~  west,  by  I.  O.  Iverson. 

"Greenwood  Farm,"  March  22,  1913,  by  H.  J.  Fast,  in  the  east  half  of 
the  southeast  quarter  and  the  south  half  of  the  northeast  quarter  of  section 
12.  township  105,  range  34  west,  and  the  west  half  of  the  southwest  quarter 
of  section  6,  township  105,  range  t,^  west. 

"Highcroft,"  November  8,  1913,  by  C.  W.  Gove,  in  the  south  half  of 
the  northwest  quarter  of  section  24.  township  T05,  range  36  west. 

"Momingside."  Xovmeber  8.  1913,  by  C.  \\\  Gove,  in  the  north  half 
of  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  24.  township  105,  range  36  west. 

"Sunnyside."  by  D.  U.  Weld,  in  section  35,  township  105,  range  36. 
Date.  January  20,  19 14. 

"Springvale  Stock  Farm,"  February  18,  [913,  by  Henrv  D.  Peters,  in 
the  northeast  quarter  of  section  36,  township  106,  range  36. 

"Fairview  Farm,"  February  24,  1914,  l.ars  M.  Olson,  in  the  northeast 
quarter  of  section  5.  township  106,  range  37  west. 

"Germantown  Stock  Farm,"  March  21,  k;  14.  by  Emil  Pankomis,  in  the 
northeast  quarter  of  section  1,2.  township  108,  range  36  west. 

"Wild  Wood  harm."  May  8,  1914,  by  15.  W.  Gove,  in  the  southeast 
quarter  of  section  2,  township  106,  range  38  west,  and  the  west  half  of  the 
southeast  quarter  of  the  same  town  and  range. 

"Clover  Brook  Farm,"  August  18,  1914,  Mr.  Mathisson,  in  the  west 
half  of  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  22,  township  108,  range  38  west. 

"Fairhurst  Farm,"  by  A.  G.  Mareness,  in  the  northwest  quarter  of  sec- 
tion 11,  township  103,  range  36  west,  February  n,  1915. 

"Lakeside  Stock  Farm,"  by  F.  J.  Gove,  in  the  northeast  quarter  of  the 
northeast  quarter  of  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  10,  township  105,  range 
35  west.  March  24,   1915. 

"Bonanza   Stock   Farm,"   March   26,    1013,   by   IT.    F.    Hanson,    in   the 
southwest  quarter  of  section  17,  township  108,  range  38,  and  the  northwi 
quarter  of  section  20,  same  town  and  range. 

"Grand  View  Farm,"  April  7.  [915,  by  John  Malady,  in  the  northeast 
quarter  of  section  26,  township  105,  range  35  west. 


202  COTTONWOOD    AXD    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

"Lake  Shore  Farm."  June  2$,  191 5,  by  August  H.  Steigelmeyer,  in  the 
northwest  quarter  of  section  10,  township  105,  range  35  west. 

"Maplehurst  Farm,"  February  14,  1916,  by  Christop  A.  Goring,  in  the 
southwest  quarter  of  section  24,  township  107,  range  34  west. 

"Clover  Leaf  Farm."  March  21,  1916.  by  H.  P.  McElroy,  in  the  south- 
west quarter  of  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  9,  township  107,  range  37 
west. 

"American  Stock  Farm,"  by  T.  A',  and  Lula  Fisk,  June  19,  1916,  all 
of  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  8,  township  107,  range  34  west,  and  the 
west  half  of  the  northeast  quarter  of  the  same  town  and  range. 

AGRICULTURAL  STATISTICS. 

The  state  reports  show  that  in  191 3  Cottonwood  county  had  in  opera- 
tion seven  creameries,  with  an  output  of  671.317  pounds  of  butter.  The 
live  stock  of  the  county  at  that  date  was  as  follow:  Horses,  11. 761;  cattle, 
29,510;  sheep,  5.547;  swine.  17.532.  Land  was  sold  at  from  eighty-five 
dollars  to  one  hundred  and  fifty  dollars  per  acre. 

The  crop  average  was  as  follows  in  1913  :  Corn,  62,069;  oats,  57,498; 
wheat.  13.937;  barley,  26,854;  rye,  5.662;  flax,  2,000;  potatoes,  950;  hay, 
63,830. 

In  1895  the  agricultural  reports  for  the  state  by  counties  gave  the  fol- 
lowing  for  Cottonwood  county: 

X  umber  of  farms  improved — 1,700;  creameries,  6;  forest  trees  planted 
and  growing,  3,920  acres;  rods  of  trees  along  highways.  10,420;  total  of 
bearing  apple  trees.  3.563;  apple  trees  growing.   14.400;  grape  vines  bearing, 

3.595- 

Live  -lock:  Cows,  5,880;  sheep,  7,310;  cattle  under  three  years  old, 
4.(132:  horse  three  years  and  over,  5,632:  hogs,  '',621;  sheep  (sheared), 
7.310:  sheep  raised,  0,211. 

Field  crops:  Acres  of  wheat,  57,000;  oats.  36,000;  corn.  19,167;  bar- 
ley, 10.701;  rye.  288;  buskv beat,  46;  potatoes,  935;  sugar  cane,  60;  tame 
hay.    1.1  i.'o;  flax,  9,000. 

Going  back  to  [890,  it  is  found  by  the  agricultural  reports  that  there 
were  raised:  Wheat.  409,000  bushels;  oats,  70S. 000  bushels:  corn,  149,000 
bushels;  barley.  31.000  bushels;  potatoes,  32.000  bushels;  flax  seed.  133.000 
I  Lishels;  tons  of  tame  bay.  4,425;  prairie  bay,  43.000  tons. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  203 

CORN   ADVANCING   YEARLY. 

In  1880  the  growth  of  Indian  corn  in  this  county  was  looked  upon  by 
the  farmer  and  landowner  as  among  the  doubtful  problems,  and  not  con- 
sidered at  all  practical.  That  year  there  were  planted  4,000  acres  of  corn 
and  8.000  acres  in  oats  and  barley.  But  the  reports  of  18Q3  show  that  there 
were  raised  644,000  bushels  of  wheat:  587,000  bushels  of  oats  and  349,000 
bushels  of  corn;  barley,  272,000  bushels.  The  same  year  the  county  pro- 
duced 545,000  pounds  of  butter  for  shipment. 

NUMBER    OF    FARMS,    ETC. 

In  18S0  there  were  867  farms  in  Cottonwood  county:  in  1893  the  num- 
ber was  1,515,  and  on  these  there  were  7,000  horses  and  mules;  10,200  head 
of  cattle ;  24,000  sheep,  and  4,000  hogs. 

COLUMBIAN    EXPOSITION    PREMIUM. 

At  the  Chicago  World's  Fair  in  1893  a  Windom  man  took  the  prize  for 
the  gold  medal  offered  on  butter  from  a  dairy  plant.  In  1908  it  was  said: 
"There  are  numerous  creameries  in  this  county  and  those  adjoining  it.  These 
are  mostly  on  the  co-operative  plan,  and  their  product  sells  in  the  Xew  York 
city  markets  at  the  top  prices,  having  often  brought  more  than  the  famous 
Elgin,  Illinois,  butter.  The  Windom  Creamery  has  just  captured  the  second 
prize  at  the  International  Butter  Makers'  Association  contest  at  Minneapo- 
lis. These  two  counties — Jackson  and  Cottonwood — arc  capable,  of  easily 
sustaining  a  hundred  creameries." 

The  Windom  Creamery  Company,  organized  in  1894,  had  a  capital  of 
four  thousand  dollars  and  was  a  co-operative  concern,  made  up  of  the  busi- 
ness men  and  farmers  of  this  county,  in  the  vicinity  of  Windom.  In  1900 
its  books  show  they  sold  twenty-five  thousand  d< .liars'  worth  of  butter  in 
the  markets  of  the  Fast.  It  had  the  largest  number  of  band  separators  of 
any  creamerv  in  Minnesota  and  its  equipment  was  the  best  t'i  be  bad  at  that 
date.  I.  A.  Hanson,  a  native  of  Brown  county,  was  the  butter-maker — and 
there  was  none  better  in  Minesota  then. 


204  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN*    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

STOCK    MEN    OF    I908. 

A  local  paper  printed  in  1908  speaks  thus  of  the  fine  stock  men  of  this 
county:  "Some  of  the  finest  stock  in  the  state  is  raised  in  the  vicinity  of 
Windom.  Mr.  Van  Xest's  Shorthorn  drove,  headed  by  a  thousand-dollar 
bull;  Mr.  Waters'  famous  herd  of  thoroughbred  and  grade  Shorthorns;  Mr. 
Converse's  splendid  herd  of  the  same  breed;  Grant  Brothers'  Polled  Angus; 
Mr.  Weld's  beautiful  herd  of  Galloways;  Lars  Anderson's  Galloways;  Ole 
Knudson's  Shorthorns;  Mr.  Einertson's  Holsteins;  H.  Sherman's  Jerseys, 
and  Silliman  Brothers'  Polled  Angus  have  proven  the  adaptability  of  this 
county  for  the  raising  of  fine  stock.  Cottonwood  county  ships  many  head 
of  blooded  cattle  to  other  states." 

In  1910  there  were  in  Cottonwood  county  twelve  creameries,  the  output 
of  which  was  566,405  pounds  of  butter.  Live  stock — Horses,  9.806;  cattle, 
23,543;  sheep,  9,067;  swine,  12,312.  The  assessment  books  at  the  auditor's 
office  show  that  the  acreage  in  1912  for  this  county  was  as  follows:  Corn, 
50,891;  oats,  62.175:  wheat,  17,707;  barley.  23,222;  flax.  65,191;  potatoes, 
58,028. 


CHAPTER  VIII. 


SECRET    AND    BENEVOLENT    SOCIETIES. 


In  all  civilized  portions  of  the  globe  today  there  are  found  various  civic 
and  secret  orders — men  banded  together  to  work  for  each  other's  good. 
There  was  a  time  when  many  of  the  religious  sects  would  not  tolerate  con- 
nection with  such  societies  by  members  of  their  denominations.  Especially 
did  the  Masonic  and  Odd  Fellow  fraternities  have  a  struggle  to  establish 
themselves  in  many  parts  of  this  country  and  in  Europe.  The  feeling  was 
hitter,  no  doubt,  on  account  of  their  ignorance  on  the  workings  and  aims  of 
these  ancient  orders.  But  with  the  passing  of  years  and  a  better  understand- 
ing of  such  orders  and  the  many  good,  benevolent  deeds  seeirin  the  com- 
munity, as  a  result  of  such  lodges,  many  of  the  broader  churches  favored 
such  organizations,  and  the  pastors  and  rectors  of  the  churches  were  num- 
bered among  the  "brightest  Masons,"  and  the  same  was  true,  at  a  later  date. 
of  the  Odd  Fellow  order.  There  are  still  some  religious  sects  who  do  not 
believe  it  right  to  have  secret  societies,  but  they  are  in  a  small  minority. 

In  the  settlement  of  every  new  county  there  have  been  found  a  few 
Free  Masons  and  Odd  Fellows  who,  as  soon  as  a  sufficient  number  had  made 
settlement  near  to  one  another,  organized  themselves  into  lodges.  This  was 
true  in  Cottonwood  county.  tor  the  Masonic  lodge  at  Windom  was  organ- 
ized two  years  after  the  county  was  organized. 

MASONIC    LODGES. 

Masonry  is  the  oldest  secrel  order  that  is  now  known  to  have  existed 
in  the  world.     It  is  well  represented   in   America,  as  well  as  all  other  en- 
lightened parts  of  the  globe.     With  almost  every  hand  of  sturdy  pioneers 
there  are  found  members  of  this  order,  and  a-  soon  as  any  considerable 
tlement  has  been  effected  a  lodge  is  instituted. 

Prudence  Lodge  Xo.  97,  Ancient   Free  and  Accepted   Masons,  at   Win- 
dom,  was    formed   in    April,    1872,    when    they   worked    undei    di  pensation, 
which  continued  until  February   1,   [873,  when  a  Iodg(       a     organized.     The 
first  officers  to  serve  under  dispensation  wen-  a-  follow:     C.  C.  Purdy,  wi  1 
shipful  master;  C.  L.  Hubbs,  senior  warden;  W.    II.  Wilson,  junior  warden; 


206  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

S.  M.  Espy,  secretary;  C.  H.  Smith,  treasurer;  R.  R.  Jenness,  senior  dea- 
con; S.  S.  Johnson,  junior  deacon;  H.  Klock,  tyler.  The  charter  of  this 
lodge  is  dated  January  15,  1873.  The  total  present  membership  is  one  hun- 
dred and  twenty-two. 

The  elective  officers  in  1916  were  as  follows:  Jens  Anderson,  worshipful 
master;  Earl  Marshall,  senior  warden;  S.  L.  Rogers,  junior  warden;  J.  O. 
Thompson,  senior  deacon;  T.  E.  Dickey,  junior  deacon;  E.  A.  Sims,  treas- 
urer; Andrew  Elness,  senior  steward;  F.  J.  Carpenter,  junior  steward;  Nels 
Anderson,  chaplain;  George  E.  LeTourneau,  tyler,  and  John  J.  Rupp,  secre- 
tary. 

The  lodge  owns  the  Masonic  Temple,  built  in  1903,  at  an  expense  of 
about  fifteen  thousand  dollars.  It  is  a  brick  and  stone  structure  of  strictly 
modern  style  throughout.  Before  this  was  erected  the  lodge  had  a  frame 
hall  for  many  years. 

There  is  no  other  Masonic  lodge  within  Cottonwood  county,  only  the  one 
located  at  Westbrook. 

Windom  Chapter  No.  48,  of  Royal  Arch  Masons,  at  Windotn,  the  only 
one  in  Cottonwood  county,  was  organized  on  December  3,  1886,  by  deputy 
grand  high  priest,  I.  P.  Durfee.  The  date  of  the  charter  granted  this  chap- 
ter was  October  12,  1886.  The  first  officers  were:  R.  R.  Jenness,  most 
eminent  high  priest;  W.  B.  Cook,  king;  Orrin  Nason,  scribe;  T.  C.  Collins, 
captain  of  host;  C.  A.  Ludden,  royal  arch  captain;  J.  S.  Kibbey,  master  of 
third  veil;  S.  S.  Johnson,  master  of  second  veil;  T.  J.  Hunter,  master  of 
first  veil;  A.  D.  Perkins,  treasurer;  R.  M.  Priest,  secretary;  George  Miller, 
sentinel;  George  E.   LeTourneau,  principal  sojourner. 

The  chapter  now  enjoys  a  membership  of  fifty-five,  a  number  of  whom 
do  in  a  reside  in  Windom,  as  the  chapter  is  made  up  of  those  from  surround- 
ing towns  in   Minnesota. 

The  officers  in  [916  were  as  follow:  E.  A.  Sims,  most  eminent  high 
priest;  G.  E.  LeTourneau,  king;  F.  J.  Carpenter,  scribe;  Nels  Anderson, 
captain  of  host;  R,  | ).  Collins,  principal  sojourner;  T.  F.  Dickey,  royal 
arch  captain;  John  Anderson,  master  of  third  veil;  Ani.  Elness,  master  of 
second  veil;  J.  ( ).  Thompson,  master  of  first  veil;  A.  F.  Strunk,  treasurer; 
John  J.  Rupp,  secretary;  J.  B.  Benson,  sentinel. 

OKI  IKK    OF    EASTERN    STAR. 

Arbutus  Chapter  Mo  i6g,  Order  of  Eastern  Star,  at  Windom,  was  or- 
ganized February  t6,   [904,  by  \V.  D.  Haycock,  worthy  grand  patron  of  the 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  20J 

grand  lodge  of  Minnesota,  and  received  its  charter  on  June  2j,  the  same 
year,  from  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Thomas,  worthy  grand  matron  of  the  Minnesota 
grand  lodge.     The  charter  members  were  as  follow : 

Mrs.  Georgia  M.  Carpenter,  Mrs.  Florence  A.  Perkins,  Mrs.  Jennie  M. 
Priest,  Mrs.  Ellen  S.  Anderson,  Mrs.  Ellen  E.  French,  Airs.  Violet  P.  Kibbey, 
Mr.  James  S.  Kibbey,  Mrs.  Jeannette  S.  Weiser,  Mrs.  Lucinda  Clark,  Mr. 
John  F.  French,   Mrs.   Hattie  G.   Perry.  Mrs.  Julia  H.  Ouevli.  Mr  Edward 

A.  Sime,  Mr.  Reuben  M.  Priest,  Mr.  George  E.  LeTourneau,  Mrs.  Mary  B. 
LeTourneau.  Mrs.  Priscilla  A.  Cone,  Mr.  Frederick  J.  Carpenter,  Mrs.  La- 
gertha  \Y.  Mann,  Mr.  Milo  T.  DeWolf,  Mrs.  Eouise  E.  DeWolfe,  Mr.  Will- 
iam P..  Cook,  Mrs.  Mabelle  Stuart,  Mrs.  Ada  Bejle  Collins,  Mr.  Thomas  C. 
Collins.  Mrs.  Elizabeth  A.  Nason,  Mr.  Orrin  Nason,  Mrs.  Emma  L.  Van 
Xest,  Mrs.  Mary  E.  Robison,  Miss  Marie  Ouevli,  Mrs.  Alice  S.  Kellev. 

The  total  number  of  members  is  now  eighty-five.  The  first  elective 
officers  were:  Mrs.  Georgia  M.  Carpenter,  worthy  matron;  Mrs.  J.  S.  Kib- 
bey, worthy  patron:  Mrs.  Florence  A.  Perkins,  associate  matron;  Mrs.  Ellen 
E.  French,  secretary;  Mrs.  Louise  E.  DeWolf,  treasurer;  Mrs.  Lagertha 
W.  Mann,  chief  conductress;  Mrs.  Jeannette  S.  Weiser,  associate  conduc- 
tress. 

The  present  elective  officers  are :  Mrs.  Mattie  T.  Sanger,  worthy 
matron;  Mr.  A.  F.  Strunk,  worthy  patron;  Mrs.  Agnes  Marshall,  associate 
matron ;  Mrs.  Florence  A.  Perkins,  secreary ;  Mrs.  Georgia  A.  Carpenter, 
treasurer;  Mrs.  Geneva  I.  Brown,  conductress;  Mrs.  May  Jenness,  associate 
conductress. 

A  school  of  instruction  was  held  in  Windom,  April  5,  iqio,  with  fean- 
nette  S.  Weiser  as  district  deputy.  Delegates  were  present  from  Jackson, 
Lakefield.  Worthington,  Heron  Lake  and  St.  James. 

The  Onyx  Lodge  No.  266.  of  the  Ancient  Free  and  Accepted  Masons, 
was  organized  in  Westbrook,  1005,  with  the  following  officers:  Worship- 
ful master,  G.  W.   McFarland;  senior  warden,   V.    I.   Miller;    junior  warden. 

B.  C.  Offins;  treasurer,  I'.  I!.  Herman;  senior  deacon,  ( ).  1'.  Schmidt;  junior 
deacon.  Frank  Stewart;  senior  steward,  J.  A.  Becker;  junior  steward,  fohn 
O.  Bondhus;  secretary,  J.  A.  Purson;  tyler,  J.  I).  Bevier. 

The  present  elective  officers  are  as  follow:  Worshipful  master,  John 
E.  Villa ;  senior  warden,  E.  I!.  Neilson;  junior  warden.  A.  (  ).  fverson;  sec- 
retary, R.  S.  1'eterson;  senior  deacon,  Arndt  E.  Anderson;  junior  deacon, 
J.  J.  Christy;  tyler,  L.  P.  Pederson;  treasurer,  John  E.  Villa.  The  member- 
ship numbers  thirty-five. 


208  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

INDEPENDENT  ORDER  OF  ODD   FELLOWS. 

This  fraternity  is  represented  in  Cottonwood  county  at  Windom  only. 
Windom  Lodge  No.  108  was  organized  on  January  15,  1886,  by  A.  L. 
Bolton,  with  charter  members  as  follow :  Samuel  M.  Espey,  Charles  H. 
Reipke,  Orrin  P.  Moore,  Daniel  C.  Davis,  Frank  M.  Tripp,  J.  H.  Tilford, 
Paul  Seeger.  DeWitt  A.  Day.  The  total  number  in  this  lodge  in  June, 
1916,  was  two  hundred  and  thirty-six. 

The  first  elective  officers  were  as  follow:  S.  M.  Espey,  noble  grand; 
J.  H.  Tilford,  vice-grand;  A.  F.  Strunk,  secretary. 

The  present  elective  officers  are:  O.  G.  Peterson,  noble  grand;  O.  J. 
Einstad,  vice-grand;  M.  C.  Langley,  recording  secretary;  Jacob  Heijn,  finan- 
cial secretary;  H.  E.  Hanson,  treasurer;  C.  A.  Liem,  C.  W.  Gillam,  O. 
Hammerstad,  trustees.  This  lodge  owns  a  hall  erected  in  19 15,  at  a  cost  of 
twenty  thousand  dollars. 

Des  Moines  Valley  Encampment  No.  18,  Independent  Order  of  Odd 
Fellows,  at  Windom,  was  organized  on  March  30,  1904,  by  Brigadier-Gen- 
eral August  Hohenstein,  of  St.  Paul.  The  charter  members  were  as  follow : 
II  E.  Hanson,  W.  A.  Peterson,  C.  W.  Gillam.  A.  P..  Daywitt,  W.  B.  Cook, 
G.  A.  Petersen.  O.  E.  Seines,  P.  G.  Neufeld,  A.  W.  Annes,  H.  G.  Hawkins. 
J.  F.  French.  E.  F.  Hewitt,  A.  J.  Rogers,  Nels  Simonson,  F.  T.  Anton,  A. 
Bassette,  J.  T.  Johnson,  Thomas  Hawkins.  H.  C.  Beise,  H.  L.  White,  Edgar 
Scott.  S.  A.  Brown,  S.  L.  Rogers,  A.  J.  DeWolf,  D.  Rasmussen,  W.  S. 
French,  J.  E.  Dolan,  C.  H.  Reipke,  H.  J.  Unruh,  Carl  Reipke.  W.  M.  Teed, 
E.  J.  Severson,  E.  ( ).  Morton,  J.  Hinklev,  F.  J.  Carpenter,  L.  C.  Churchell. 
C.  C.  Minor.  A.   F.  Strunk  and  E.  E.  Rank. 

The  encampment  in   [916  had  a  membership  of  sixty-three. 

The  first  elective  officers  were  as  follow:  C.  W.  Gillam,  chief  priest; 
II.  E.  Hanson,  high  priest;  \.  W.  Amies,  senior  warden:  W.  A.  Peterson, 
scribe;  ( ',.  A.   Peterson,  treasurer;  O.  E.  Seines,  junior  warden. 

The  present  elective  officers  are  as  follow:  L.  Sogge,  chief  priest;  W. 
L.  Silliman,  senior  warden;  P.  G.  Neufeld,  high  priest;  Howard  Yerkes, 
scribe;   II.   E.   Hanson,  treasurer;  E.  O.   Morton,  junior  warden. 

Canton  No.  _'^.  Independent  Order  of  Odd  fellows,  at  Windom.  was 
instituted  on  April  1 S,  i<)i_\  by  Brigadier-General  August  Hohenstein,  as- 
sisted by  Majoi  Henry  Reimer.  The  charter  members  were  as  follow: 
A.  W.  Annes.  P.  G.  Neufeld,  C.  W.  Gilliam,  W.  L.  Silliman,  Philip  J.  Parks, 
Ole  M.  Peterson,  H.  C.  Hamilton,  L.  L.  Sogge,  Carl  Reipke,  E.  H.  Klock, 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  20Q 

J.  O.  Thompson,  S.  A.  Brown,  H.  E.  Hanson,  Gustav  Mueller,  F.  E.  Silli- 
man,  O.  E.  Seines,  F.  J.  Carpenter,  Ed  Westgard,  J.  G.  Hinkley,  W.  J. 
Clark,  Howard  Yerkes,  Thomas  1  [awkins,  Edward  Olson,  Eben  O.  Morton, 
Andrew  Olson,  Albert  H.  Hanson,  Walter  P.  Cowan,  K.  S.  Hocker,  J.  F. 
French,  J.  F.  Johns,  Charles  O.  Hopstrom. 

The  first  elective  officers  were  as  follow:  C.  W.  Gilliam,  commandant; 
H.  C.  Hamilton,  lieutenant;  S.  A.  Brown,  ensign;  Gustav  Mueller,  clerk; 
H.  E.  Hanson,  accountant. 

Present  officers  (1916)  :  H.  C.  Hamilton,  commandant;  Gustav  Muel- 
ler, lieutenant;  Howard  Yerkes,  ensign;  P.  G  Neufeld,  clerk;  H.  E.  Hanson, 
accountant.     There  are  now  about  thirty  members  in  this  canton. 

REBEKAHS. 

Fidelity  Lodge  No.  140,  Rebekahs,  was  organized  on  March  13,  1896,  by 
Helen  K.  Fowler,  with  charter  members  as  follow :  Kittie  M.  Jeffries, 
Elizabeth  Xason,  Almina  Dolan,  Phylinda  Hudson,  Bertha  J.  Banks,  Jennie 
Teed,  Xora  Jones,  Sarah  Swain,  Martha  Sherwood,  Ida  Rogers,  Carrie  C. 
Williams.  Lucy  A.  Williams,  Mary  Erwin,  J.  J.  Kendall,  F.  A.  Blanchard, 
A.  B.  Daywitt,  W".  C.  Banks,  C.  W.  Click,  E.  O.  Morton,  Frank  Peabody, 
P.  G.  Fullerton,  Arthur  Gibson,  John  E.  Morrison,  William  M.  Teed,  D.  I. 
Hudson,  James  F.  Dolen,  John  J.  Hupp. 

The  present  total  membership  is  one  hundred  and  sixty-eight.  The  first 
set  of  elective  officers  were  as  follow:  Bertha  Banks,  noble  grand;  Kittie 
Jeffers,  vice-grand;  Almina  L.  Dolan,  secretary;  Lucy  A.  Williams,  finan- 
cier; Xora  Jones,  treasurer. 

The  officers  serving  in  19 16  were:  Margaret  Neufeld,  noble  grand; 
X<Ta  Savage,  vice-grand;  Emma  B.  Hohenstein,  recording  secretary;  Mat- 
tie  Scott,  financial  secretary;  Anna  Mueller,  treasurer. 

The  ceremonies  connected  with  the  laying  of  the  corner-stone  of  the 
Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows  building,  May  25,  1915,  were  inspiring 
and  impressive  and  conducted  according  to  the  customs  and  practices  of  the 
order.  Parts  of  the  by-laws  and  records  of  the  lodge,  together  with  a  gold 
coin,  were  placed  in  the  corner  stone.  Grand  .Waster  Palmer  conducted  the 
ceremony,  which  ended  with  a  prayer  by  Chaplain  Gellis. 

The  dedication  of  the  building  was  held  on  December  14,  1915.  The 
ceremonv  in  itself,  with  its  solemn  and  sacred  meaning,  was  well  rendered 
and  the  officers  of  the  local  order  are  to  be  congratulated  upon  the  manner 
(14) 


2IO  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

in  which  it  was  carried  out.  The  ceremony  connected  with  the  building  of 
the  altar,  with  the  principles  of  the  order  founded  on  purity  and  finished 
with  faith,  hope  and  crowned  with  the  greatest  of  virtues,  charity,  was  very 
impressive.  During  the  work  a  male  quartette  sang  very  appropriate  verses 
to  further  illustrate  the  work.  After  the  forming  of  the  altar,  members  of 
the  Rebekahs  formed  in  a  circle  around  it  and  sang  the  meaningful  and  re- 
joicing song  of  Meriam,  which  she  sang  on  the  banks  of  the  Red  Sea  at  the 
triumph  of  Jehovah  over  Pharaoh  and  his  horsemen.  Addresses  were  made 
by  Grand  Master  F.  M.  Payne,  of  Pipestone,  and  other  state  officials. 

ANCIENT  ORDER  OF  UNITED   WORKMEN. 

Windom  Lodge  No.  83,  Ancient  Order  of  United  Workmen,  was  organ- 
ized at  Windom,  June  23,  1883,  by  William  Cheney  and  C.  H.  Roberts, 
officers  of  the  grand  lodge  of  Minnesota.  The  charter  members  were  as  fol- 
low:  George  M.  Laing.  past  master  workman;  Samuel  M.  Espey,  master 
workman;  Benjamin  W.  May,  foreman;  Milo  DeWolf,  overseer;  E.  C. 
Huntington,  secretary;  John  G.  Redding,  financier;  Herman  A.  Cone,  recor- 
der; C.  A.  Van  Duzee,  guard;  William  W.  Barlow,  inside  watch;  B.  L. 
Sherwood,  outside  watch. 

The  present  total  membership  is  one  hundred  and  fiftv-one.  The  lodge 
meets  at  Clark's  Hall  every  first  and  third  Saturday  of  each  month.  There 
are  lodges  of  this  order  in  this  county  at  Mountain  Lake  and  at  Westbrook. 

The  present  elective  officers  are  as  follow :  Nels  Sheets,  past  master 
workman,  Henry  P.  Goetz ;  master  workman,  Arthur  L.  Cook;  foreman, 
\\ .  A.  Cook,  overseer;  O.  G.  Peterson,  recorder;  Homer  Rogers,  financier; 
H.  E.  Hanson,  receiver;  Thomas  Solem,  guide;  Fred  Moser,  inside  watch; 
A.  E.  Kilgore,  outside  watch;  Daniel  C.  Davis,  J.  Severson,  George  Grant, 
trustees. 

Mountain  Lake  Lodge  No.  129,  of  the  Ancient  Order  of  United  Work- 
men, was  organized  October  23,  1890.  Ann  mg  the  charter  members  were 
the  following:  William  Dirks,  Henry  P.  Goertz,  Arthur  L.  Cook,  Henry 
M.  Goss,  Henry  Hammer,  Frank  Balzer,  J.  L.  Hanson.  M.  Wigton,  Peter 
H.  Dickman,  Herman  Teichrow.  Of  these,  William  Dirks  is  the  only  living 
charter  member.  The  first  officers  include  the  following:  Past  master 
workman,  Henry  1'.  Goertz;  master  workman,  Arthur  L.  Cook;  foreman 
Henry  M.  Coss;  overseer,  Henry  Hammer;  recorder,  Solomon  Balzer;  finan- 
cier, Herman  Teichrow;  receiver,  Frank  Balzer;  guide,  J.  L.  Hanson;  inside 
watch,  M.  Wigton;  outside  watch.  Peter  H.  Dickman.     The  present  officers 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINX.  J  II 

are  as  follow:  Master  workman,  G.  Ulrick;  foreman,  Aug  Schimnoeski; 
overseer,  John  Kieli ;  recorder,  J.  J.  Adrian;  financier,  A.  P.  Ratzlaff;  re- 
ceiver. Frank  Schimnoski;  guide,  Louie  Glazer;  inside  watch,  P.  P.  Teich- 
row;  outside  watch,  Aug  Buche.     The  present  membership  is  eighteen. 

The  Ancient  Order  of  United  Workmen,  Lodge  No.  267,  was  organized 
at  Westbrook,  April  23,  1904.  by  Deputy  Grand  Master  Gillespie.  The 
charter  members  were  the  following :  W.  F.  Wenholz,  H.  R.  Pritz,  T.  T. 
Emertson,  S.  Rupp,  J.  P.  Johnson,  W.  Spaulding  and  L.  Anderson.  The 
first  elective  officers  were  inclusive  of  the  following:  W.  F.  Wenholz,  past 
master  workman;  H.  R.  Pritz,  master  workman;  T.  T.  Emertson,  foreman; 
S.  Rupp.  overseer;  J.  P.  Johnson,  recorder;  W.  Spaulding,  financier;  Ole 
Emertson,  guide ;  Henry  Steinhoff,  inside  watch. 

The  present  elective  officers  are  as  follow:  Master  workman,  J.  Lindly; 
foreman,  Edward  Myers;  overseer,  O.  J.  Seely;  recorder,  C.  W.  Seely; 
financier,  J.  Bauer.     The  present  membership  is  thirty-two. 

MODERN   WOODMEN   OF   AMERICA. 

Cottonwood  Camp  No.  2,013,  Modern  Woodmen  of  America,  at  Win- 
dom,  was  organized  in  1893.  It  now  has  a  total  membership  of  three  hun- 
dred. They  occupy  a  leased  hall.  The  charter  members  of  this  lodge  were 
as  follow:  Richard  Beeching,  H.  E.  Hanson,  L.  R.  Rolph,  J.  J.  Bel?,  O.  A. 
Heineman,  J.  W.  Rice,  C.  E.  Bosse,  W.  R.  Jeffers,  C.  G.  Schroeder,  A.  L. 
Bradbury,  A.  K  Moehn,  J.  A.  Crane,  O.  G.  Peterson,  T.  E.  Sime,  C.  Glick, 
J.  M.  Railsback,  H.  Teichrow. 

First  elective  officers  were:  H.  F.  Hanson,  venerable  consul;  E.  J.  Sev- 
erson,  worthy  advisor;  T.  E.  Sime,  banker;  H.  Teichroew,  clerk;  C.  E.  Bosse, 
escort;  Frank  Siliman,  watchman;  A.  K.  Moehn,  sentry;  W.  R.  Jeffers, 
manager;  J.  W.  Rice,  manager;  C.  J.  Schroeder,  manager.  Present  elective 
officers:  Andrew  Elness,  E.  H.  Klock,  F.  A.  Moser,  managers;  C.  F.  Love- 
land,  venerable  consul;  W.  F.  Walker,  worthy  advisor;  E.  J.  Severson, 
banker;  E.  A.  Sime,  clerk;  L.  G.  Christianson,  escort;  J.  A.  Morris,  watch- 
man; L.  W.  Crane,  sentry;  Drs.  J.  H.  Dudley  and  L.  Sogge,  physicians. 

Camp  Xo.  9396,  of  the  Modern  Woodmen  of  America,  was  among  the 
first  lodges  started  in  Westbrook.  The  order  has  always  been  quite  active 
and  among  its  members  are  some  of  the  most  prominent  business  men  of  the 
town  and  community.  The  present  officers  include  the  following:  Venerable 
consul,   E.    A.    Paetznick;   worthy   advisor,    Albert    Bean;   banker,    John   E. 


212  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

Villa;  clerk,  John  L.  Sammons;  sentry,  Earl  Peterson;  watchman.  Adolph 
Peterson ;  manager,  C.  J.  Seelv ;  escort,  Arndt  E.  Anderson. 

Jeffers  Camp  No.  8302,  Modern  Woodmen  of  America,  was  organized 
on  the  25th  of  June,  1902,  with  the  following  charter  members:  Lewis 
Ahlness,  C.  P.  Baker.  A.  H.  Cook,  H.  C.  Busse,  Jed  Crawford,  G.  S.  Gil- 
more,  Adolph  Graff,  W.  J.  Green.  Lewis  P.  Graff,  \Y.  \Y.  Harris,  Thomas 
Kelley,  Paul  Man,  Adna  C.  Mullinex,  David  E.  Noble,  Thomas  M.  Pickett, 
M.  Polgene,  H.  P.  Simmons,  George  Scheppy,  W.  H.  Thrssem.  Social  mem- 
bers, W.  Warner  and  A.  Heinomsty. 

The  present  elective  officers  are  as  follows:  Venerable  consul,  W.  A.  Sar- 
gent; banker,  John  M.  Johnson;  advisor,  John  Knott;  escort,  William  Witt: 
clerk,  A.  A.  Schimnoski ;  outside  watch,  Henry  Shaw ;  inside  watch,  Tames 
Downs.     The  present  membership  is  thirty-three. 

Cooks  Camp  No.  2014,  Modern  Woodmen  of  America,  was  organized 
at  Mountain  Lake  on  June  15,  1893,  with  the  following  charter  members: 
John  J.  Bremen,  Arthur  L.  Cook,  Henry  J.  Dickman,  D.  D.  Enns.  Frank 
D.  Enns,  James  L.  Greer,  Nelson  A.  Jasperson,  Magnus  J.  Kilde,  Herman 
Kremin,  Charlie  O.  Lovejoy,  Edward  Linschied,  Add.  J.  Myers,  George  H. 
Regier,  James  M.  Smith,  Peter  Siemund,  Gustav  F.  Thun,  A.  L.  Thompson, 
Arthur  D.  Warner,  Gust  Minke  and  Peter  Wieme. 

The  present  elective  officers  are  inclusive  of  the  following:  Consul, 
George  P.  Goosen ;  banker.  W.  C.  Warner;  clerk.  Fred  Steinhauser.  The 
present  membership  is  thirty-five.  This  order  is  one  among  the  few  lodges 
of  the  county  that  own  their  own  building.  When  the  old  depot  was  of- 
fered for  sale  it  was  bought  by  the  lodge  at  a  cost  of  about  seven  thousand 
dollars  and  completely  remodeled.  It  well  serves  the  purpose  of  a  town  hall. 
as  it  is  supplied  with  a  stage  and  curtains,  a  small  balcony  and  electric  lights. 

Storden  ('amp  No.  6318,  Modern  Woodmen  of  America,  was  organized 
in  Storden  on  April  7,  1898,  with  the  following  charter  members:  II.  \. 
Andersen,  A.  G.  Andersen.  W.  W.  Bean,  S.  S.  Redman.  D.  Hedman,  P.  J. 
Halversen,  Anton  Madsen,  H.  J.  Olsen,  Henry  Petersen,  Knute  Sivertsen 
and  1'".  M.  Fripp. 

The  present  elective  officers  include  the  following:  Consul,  Henry 
Andersen;  advisor.  Petef  Hansen:  banker,  C.  F.  Petersen:  clerk,  X.  J. 
Klarup;  escort,  I'.  Jensen;  watchman,  O.  Jensen:  sentry.  Soren  Sorensen; 
managers,  W.  Larsen,  Soren  Jensen  and  H.  Ruhlierg.  The  present  mem- 
bership of  the  order  is  thirtv-five. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  _>  1  } 

ROYAL    NEIGHBORS    OF    AMERICA. 

White  Oak  Camp  No.  482,  Royal  Neighbors  of  America,  at  Windom, 
was  organized  on  December  18.  1896.  by  Mrs.  Mary  Abbott,  of  Austin, 
Minnesota.  The  charter  members  were  as  follow:  H.  Teichroew,  A.  Mac- 
kay,  Mrs.  Jessie  Mackay,  Mrs.  J.  E.  Johnson,  Mrs.  J.  A.  Hanson,  J.  A. 
Hanson,  Mrs.  E.  H.  Klock,  Mrs.  E.  J.  Meilicke,  Mrs.  M.  R.  Billings,  Mrs. 
M.  Sherwood,  Mrs.  Mary  H.  Fry,  A.  M.  Baldwin,  Frank  Dickman,  Mrs. 
Lagertha  W.  Mann,  Mrs.  J.  Brubacher,  Mrs.  E.  Jane  Schroeder,  Mrs.  Ma- 
lissa  Rolph,  Mrs.  Julia  Peterson,  Dr.  F.  R.  Weiser,  Carl  Schroeder. 

The  first  elective  officers  were:  Minnie  Klock,  oracle;  E.  Jane 
Schroeder,  vice  oracle;  Etta  Brubacher,  past  oracle;  Mary  Sherwood,  re- 
corder; Bertha  Billings,  receiver;  Malissa  Rolph,  chancellor;  Mrs.  Meilicke, 
marshal:  Mrs.  Julia  Peterson,  inside  sentinel;  Mary  Fry,  outside  sentinel; 
Mrs.  Lagertha  W.  Mann,  Louise  Johnson,  Alex  Mackay,  managers.  Pres- 
ent elective  officers:  Isabelle  S.  Reipke,  oracle;  Carrie  Mitchell,  vice  oracle; 
Maude  Smestad,  chancellor;  Lagertha  \V.  Mann,  recorder;  Hannah  Spen- 
cer, receiver ;  Bessie  Severson,  marshal ;  Ora  B.  Reese,  past  oracle ;  Anna 
Freeby,  inside  sentinel ;  Annie  Ligsblad,  outside  sentinel ;  E.  A.  Sime,  Caro- 
line Grotte,  managers. 

Dora  Camp,  No.  2101,  Royal  Neighbors  of  America,  located  at  Bing- 
ham Lake,  was  organized  on  April  6,  1900,  by  Mrs.  Dora  Abbey,  of  Pipe- 
stone, Minnesota.  The  charter  members  were  as  follow:  John  Younbeck, 
Emma  Knospe,  Martha  Wernicke,  Mrs.  W.  Williams,  Minnie  Stephenson, 
Elizabeth  Jackson,  May  E.  Wilson,  Mrs.  P.  Stephenson,  Mrs.  L.  Sheldon, 
Mrs.  Emma  Rittenhouse,  Mrs.  Lena  Hart,  Mrs.  N.  Groen,  N.  Groen,  W.  S. 
Jackson,  A.  Wernicke,  John  J.  Geortzen,  Henry  Hyde,  Betty  Brubacher, 
Emma  Bailey  and  Charles  Cogley.  The  presenl  total  membership  is  forty. 
The  camp  meets  at  the  Holt  &  Wicklunds  hall. 

The  first  elective  officers  of  this  camp  were:  Mrs.  Mary  E.  Wilson, 
oracle;  Mrs.  W.  Williams,  vice-oracle;  Miss  Emma  Knospe,  recorder;  Mrs. 
Minnie  Stephenson,  receiver;  Miss  Betty  Brubacher,  chancellor.  The  1916 
officers  are  as  follow:  Mrs.  W.  Williams,  oracle;  Jesse  McGladrey,  vice- 
oracle;  Mrs.  Minnie  Stephenson,  recorder;  Emma  Rittenhouse,  receiver; 
Carrie  Deemer,  chancellor. 

Fern  Camp  No.  3440,  Royal  Neighbors,  was  organized  in  Westbrook 
in  1907  by  Mary  Watt,  the  district  deputy,  with  the  following  charter  mem- 
bers:    Walter  Larson,  Mrs.   Walter  Larson,  O.   C.   Anderson,   Mrs.   O.   C. 


214  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

Anderson,  Adulph  Peterson,  Hild  Peterson,  John  Villa,  Inga  Villa,  Meri- 
man  Peterson,  Bert  Milligan,  Esther  Milligan,  Phil  Johanson,  Mrs.  Phil 
Johanson,  Kate  Busswitz,  Alma  Busswitz,  Jessie  Beach,  Arndt  Anderson, 
Enga  Anderson,  Maud  Lamkin,  Gertie  Seely  and  Lena  Granman. 

The  first  elective  officers  are  inclusive  of  the  following:  Oracle,  Inga 
Villa;  vice-oracle,  Lena  Granman;  recorder,  Anna  Johanson;  receiver, 
Sophia  Anderson;  chancellor,  Maud  Lampkin;  past  oracle,  Emma  Larson; 
marshals,  Jessie  Beach  and  Gertie  Seely;  inner  sentinel,  Esther  Milligan; 
outer  sentinel,  Kate  Busswitz;  managers,  Bert  Milligan,  Meriman  Peterson, 
Alma  Busswitz;  physician,  Dr.  Miller.  The  present  elective  officers  are: 
Oracle,  Belle  Peterson;  past  oracle,  Hild  Peterson;  vice-oracle,  Anna  Moel- 
ler;  chancellor,  Levina  Greenman;  recorder,  Esther  Milligan;  receiver,  Inga 
Villa;  inner  sentinel,  Rosa  Bauer;  outer  sentinel,  Inga  Anderson;  marshals, 
Edna  Greenman.  Mattie  Pasmore;  managers,  Mattie  Pasmore,  Anna  Peter- 
son  and  Bert  Milligan.  The  lodge  at  the  present  time  numhers  fifty.  The 
meetings  are  held  in  the  Villa  hall. 


MODERN     BROTHERHOOD    OF    AMERICA. 


The  Jeffers  order  of  the  Modern  Brotherhood  of  America  had  its  birth 
on  July  6,  1906.  The  following  were  charter  members:  F.  R.  Gramman, 
Lula  Gramman,  D.  E.  Ridenour,  Fannie  Ridenour,  E.  J.  Viall,  Ella  Viall, 
Lawrence  Shaw,  Jacob  Shaw,  Orrin  Warner,  Amel  Sharper,  Howard 
Ridenour,  Hester  Lundgreen,  Lizzie  Swartz,  Burt  Hosmer,  William  Bigbee, 
Nellie  Jackson,  Dena  Querna,  Anton  Dehrnes,  John  Jackson,  Bert  A.  Crist, 
Bert  Viall,  C.  A.  Herring  and  A.  J.  Bushey.  The  first  officers  were  inclu- 
sive of  the  following:  President,  E.  J.  Viall;  vice-president,  Hester  Lund- 
green; treasurer,  John  Jackson;  secretary,  Bert  A.  Crist;  chaplain,  Ella 
Viall :  physician,  Dr.  II.  E.  Harmon;  conductor,  Burt  Viall;  watchman, 
Amd  Sharper;  sentry,  Lawrence  Shaw;  trustees,  C.  A.  Herring,  A.  [. 
Bushey  and  William  Bigbee.  At  one  time  the  membership  reached  the 
high  mark  of  one  hundred  and  twenty-three,  but  at  the  present  time  it  is 
only  forty-eight.  The  present  officers  include  the  following:  President, 
W.  S.  Swain;  vice-president,  William  L.  Long;  secretary',  Burt  A.  Crist: 
conductor,  Sarah  Swain;  chaplain,  Minnie  Potter;  treasurer,  W.  S.  Swain; 
sentry,  Roy  Hosmer;  watchman,  Frank  Hart;  trustees,  S.  H.  Crist,  C.  S. 
Soule,  C.    \.  Herring. 

Westbrook  Lodge  No.  341,  Modern  Brotherhood  of  America,  is  one 
of  the  prosperous  and  active  orders  of  the  village,  as  is  indicated  by  the 


COTTONWOOD    AXD    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  215 

membership,  which  at  the  present  time  numbers  sixty.  The  present  elective 
officers  include  the  following:  President,  Charles  Passmore;  vice-president, 
Mrs.  G.  A.  Schippel ;'  treasurer.  J.  J.  Christy;  secretary,  T.  J.  Arneson; 
conductor,  Mrs.  J.  J.  Christy;  watchman,  R.  Peterson;  sentry,  Mrs.  W.  E. 
Mead. 

SONS    CF    NORWAY. 

Nea  Lodge  No.  60,  Sons  of  Norway,  began  its  existence  on  April  20, 
1906.  with  fifty  charter  members,  among  whom  were  the  following:  John 
Eiden,  P.  Pederson.  Ole  H.  Solem,  Oden  S.  Skillingstad,  Thorsten  Kring- 
hang,  Sam  Salien,  A.  A.  Ouevli.  John  Paulson,  Selmar  Solem,  L.  Sogge, 
Ole  A.  FJness,  Louis  Smog)-,  Ed.  J.  Severson,  Calmer  Elness,  G.  B.  Olson, 
J.  K.  Moen,  H.  E.  Hanson,  Bede  Anderson,  J.  M.  Slind,  Anton  Nelson, 
Andrew  Elness,  Jens  Anderson,  J.  J.  Jasaas,  E.  A.  Sime,  J.  A.  Johnson,  P. 
H.  Grotte,  J.  B.  Severson,  Martin  Pederson,  O.  S.  Thompson,  Olaf  Ron- 
ning.  Thomas  Solem,  Hans  Smestad,  S.  J.  Fering,  S.  B.  Grotte,  P.  A.  Peter- 
son, Ole  Hammerstad,  O.  Jasaas,  J.  T.  Kulseth,  Abbet  Jacobson,  C.  Jasaas, 
S.  O.  Haalstad,  Bcndick  Fredrickson.  T.  O.  Haalstad,  Pie  Finstad,  John 
Hammer,  Ole  Magnusen,  Ole  Elvrum,  Halver  Solem.  The  first  officers 
were :  Judge,  Halver  Solem ;  president,  H.  E.  Hanson ;  vice-president,  John 
Paulson ;  physicians,  Dr.  L.  Sogge  and  Dr.  J.  K.  Moens ;  secretary,  O.  O. 
Solem;  financial  secretary,  E.  A.  Sime;  cashier,  Ole  Elvrum;  regent,  P. 
Peterson;  marshal,  Olaf  Ronning;  inside  watch,  Thorsten  Kringhang;  out- 
side watch,  Anton  Nelson;  trustees.  Andrew  Elness,  J.  J.  Jasaas,  Jens  Ander- 
son. 

The  present  officers  are  as  follow:  Judge,  Julius  Severson;  president, 
John  Paulson;  vice-president,  P.  Solem;  secretary,  Sam  Salien;  cashier, 
Torsten  Kringhang;  financial  secretary,  Sivert  Fering;  assistant  secretarv, 
Ole  Elvrum;  regent,  Anton  Nelson;  marshal,  John  Hetarp;  inside  watch, 
John  Arntson :  outside  watch.  E.  Severson;  physicians,  Dr.  L.  Sogge  and  V 
J.  Moen;  trustee-.  Jens  Anderson,  Sivert  Grotte,  Sivert  Haarstad.  The 
membership  at  one  time  reached  the  high  mark  of  ninety-one,  but  the  present 
membership  is  about  sixty.  The  society  meets  regularly  on  the  first  and 
third  Mondavs  in  each  month  in  the  Sons  of  Norway  hall. 

DAfGHTERS   OF   NORWAY. 

The  Meduatsolen  Lodge  No.  24,  Daughters  of  Norway,  was  organized 
in   Windom,    May   3,    1907.   with   the   following  charter   members:     Elsie 


2l6  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

Anderson,  Serena  Kinghug,  Carolina  Grotte.  Sophia  Thompson,  Jorgina 
Nelson,  Johanna  Smestad,  Kerste  Moen,  Hannah  Jacobson.  Hannah  Elness, 
Karen  Borseth,  Gina  Hanson,  Kristina  Thompson,  K.  Elvrum,  Pedrika 
Solem,  Betsy  Elness,  Anna  Paulson,  Paulina  Paulson,  Bergitha  Magnuson, 
Leni  Miller,  Moni  Solem,  Anna  Anderson,  Minnie  Olson,  Juditha  Ronning, 
Signe  Swenson,  Bryneld  Paulson,  Rena  Paulson,  Emma  Paulson,  Ida  Pat- 
terson, Hannah  Saxhong,  Dr.  L.  Sogge,  A.  Ouevli.  Martha  Skillingstad, 
Gina  Larson,  Bessie  Severson,  Sarah  Growe,  Thea  Westgard,  Clara  Chester. 
The  first  elective  officers  included  the  following:  President,  Mrs.  Elisa 
Anderson:  vice-president,  Seine  Kringhang;  secretary,  Sophie  Thompson; 
financial  secretary,  Jorgine  Nelson;  cashier,  Mrs.  Johanna  Smestad;  singer, 
Kersti  Moen;  marshal,  Marie  Solem;  inside  watch,  Hannah  Elness;  outside 
watch,  Mrs.  Karen  Borseth;  assistant  secretary,  Gina  Hanson;  assistant  mar- 
shal, Christine  Thompson;  trustees,  K.  Elvrum,  Pedrika  Solem,  Betsy  El- 
ness. 

The  present  officers  are  as  follow :  President,  Karoline  Grotte ;  vice- 
president,  Brynoheld  Paulson:  judge,  Soinnare  Smogv;  singer,  Bertha  Ben- 
son; cashier.  Carrie  Elness;  financial  secretary,  Serene  Kinghug;  secretarv, 
Anna  Bell;  assistant  secretary,  Mrs.  Peter  Solem;  marshal,  Betsy  Severson; 
captain,  Sarah  Growe;  inside  watch,  Sophie  Thompson;  trustees,  Johanna 
Smestad,  Lizzie  Anderson.  The  present  membership  is  about  eighty-six, 
although  at  one  time  the  order  numbered  one  hundred  and  one.  The  decrease 
has  been  caused  by  many  families  moving  away. 

KNIGHTS   OF   COLUMBUS. 

An  important  incident  in  the  history  of  the  Catholic  church  occurred  on 
March  3,  1912,  on  which  date  Windom  Council  No.  t(x)8,  Knights  of  Q> 
lumbus,  was  instituted,  with  a  charter  membership  of  fifty-six.  The  degree 
work  was  in  charge  id'  the  grand  officers.  The  officers  elected  at  the  time 
include  the  following:  Grand  knight,  M.  L.  Fisch ;  deputy  grand  knight, 
Michael  McGlen:  recorder,  James  J.  Devlin;  financial  secretarv,  Charles 
Koob;  treasurer,  Henry  Keffeler;  chancellor,  John  Rampa;  advocate,  Frank 
Pribyl;  warden,  Lawrence  Shaw;  inside  watch,  Louie  Fanclicr;  outside 
watch,  Jeremiah  Harrington;  chaplain.  Rev.  Anthony  llennekes;  trustees, 
Charles  Gallagher,  Charles  Hartman  and  Nicholaus  Keffeler,  Sr.  The  pur- 
pose of  the  society  is  to  develop  a  practical  Catholicism  among  its  members, 
to  promote  Catholic  education  am!  charity  and,  through  its  insurance  depart- 


COTTONWOOD    AXD    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  2\J 

merit,   to   furnish  at  least  temporary   financial   aid   to   families  of  deceased 
members. 

PATRONS  OF    HUSBANDRY. 

The  organization  of  Patrons  of  Husbandry,  commonly  styled 
"Granges,"  had  a  great  run  from  1870  on  for  many  years  and  in  Cotton- 
wood county  numerous  lodges  of  this  farmers'  society  were  formed  and 
much  interest  taken  in  them.  The  first  account  we  have  here  is  of  the  Moun- 
tain Take  Grange  Xo.  109,  organized  in  [874.  Its  first  officers  were  as 
follow:  Robert  Brown,  master;  Louis  Dunn,  overseer;  S.  H.  Soule,  lec- 
turer; S.  E.  Ford,  chaplain;  D.  E.  Vale,  secretary;  A.  L.  Yale,  treasurer; 
M.  T.  Fall,  steward;  W.  A.  Joy.  assistant  steward;  Mattie  E.  Yale,  lady 
assistant  steward;  Miss  M.  Yale,  Ceres;  Mrs.  Mason,  Flora;  Mrs.  Fall, 
Pomona:  A.  Wigton,  gatekeeper.  Yearly  every  township  had  these  granges 
and  both  men  and  women  took  an  active  part  in  the  deliberations  of  the 
order. 


CHAPTER  IX. 

PHYSICIANS    AND    SURGEONS. 

Among  the  honorable  and  useful  professions  is  the  medical  doctor. 
Ever  since  Galen,  the  founder  of  medical  science  lived,  there  have  been 
doctors  and  surgeons  in  all  parts  of  the  civilized  globe,  while  every  known 
tribe  of  civilized  people  on  the  face  of  the  earth  have,  as  far  back  as  tradi- 
tion and  history  trace,  always  had  their  own  peculiar  medicine  men  or 
doctors.  In  our  full  strength  and  complete  health  we  sometimes  spurn  the 
profession,  but  when  the  fevered  brow  and  coated  tongue  of  a  patient  are 
found,  he  is  anxious  to  see  and  consult  the  "family  doctor,"  that  he  may 
again  be  strong  and  well. 

The  science  of  both  medicine  and  surgery  has  made  very  rapid  strides 
in  the  last  half  century;  even  in  the  last  quarter  of  a  century,  many  new 
methods  of  treatment  have  come  into  practice.  Especially  in  surgery  the 
advancement  has  been  very  striking,  and  operations  once  believed  impossible, 
are  now  easily  performed. 

The  advent  of  the  pioneer  doctor  in  Cottonwood  county  is  a  story 
of  all  the  hardships  and  self-denial  of  the  early  settlers,  together  with  the 
hardships,  fatigue  and  exposure  at  all  hours  of  day  and  night,  resulting 
from  riding  over  trackless  prairies  and  fording  unbridged  streams.  As  a 
rule,  those  doctors  were  men  of  ability  and  had  a  high  sense  of  honor  and 
many  a  pioneer  placed  his  life  or  some  dear  one  of  his  family  in  the  doctor's 
hands,  having  faith  that  the  best  that  could  be  done  would  be  accomplished. 

FIRST    PHYSICIAN. 

It  is  believed  that  the  first  physician  to  practice  in  Cottonwood  county 
was  Dr.  Allen  Smith,  who  located  here  on  October  10,  1871.  After  a  few 
years  of  successful  practice  here,  he  returned  to  Ohio,  from  which  state  he 
had  emigrated,  and  there  died. 

Dr.  John  II.  Tilford  was  at  one  time  one  of  the  leading  and  most 
successful  physicians  and  surgeons  in  Windom.  lie  was  born  in  [efferson 
county,  Indiana,  November  28,  iN|i.  At  eighteen  he  went  to  the  North- 
western  Christian    College,    in    Indianapolis,    and    attended    there    for    some 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  219 

years.  He  then  engaged  in  the  study  of  medicine  in  Indianapolis  with 
Doctors  Jamison  and  Funkhouser,  with  whom  he  continued  for  three  years. 
In  1862  he  was  commissioned  as  assistant  surgeon  of  the  Seventy-ninth 
Indiana  Infantry.  He  served  in  that  capacity  for  three  years  and  was 
mustered  out  in  1865.  In  1865-66  he  attended  a  course  of  lectures  at  Belle- 
vue  Medical  College,  in  New  York  City,  and  in  1878  attended  Butler  Medical 
College.  He  practiced  in  Indianapolis  for  one  year  and  then  moved  to 
another  part  of  Indiana,  where  he  remained  for  nine  years.  In  1879  he 
came  to  Windom,  where  he  was  eminently  successful.  He  died  September 
18,  1899. 

PAST    AND     PRESENT     PHYSICIANS. 

The  subjoined  have  registered  in  Minnesota  and  Cottonwood  county 
as  medical  doctors,  under  some  one  of  the  numerous  state  laws  concerning 
such  matters : 

J.  H.  Til  ford,  graduate  of  the  Indianapolis  Medical  College,  1873, 
registered  in  Cottonwood  county  in  1883.     He  died  in  Windom  in  1899. 

Joseph  B.  Noble,  Rush  Medical  College,  Chicago,  1886;  came  to  this 
county  the  same  year.  After  practicing  here  two  or  three  years  he  re- 
moved to  the  Iron  Range,  Minnesota,  and  there  resumed  his  practice. 

LeRoy  Brown.  University  of  Michigan,  1885,  came  here  a  year  later, 
subsequently  moved  to  St.  Paul,  Minnesota. 

Noah  Diomontenberg,  St.  Paul  Medical  College,  1886;  located  in  Cot- 
tonwood county  the  same  year. 

Charles  Wilber  Ray,  Bennett  Eclectic  Medical  College,  Illinois,  located 
here  in  1887  ancl  'ater  died  in  California. 

Thomas  A.  Beach  registered  in  Minnesota  in  1887  and  here  in  1893. 
He  was  a  homeopathic  doctor. 

J.  K.  Moen  registered  in  Minnesota  in  1887  and  here  in  1893.  He  was 
here  many  years,  but  is  now  practicing  in  Minnesota. 

F.  R.  Weiser  registered  under  the  act  of  1887  and  here  in  Windom  in 
1894;  he  still  practices  and  is  considered  a  leader  in  his  profession.  Ik- 
graduated  at  Jefferson  Medical  College,   Pennsylvania,  in   1891. 

J.  F.  Scott,  under  act  of  1887,  and  in  this  county  registered  in  [899; 
he  is  now  in  Yakima,  Washington.  He  was  a  graduate  of  McGill  Univer- 
sity. 

Theodore  Beck,  registered  in  Minnesota  under  the  act  of  1887  and 
here  in  1896;  later  he  moved  to  Ohio. 

William  T.  DeCoster,  under  act  of  1887,  and  here  in  1897;  he  came  to 


220  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

Minnesota  about  1896.  He  has  gained  reputation  as  a  surgeon  and  divides 
his  time  between  Windom  and  several  nearby  villages  and  cities. 

C.  P.  Nelson,  under  act  of  1887,  came  here  in  1901,  moved  to  West- 
brook  and  is  now  practicing  in  Minneapolis. 

William  N.  Theissen,  under  act  of  1887,  came  here  in  1901,  moved  to 
Jeffers  and  now  practices  at  Le  Sueur,  Minnesota. 

William  D.  Beadie,  under  act  of  1887,  came  here  in  1902,  but  is  now 
practicing  in  St.  Paul,  Minnesota.  He  was  a  graduate  of  McGill  Univer- 
sity, Canada. 

M.  J.  Johnson,  under  act  of  1895,  came  to  this  county  in  1902,  now 
located  in  Minneapolis. 

Victor  I.  Miller,  under  act  of  1887,  came  here  in  1906,  finally  removed 
to  Mankato,  where  he  is  still  practicing  medicine. 

William  D.  Rea,  under  act  of  1887,  came  to  this  county  in  1907;  prac- 
ticed at  Mountain  Lake,  this  county,  but  is  now  deceased. 

Joseph  A.  Dudley,  Windom,  under  act  of  1887,  came  here  in  1909,  a 
graduate  of  Rush  Medical  College,  Chicago. 

P.  H.  Bennion,  registered  in  Minnesota  in  1902,  here  in  1903,  is  now 
practicing  medicine  in  St.   Paul,  Minnesota. 

William  F.  Coon,  of  Eau  Claire,  Wisconsin,  came  to  Minnesota  in 
1903  and  to  this  county  a  year  later. 

Ludwig  L.  Sogge,  registered  in  the  state  in  1905,  here  at  Windom  in 
[906;  still  practicing  here;  he  is  a  graduate  of  Minnesota  University,  medi- 
cal department. 

H.  W.  Coulter,  under  act  of  1905,  came  to  this  county  in  1910  and 
moved  to  Mountain  Lake,  this  county. 

W.  Edwin  Patterson,  under  act  of  1905,  here  in  1911;  moved  to  Lake 
Shetck,   Minnesota. 

Charles  Daniel  Richmond,  of  North  Dakota,  under  act  of  1905;  that 
year  came  to  Minnesota  and  in  191 1  to  Jeffers,  this  county,  and  is  still  here. 

John  W.  ECurz,  of  Wright  county,  Minnesota,  registered  here  in  1912. 

I. inns  Ira  Aklrich,  Sioux  county,  Iowa,  under  act  of  1905,  in  Minne- 
sota, came  to  Cottonwood  county  in  1913.     He  practiced  at  Jeffers. 

William  Albert  Piper,  under  act  of  1905,  came  from  Milwaukee,  1914, 
and  now   practices  at    Mountain  Lake,  this  county. 

George  Ulrich  Panzer,  under  act  of  1905,  came  here  in  July,  1911,  and 
practiced  at  Storden  and  Jeffers. 

Henry  Albert  Schmidt,  under  act  of  1895,  came  here  in  1915;  admitted 
to  state  in    1909;  practiced  at  Westbrook. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  221 

In  1905  the  record  shows  that  the  county  commissioners  appointed  the 
following  physicians  as  county  doctors:  Dr.  C.  P.  Nelson,  Doctor  Miller. 
Doctor  Rea,  Doctor  Weiser  and  Doctor  Harmon,  at  Jeffers,  a  number  of 
years  located  there  and  there  died.  Also,  Doctor  Noen  and  Doctor  Meridith 
of  Windom.     The  last  named  was  of  the  homeopathic  school  of  medicine. 

It  is  said  that  prior  to  1887,  and  soon  after  the  pioneer,  Doctor  Smith 
located,  came  in  Doctor  Sacket,  who  homesteaded  land  in  Great  Bend  town- 
ship and  practiced  locally,  but  never  was  known  as  a  regular  practitioner  of 
this  county,  outside  his  own  farm  neighborhood. 

The  next  to  practice  in  the  county  were  two  doctors  named  Brown, 
who,  however,  were  in  no  way  related  by  kinship. 

Dr.  Charles  A.  Greene,  a  physician  of  large  experience  and  very  well 
read  in  the  science  of  medicine,  was  bom  in  Rhode  Island,  but  went  to 
Buffalo.  Xew  York,  to  obtain  a  knowledge  of  medicine,  having  taken  a 
thorough  course  at  the  Buffalo  University.  From  Buffalo  the  doctor  went 
to  his  native  state  and  practiced  two  years  and  then  moved  to  eastern  Minne- 
sota, practiced  three  years,  coming  to  Windom  in  1878.  He  died  in  YYindom 
about  191 1.  a  highly-respected  citizen. 

Doctors  Breck  and  Graham  located  in  the  Cone  block  in  190 1,  formed 
a  partnership  in  1900  and  carried  on  a  large  practice  for  some  time.  Doctor 
Breck  was  from  Ohio;  graduated  from  Wooster  and  Cleveland  .Medical 
schools;  he  was  of  the  osteopathy  school.  Doctor  Graham  was  of  Pennsyl- 
vania, a  graduate  of  Jefferson  Medical  College,  Philadelphia.  1870;  also 
from  Hahnemann  Homeopathic  School,  Chicago;  he  was  a  member  of  sev- 
eral  medical   societies. 

Dr.  J.  F.  Scott,  of  Montreal,  Canada,  graduated  at  McGill  University, 
1899:  came  direct  to  Windom  and  was  a  member  of  the  American  Medical 
Association. 

SILAS  D.   ALLEN. 

Silas  D.  .Mien  was  born  in  Bradford  county,  Pennsylvania,  December 
ir,  1826.  He  taught  school  and  studied  medicine  at  Ann  Arbor,  Michigan. 
Fie  married  Lucy  A.  .Allen,  also  of  Bradford  county.  Deciding  to  go  to 
California  and  try  his  fortune  as  a  gold  miner,  he  left  home  May  29,  1854, 
and  took  boat  at  Xew  York,  sailing  by  way  of  Panama  and  up  the  Pacific 
coast  to  San  Francisco.  He  remained  in  California  until  November  14, 
1855,  and  was  reasonably  well  paid  for  the  hardships  and  experiences  he 
passed  through. 

In    1856  he  settled  in  northeast  Iowa,  near  Lansing,  and    farmed   and 


222  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

practiced  medicine  for  a  number  of  years,  later  moving  to  Carroll  county, 
Missouri,  where  he  stayed  with  his  family  until  1874,  when  he  moved  to 
Cottonwood  county,  Minnesota,  and  settled  on  a  farm  about  a  mile  from 
Windom,  on  the  Valley  road.  There  he  farmed  and  practiced  medicine  for 
a  number  of  years,  living  in  a  log  house  until  1880,  when  he  erected  a  good 
frame  house,  which  still  stands. 

He  loved  farming  and  especially  stock  raising.  Calls  for  his  profes- 
sional services  were  numerous,  and  he  never  failed  to  respond  day  or  night, 
generally  going  horseback,  which  was  the  most  practical  and  quickest  way 
in  those  days.  He  was  a  skillful  physician  and  his  services  as  counsel  were 
much  sought  for  by  other  doceors  in  serious  cases,  they  having  full  confi- 
dence in  his  skill  and  advice.  The  Doctor  was  a  very  conscientious  man,  of 
strong  convictions,  broad-minded  and  would  not  tolerate  hypocrisy  or  graft 
of  any  nature.  He  was  a  great  reader,  having  a  splendid  library  of  the  best 
works,  and  in  his  later  years  devoted  much  of  his  time  to  his  favorite 
authors.  In  1901  he  sold  his  farm  and  retired  from  active  life,  moving  to 
Windom.  The  following  year  his  wife  died  and  he  lived  alone  to  a  large 
extent  until  January,  1907,  when  he  was  stricken  with  an  illness  which 
lasted  until  his  death,  March  4,  1907. 

The  Doctor,  by  his  generous  and  sympathetic  disposition,  made  a  great 
number  of  friends,  and  is  remembered  by  many  as  one  who  never  seemed  to 
think  of  his  professional  services  except  as  a  means  of  helping  suffering 
humanity.  His  account  books  showed  thousands  of  dollars  for  services, 
which  he  never  endeavored  to  collect. 


CHAPTER   X. 

NEWSPAPERS   OF    COTTONWOOD    COUNTY. 


THE    WINDOM    REPORTER. 

The  Windom  Reporter  at  the  city  of  Windom  was  established  in  Sep- 
tember, 1873,  by  E.  C.  Huntington,  who  continued  its  publication  until 
March,  1908,  when  he  sold  to  Warren  Brothers  Company.  In  December, 
1902.  the  old  Windom  Free-Press  was  consolidated  with  the  Reporter.  The 
Reporter  is  a  Republican  paper;  eight-page,  six-column  in  form  and  size, 
and  has  a  yearly  subscription  rate  of  one  dollar  and  fifty  cents.  In  the 
summer  of  1916  the  owners  constructed  a  new  brick  building  for  a  perma- 
nent office  home.  The  paper  is  all  home-print  and  is  run  from  a  press  pro- 
pelled by  electric  motors.  It  circulates  mostly  in  Cottonwood  and  fackson 
counties.  Its  job  department  is  complete  in  all  appointments.  The  office 
has  among  its  appliances,  a  cylinder  press,  three  jobbers,  paper  cutter,  stapler, 
type-setting  machine,  etc.  The  local  columns  are  filled  with  local  reading 
matter  each   issue  and  its  editorials  are  strong  and  comprehensive. 

THE    COTTONWOOD   COUNTY   CITIZEN. 

The  Cottonzvood  County  Citizen,  published  at  Windom,  was  estab- 
lished in  1882  by  C.  F.  Warren,  as  a  farmer'-  paper,  and  subsequently  sold 
to  a  co-operative  company,  and  at  different  times  was  owned  by  A.  M. 
.Morrison,  of  Mankato,  W.  C.  Benbow,  C.  F.  Warren  &  Sons,  and  later  by 
Churchill  &  DuniclifY,  which  firm  was  succeeded  by  L.  C.  Churchill.  The 
Citizen  is  a  Republican  organ  of  no  uncertain  sound.  It  circulates  in  Cot- 
tonwood and  Jackson  counties  mostly.  Its  subscription  rate  per  year  is  one 
dollar  and  fifty  cents;  in  form  and  size  it  is  a  six-column,  eight-page  paper, 
all  home  print.  The  owner  of  the  paper  owns  a  building,  but  owing  to  a 
long-term  lease  the  paper  is  published  in  a  leased  building.  The  office  equip- 
ment includes  linotype,  cylinder  press,  all  sizes, of  jobbers,  perforators, 
staplers,  paper  cutting  machine,  punches,  and  a  large  assortment  of  type. 
These  various  machines  are  all  propelled  by  electric  motors.     As  a  news- 


224  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

paper  and  up-to-date  job  office,  there  are  few,  if  any  excelling  it  in  towns 
of  much  larger  size  than  Windom.  The  County  Citizen  is  welcome  at  the 
firesides  of  many  homes  in  the  surrounding  country,  is  clean  and  full  of  read- 
able news  of  the  community. 

THE   WESTBROOK   SENTINEL. 

The  Westbrook  Sentinel  was  established  on  May  8,  igoi,  by  O.  M. 
Ouigley  and  was  subsequently  owned  and  conducted  by  Hoagland  Brothers; 
R.  S.  Peterson  is  the  present  owner.  It  is  published  weekly  and  has  a  sub- 
scription rate  of  one  dollar  and  fifty  cents  per  year.  In  form  and  size  it  is 
eight  pages  of  seven  columns  each.  It  circulates  in  Cottonwood  and  sur- 
rounding country.  Politically,  it  is  an  independent  journal,  seeking  the 
best  good  for  all  the  people  at  all  times  in  all  things.  The  equipment  of 
the  office  in  which  the  Sentinel  is  printed  is  up-to-date  and  includes  a  Prouty 
cylinder  newspaper  press — two  pages  of  seven  columns;  a  Standard  jobber, 
ten  by  fifteen  inches;  a  Chandler  &  Price,  eight-by-twelve  jobber;  paper 
cutter;  a  good  assortment  and  full  supply  of  latest  styles  of  type.  A  gaso- 
line engine  runs  the  machinery  in  the  printing  office.  The  paper  is  part 
home  and  part  patent  print.  It  works  for  the  interests  of  Westbrook  and 
Cottonwood  county  and  is  a  believer  in  home  enterprise  and   home  trade. 

THE    JEFFERS    REVIEW. 

The  Review,  at  the  village  of  Jeffers,  was  established  by  Harry  Max- 
field  in  March,  1900.  It  was  sold  in  1901  to  A.  E.  Karst  and  he  in  1907 
sold  to  M.  B.  Fish,  who  in  October,  1913,  sold  to  E.  F.  Schmotzer.  It  is 
now  run  from  a  power  press  propelled  by  a  gasoline  engine,  and  is  published 
each  week,  at  a  subscription  rate  of  one  dollar  and  twenty-live  cents  per 
year.  It  circulates  in  the  county  of  Cottonwood  and  the  village  of  Jeffers, 
being  a  favorite  in  the  homes  of  the  surrounding  farmers.  It  is  a  six- 
column,  quarto  sheet  and  in  politics  is  independent.  The  building  in  which 
the  office  is  now  situated  is  the  property  of  the  Modern  Brotherhood  of 
America  lodge.  Four  pages  are  home  print  and  Four  arc  "patent"  print 
of  choice  selection.  The  equipment  of  the  office  includes  a  Simplex  Diamond 
cylinder  press,  paper  cutter,  gas  engine  and  a  good  assortment  of  both  news 
and  job  type. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  225 

MOUNTAIN    LAKE    NEWSPAPERS. 

At  present  there  are  two  newspapers  published  at  the  village  of  Moun- 
tain Lake — The  View,  in  English  and  the  Unscr  Bcsucher,  printed  in  the 
German  language.  They  are  now  both  owned  and  edited  by  W.  J.  Toews. 
The  Mountain  Lake  View  was  established  in  1894  by  D.  C.  Benjamin,  and 
was  owned  and  conducted  in  turn  as  follows:  E.  E.  Lane,  I.  I.  Bargen,  W. 
J.  Toews.  It  is  a  six-column,  eight-page  publication;  is  printed  on  a  Drum 
cylinder  press,  and  the  office  is  well  equipped  with  a  standard  linotype 
machine,  a  folder  and  much  type  material.  The  plant  is  just  at  this  time 
(August,  1916)  changing  from  gasoline  to  electric  motor  power.  It  is  a 
Republican  organ.  From  twelve  to  fifteen  columns  of  home  print  are  run 
each  issue.  The  rate  per  year  is  one  dollar  and  twenty-five  cents.  Two 
men  are  employed  in  the  publication  of  the  paper.  Excellent  job  work  is 
executed  on  a  twelve-by-eighteen  Chandler  &  Price  jobber. 

The  Unser  Besucher  at  Mountain  Lake,  was  founded  in  1901  by  I.  I. 
Bargen,  who  conducted  it  until  he  sold  to  its  present  owner,  W.  J.  Toews. 
It  is  a  six-column,  four-page  paper,  printed  in  the  German  language.  It 
has  the  same  rate  as  The  View  and  is  run  from  the  same  presses.  In  poli- 
tics it  is  Republican. 

For  a  number  of  years  there  was  a  monthly  paper  issued  here,  known 
as  the  " Evangelisations-Bote ,"  also  two  weekly  papers. 


(15) 


CHAPTER  XL 

RELIGIOUS    DENOMINATIONS    OF    THE    COUNTY. 

While  the  early  settlers  were  largely  made  up  of  returned  Civil  War 
soldiers  and  immigrants  from  lands  beyond  the  seas,  yet  they  did  not  forget 
their  religious  vows  and  early  training  in  their  native  state  or  country,  for 
it  is  found  that  in  every  community  in  the  county,  as  soon  as  there  were 
a  sufficient  number  of  any  one  religious  faith  to  organize  a  church,  it  was 
done,  though  sometimes  there  were  but  a  few  charter  members  in  such 
societies.  Private  houses  were  used  for  many  of  the  first  religious  services. 
Later,  school  houses  were  used  for  meetings  and  usually  all  denominations 
of  the  Protestant  faith  would  hold  union  meetings.  Eventually,  each  of 
the  regular  denominations  found  ways  to  raise  money  and  build  neat  churches, 
in  villages  and  rural  districts,  and  since  then  have  maintained  regular 
services.  In  fact,  the  minister  was  about  as  early  as  any  of  the  settlers, 
and  in  some  instances  he,  too,  was  a  "homesteader."  While  he  tilled  his 
land,  he  also  married  people,  christened  the  infants  and  buried  the  dead  of 
the  pioneer  community. 

It  was  the  sentiment  and  every-day  exemplary  life  of  the  church-going 
people  of  Cottonwood  county  that  founded  her  institutions  on  a  religious 
basis,  and  this,  coupled  with  the  school  system  of  the  county,  has  made  it  a 
community  where  law  and  order  and  a  high  degree  of  intelligence  are  found 
today — nearly  half  a  century  after  the  first  white  settlers  came  here  to 
make  homes  for  themselves. 

Now  nearly  all  of  the  evangelical  Prole-taut  and  Catholic  churches 
common  in  this  country,  are  found  in  Cottonwood  county.  There  are  but 
few,  if  any,  villages  in  Minnesota  where  there  are  more  churches  for  the 
number  of  inhabitants  than  there  are  in  Windom,  the  seat  of  justice. 

Possibly  there  may  he  a  few  small  churches  within  the  county  which 
have  in  it  furnished  the  historian  with  proper  data,  but  nearly  all  of  the 
churches  in  the  county  are  represented  in  this  chapter,  by  a  brief  but  reliable 
account  of  their  organization,  present  strength,  etc. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  227 


METHODIST    EPISCOPAL    CHURCHES. 

The  first  religious  service  in  the  village  of  Windom  was  conducted  by 
the  Rev.  J.  E.  Fitch  in  the  summer  of  1871,  in  the  unfinished  hardware 
store  which  stood  on  the  present  site  of  the  First  National  Bank.  Rev. 
Peter  Baker,  local  preacher,  living  at  Jackson,  was  the  first  on  this  circuit 
and  had  a  preaching  appointment  at  Big  Bend  before  the  village  of  Windom 
was  started.  In  September,  1871,  a  union  Sunday  school  was  organized  and 
in  December  the  first  quarterly  meeting  of  the  church  was  held.  A  class 
meeting  had  been  organized  and  had  met  at  the  home  of  Mr.  Laird.  Rev- 
erend Baker  was  in  charge  of  the  congregation  until  September,  1872,  when 
J.  W.  Lewis  was  sent  here.  He  came  to  the  village  on  a  sled,  as  the  rail- 
road was  snowbound,  and  preached  his  first  sermon  at  Swan  Lake  in  a 
private  house.     On  December  8  he  preached  at  Big  Bend. 

The  only  place  of  w'orship  at  this  time  was  a  small  private  school  house 
pre-empted  by  the  Presbyterian  and  Baptist  congregations.  In  order  to 
avoid  all  conflicts,  it  was  decided  not  to  use  the  school  house,  so  the  min- 
ister rented  a  hall  over  Hutton's  store.  A  stove  and  some  fuel  were  secured, 
also  lumber  for  seats,  and  the  first  quarterly  meeting  was  held  on  December 
15,  1872. 

In  1873,  twenty-seven  members  and  five  probationers  composed  the 
congregation  at  Windom :  twenty  members  and  eleven  probationers  at  Big 
Bend  and  ten  members  at  Swan  Lake,  a  total  of  sixty-five  members  and 
sixteen  probationers  in  the  county. 

During  the  summer  and  fall  of  1873,  lots  were  secured  and  a  few 
subscriptions  and  donations  received  through  Bishops  Ames  and  Merrill 
from  parties  in  Baltimore,  amounting  to  two  hundred  and  fifty  dollars. 
Lumber  was  bought  and  stacked  on  the  lots  and  all  work  suspended  for  the 
winter.  The  frame  work  was  put  up  in  1874  and  in  the  fall  of  1875  the 
house  was  enclosed  and  plastered  by  the   Rev.  Lewis. 

ANOTHER   ACCOUNT  OF   Till',    FIRST    CHURCH. 

The  oldest  class-book  of  the  Methodist  people  in  Cottonwood  county 
contains  the  following  names,  and  dales  from  July.  1871  :  D.  W.  Work- 
ing, class-leader.  A.  J.  Gessell,  M.  R.  Gessell,  Martha  Gessell,  P.  NT.  Sackett, 
J.  A.  Sackett,  L.  I.  Sackett,  S.  Chapman,  Cyrus  Finch,  Martha  Finch,  Mrs. 
Jones,   Mrs.  Thompson,  E.  L.   Working,   William   Peterson,  William  Teed. 


228  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

Later  that  same  year,  the  following  names  were  added :  G.  A.  Purdy,  B.  C. 
Purdy,  Alary  Purdy,  Lavern  Purdy  Clark,  G.  A.  Chapman,  Allen  Gardner, 
Lovina  Estgste,  D.  E.  Teed,  D.  B.  Jones  and  wife.  Other  very  early  mem- 
bers were:  Mr.  and  Mrs.  James  Greenfield,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  A.  Laird,  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  A.  Holmes,  Mrs.  Belle  Smith  (now  Mrs.  George  Le  Tourneaux), 
Eben  Morton,  Mrs.  Lorinda  Greenfield  and  Mrs.  Abigail  C.  Gillam. 

The  First  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  of  Windom  was  organized  in 
the  autumn  of  1871,  by  Rev.  Peter  Baker.  The  first  quarterly  conference 
was  held  in  December,  1871.  The  total  membership  in  May,  1916,  was 
about  five  hundred.  The  first  church  building,  a  frame  structure,  costing 
about  two  thousand  and  fifty  dollars,  was  dedicated  on  January  30,  1876. 
The  present  edifice  and  parsonage  were  erected  in  1901,  of  brick  veneer, 
and  cost  about  seventeen  thousand  dollars,  but  it  would  cost  much  more  to 
build  the  same  today.  It  was  dedicated  on  April  27,  1902,  Bishop  John  W. 
Hamilton  delivering  the  dedicatory  sermon.  A  large  and  flourishing  Sun- 
day school  is  connected  with  the  other  church  and  society  work. 

The  following  have  served  as  faithful  pastors  of  the  church  at  Windom : 
Revs.  Peter  Baker,  1871-72;  J.  W.  Lewis,  November,  1872,  to  March,  1874; 
J.  E.  Fitch,  March,  1874,  to  September,  1875;  J.  W.  Lewis,  September, 
1875,  to  September,  1876;  E.  O.  Stoddard,  September,  1876,  to  1877;  T.  H. 
Kinsman,  1877-78;  Nelson  Sutton,  1878-79;  E.  J.  Foster,  1879  to  July, 
1880;  W.  E.  King,  July,  1880,  to  September,  1882;  Levi  Gleason.  Septem- 
ber, 1882-83;  William  Copp,  1883-84;  B.  Y.  Coffin,  1884-87;  F.  A.  Arnold. 
1887-88;  A.  J.  Williams,  1888-91;  G.  S.  Perry,  1891-92;  E.  Vaughn.  1892- 
93;  J.  H.  Buttleman,  1893-96;  W.  C.  Sage,  1896-98;  J.  A.  Sutton,  1898- 
1900;  Charles  H.  Stevenson,  1900,  to  January.  1902;  supplied  by  President 
Cooper  and  others  from  January,  1902,  to  June,  1902;  S.  Arthur  Cook, 
from  June,  1902,  to  October,  1907;  B.  C.  Gillis,  from  October,  1907,  to  the 
present  time. 

AT    BINGHAM    LAKE. 

The  First  Methodist  Episcopal  church  of  Bingham  Lake  was  organized 
in  1000  by  Rev.  G.  H.  Way,  a  presiding  elder,  and  the  first  pastor,  Rev.  11. 
11.  Wallace.  The  charter  members  were  J.  W.  Cogley  and  wife,  G.  J.  John- 
son, Bertha  Johnson.  N.  J.  Langley,  Susann  Cogley,  Jessie  L.  McGladray. 
The  first  church  building — a  brick  and  frame — cost  at  first  fifteen  hundred 
dollars,  and  later  a  frame  addition  cost  seven  hundred  dollars.  The  pastors 
who  have  served  here  have  been  as  follow:  Rev.  II.  H.  Wallace,  1900; 
William  Young,  1901 ;  S.  A.  Smith,  1903;  P.  G.  Wager,  1904;  S.  S.  Smith, 


COTTONWOOD    AXD    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  229 

1905;  H.  H.  Hawley,  1906:  S.  J.  Wallace,  1907;  B.  Campbell,  1908;  A.  V 
Rowshausen,  1909;  J.  R.  Stephen.  1910;  L.  G.  Davis,  1911;  Rev.  McKibben, 
1913;  W.  E.  Thompson,  1914-15;  \Y.  \V.  Smith,  the  present  pastor.  The 
present  membership  of  this  church  is  sixty-three.  There  had  been  church 
services  held  here  before  the  organization  of  this  church,  by  traveling  min- 
isters of  both  the  Methodist  and  Presbyterian  faith. 

AT    JEFFERS. 

The  Methodist  Episcopal  church  at  Jeffers  was  organized  by  Rev.  J.  J. 
Lutz  in  1900  and  now  has  a  membership  of  fifty-five.  The  pastors  in 
order  have  been  as  follow:  Revs.  J.  J.  Lutz,  A.  B.  Blades,  B.  T.  Russell, 
J.  P.  Rawson,  F.  O.  Krause.  W.  H.  Stone,  G.  W.  Root,  Teho  S.  Mondale 
and  F.  P.  Hannaman,  the  present  pastor.  The  corner-stone  of  the  church 
edifice  was  laid  in  August,  1900,  and  dedicated  on  February  10,  1901,  by 
Bishop  Joyce.     It  is  a  frame  building,  costing  twenty-two  hundred  dollars. 

While  this  is  not  a  large  congregation,  it  well  represents  Methodism  in 
the  section  in  which  it  is  located.  Those  of  this  belief,  though  not  affiliated 
with  the  church  as  members,  attend  services  here  and  the  faith  of  this  denom- 
ination is  kept  alive  in  and  surrounding  the  village.  Methodists  are  pioneers 
in  all  new  countries  and  it  was  so  in  this  county.  The  Sabbath  school  and 
other  societies  of  the  church  are  here  in  active  operation  and  doing  much 
good  in  the  community. 

AT   MOUNTAIN    LAKE. 

The  Methodist  church- of  Mountain  Lake  began  its  existence  as  an 
organization  in  1893.  It  was  not  until  1897,  however,  that  the  church 
building  was  constructed.  Mr.  Goss,  although  not  a  member  of  the  church, 
seemed  to  think  that  there  should  be  a  Methodist  church  in  the  community 
and  it  was  largely  his  efforts  and  financial  aid  that  made  possible  the  exist- 
ence of  the  church.  At  the  present  time  there  are  very  few  memliers  and 
no  regular  pastor  is  employed.  Sunday  school  is  the  only  service  conducted 
in  the  church  and  this  is  under  the  direction  of  John  P.  Rempel,  the  superin- 
tendent. Among  the  pastors  who  served  the  congregation  was  TI.  H. 
Wallace. 

PRESBYTERIAN    CHURCHES. 

The  First  Presbyterian  church  of  Windom  was  organized,  October  i". 
1871,  by  a  committee  of  the  Mankato  presbytery,  appointed  for  the  purpose, 
consisting  of  Rev.  David  C.  Lyon,  synodical  missionary  of  the  state,  and 
Rev>.   Aaron   II.    Kerr  and   Edward   Savage.     The  eight  charter  members 


23O  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

were  as  follow:  Isaac  M.  Moss,  Mrs.  Amanda  C.  Moss,  Mrs.  Deborah 
Pierce,  Mrs.  Jenneth  Smith,  Mrs.  D^Loss  Smith;  Mrs.  Margaret  A.  Savage, 
Abram  Frisbie  and  Melinda  Gray.  The  present  membership  of  this  church 
is  one  hundred  and  thirty-two. 

During  the  early  years  in  the  history  of  this  church  all  services  were 
held  in  the  school  house.  Later,  the  Methodist  Episcopal  church  was  used, 
alternating  services  with  the  Methodist  people,  but  on  Sunday,  July  12, 
1885,  the  Presbyterians  dedicated  their  new  church  home,  a  modest  frame 
structure,  built  at  a  cost  of  a  little  less  than  two  thousand  dollars.  This 
building  still  stands  on  the  corner  of  Third  avenue  and  Eleventh  street,  but 
is  altogether  too  small  for  the  present  congregation  and  Bible  school.  Plans 
are  now  maturing  for  the  erection  of  a  new,  modern  building  on  the  old 
site.  John  A.  Brown  hauled  the  first  stone  for  this  church  foundation  and 
many  donated  material  and  work. 

The  Windom  church  owes  a  very  large  debt  to  Rev.  Edward  Savage  for 
his  untiring  efforts  during  the  early  years  of  this  organization.  The  first 
communion  set  was  donated  by  a  young  lady  in  the  East.  The  individual 
communion  service  now  in  use  was  given  by  Elder  J.  F.  French  just  before 
his  death,  two  years  ago.  The  beautiful  offering  plates  now  used  were 
donated  by  Mrs.  John  Hutton,  and  the  sweet-toned  piano,  by  the  Orpheus 
Club  of  the  church  in  IQ15. 

On  dedication  morning,  Pastor  La  Grange  announced  that  there  remained 
but  one  hundred  and  twelve  dollars  to  raise  in  order  to  dedicate  the  church 
free  of  debt  and  that  sum  was  very  quickly  and  easily  raised.  A  large 
amount  of  labor  was  donated,  but  the  details  have  not  been  recorded. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  the  various  pastors  of  this  church :  Revs. 
Edward  Savage,  Samuel  W.  La  Grange,  Herbert  McHenry,  Arthur  M. 
Smith,  II.  P.  Barnes,  W.  H.  Sloane,  J.  C.  Gourlev,  Walter  H.  Reynolds.  C. 
M.  Junkin,  Philip  A.  Swartz,  Jr.,  G.  A.  Ffolzinger.  W.  J.  Bell,  L.  F.  Badger, 
II     I     Softly  and  Rev.  Charles  C.  Brown,  the  present  pastor. 

I  lie  church  organization  at  Bingham  Lake  having  recently  disbanded, 
leaves  the  Windom  church  the  only  one  of  this  denomination  in  Cottonwood 
county. 

BAPTIST   CHURCH  1  - 

The  Firsl  Baptist  church  of  Windom  was  organized  on  July  6.  1890, 
by  Rev.  J.  M.  Thurston,  a  retired  minister  living  at  Windom.  The  charter 
members  of  this  societ)  were  as  follow:  Rev.  Jesse  M.  Thurston  and  wife. 
Polly.  Lucius  M.  Thurston.  Irving  J.  Thurston  (sons  of  Rev.  J.  M.  Thurs- 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  23 1 

ton),  Sarah  J.  Thurston  (adopted  daughter  of  Rev.  Thurston),  Etta  L. 
Dyer.  Hattie  X.  Dyer,  .Mrs.  ( G.  L.)  Annie  E.  Macomber,  Mrs.  (C.  F.) 
Henrietta  Warren.  Peter  A.  Ruhberg  and  wife,  Metta,  Mrs.  Sarah  Rich- 
mond, Mrs.  (T.  C.)  Elmira  Richmond,  Mrs.  Sarah  J.  Root,  Mrs.  Anna 
Stark.  The  present  membership  of  this  Baptist  church  is  one  hundred  and 
fifty-four.  There  have  been  three  hundred  and  seventy-six  belonging  to 
this  church,  of  which  number  two  hundred  and  twenty-two  are  not  now  on 
the  church  rolls. 

A  frame  building,  located  on  the  comer  of  Fourth  avenue  and  Eleventh 
street,  was  erected  in  1S91,  costing  five  thousand  dollars.  This  denomina- 
tion has  another  strong  church  at  Westbrook  and  a  Danish  Baptist  church 
at  Storden,  this  county. 

The  pastors  who  have  served  at  Windom  are  as  follow:  Revs.  J.  C. 
Mower,  July  1,  1890,  to  July,  1891 ;  C.  D.  Belden,  November  1,  1891,  to 
November,  1892;  W.  S.  Black,  July  1,  1893,  to  July  1,  1894;  G.  W.  Stone, 
November  1.  1894,  to  March,  1900;  H.  A.  Erickson,  May  13,  1900,  to 
August  1,  1902;  J.  M.  Pegelly,  June  1,  1903.  to  October  15,  1905;  H.  A. 
Stoughton,  November  1,  1905,  to  April  15,  1912;  F.  E.  lams,  May  15,  1912, 
to  August  31.  1914;  William  Phillips,  March  31,  1915,  to  March  21,  1916. 
Rev.  F.  D.  Holden  is  the  present  pastor. 

Prior  to  the  formation  of  this  church  there  had  been  an  organization, 
but,  owing  to  removals  at  the  time  of  the  grasshopper  scourge,  it  disbanded. 
some  of  its  members  later  uniting  with  the  present  church.  The  old  "First" 
church  was  organized  in  1872.  by  its  first  and  only  pastor,  M.  C.  Cummins, 
in  the  village  school  house  where  services  were  afterward  held. 

Much  of  the  early  prosperity  of  the  present  church  was  due  to  the 
efforts  of  the  Rev.  J.  M.  Thurston  in  assisting  the  pastors.  The  church 
grew  in  nine  years  to  one  hundred  and  fifty-three  members,  but  soon  there 
was  a  great  migration  of  members  westward,  which  so  weakened  the  church 
that  it  did  not  again  reach  it--  former  numbers  for  about  fifteen  years,  or 
following  the  Smith-Gilmore  evangelistic  campaign  in  the  winter  of  1914-15. 
The  author  is  indebted  to  the  church  clerk.  H.  A.  Stoughton,  for  the  above 
facts. 

AT   WESTBROOK. 

[mmanuel  Baptist  church,  at  Westbrook,  was  organized  in  1909  by 
Revs.  August  Brohlm,  C.  Henningscn,  I!.  Jacobson  and  X.  L.  Christiansen. 
The  charter  members  were  inclusive  of  the  following:  P.  W.  Ludnigsen, 
Mrs.   Annie  Ludnigsen,  Mrs.   Ida  Ludnigsen,   William   A.   Ludnigsen,   Mrs. 


232  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

Sine  Ludnigsen,  Mrs.  Laura  Nelson,  Ole  Christiansen.  Mrs.  Ole  Christiansen, 
Jens  C.  Christiansen,  Mrs.  Jens  C.  Christiansen,  Carl  Petersen,  Mrs.  Carl 
Petersen,  Hans  C.  Hansen.  Mrs.  Hans  C.  Hansen,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Axel  Carl- 
sen,  N.  C.  Christensen,  Walter  Larsen,  Mrs.  Walter  Larsen,  F.  G.  Davis. 
Mrs.  F,  G.  Davis.  The  present  Sunday  school  superintendent  is  F.  W. 
Ludnigsen  and  the  enrollment  is  one  hundred  and  thirty  scholars.  In  1902 
a  twenty-five  hundred-dollar  church  was  erected.  The  first  pastor  was  Rev. 
C.  A.  Ehrhardt. 

DANISH   BAPTIST   DENOMINATION. 

In  January,  1899,  Rev.  M.  A.  Summers,  the  district  missionarv,  in 
company  with  the  pastor  of  the  Windom  Baptist  church,  visited  a  few  fam- 
ilies in  the  Westbrook  vicinity.  Later  on,  the  Rev.  Byers.  of  the  Danish 
Baptist  church,  held  meetings  in  the  various  homes.  The  first  direct  work 
looking  toward  the  formation  of  a  Danish  Baptist  church  was  begun  by  Mis- 
sionary Summers  in  the  school  house  west  of  town  in  August,  1900,  which, 
after  some  interruption,  was  resumed  on  December  16,  1900. 

On  one  occasion  Mr.  Summers  went  to  the  school  house,  only  to  find 
it  occupied  by  another  minister,  both  having  made  appointments  for  the 
same  time  and  place  without  being  aware  of  such  circumstance.  Rev.  Sum- 
mers and  his  people  withdrew  to  the  railroad  depot,  where,  through  the 
kindness  of  agent  Bell,  the  first  service  inside  the  town  proper  was  held. 
For  some  time  sendees  were  held  in  the  Silliman  hall.  The  desire  for  a 
church  began  to  take  root  and  found  expression  in  the  efforts  put  forth  to 
secure  that  end.  During  the  summer  months  Rev.  R.  O.  Farel,  the  pulpit 
supply,  gave  much  time  to  the  securing  of  pledges  for  the  building.  Much 
credit  is  due  W.  Hubbell  for  his  timely  and  munificent  gift  which  made  pos- 
sible the  early  construction  of  the  church.  In  December  the  church  extended 
a  call  to  Rev.  C.  A.  Ehrhardt  to  become  its  first  pastor  and  he  accepted. 

The  Danish  lluptists  here  purchased  a  good  building  from  the  Calvary 
Baptists  of  Westbrook,  who  carried  on  this  work  for  about  one  year,  when 
they  sold  the  building,  which  was  enlarged  and  a  basement  put  beneath  it. 
These  changes  and  improvements  cost  the  society  about  $4,374.  The  build- 
ing is  a  good  frame  structure,  with  cement  basement  under  the  entire  build- 
ing. It  is  the  largest  public  audience  room  in  Westbrook.  The  services 
are  all  in  the  English  language,  except  twice  a  month. 

The  fir-t  prior  was  Rev.  N.  H.  Byers,  from  May,  iqio.  to  September, 
1914,  since  which  time  Rev.  Amandus  L.  N.  Sornsen  has  been  the  pastor  in 
charge. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  233 

"MISSION    BAND." 

The  Mission  Band  church,  located  at  Windom,  the  only  one  in  the 
county,  was  organized  by  Charles  E.  Croft.  July  25,  19 13,  but  was  the  out- 
growth of  the  prayers  and  labors  of  many  persons  in  and  near  Windom  for 
many  years  before  that  date.  Rev.  G.  L.  Morgan  was  possibly  the  first  one 
to  start  a  full  gospel  here ;  others  have  been  interested  in  the  movement  and 
for  several  years  there  has  been  a  "full  gospel''  convention  held  annually  in 
Windom,  and  at  last  they  have  a  place  of  worship  of  their  own. 

The  charter  members  of  this  society,  or  band,  were  as  follow :  Rev. 
G.  L.  Morgan.  Mrs.  Lura  Morgan,  Rev.  Charles  E.  Croft,  Mrs.  Flora  E. 
Kettlewell.  Arthur  Mead,  Mrs.  Sarah  Croft,  Mrs.  Anna  Croft,  William  J. 
Croft,  Benjamin  Molten,  Mrs.  O.  Hammerstad,  Alma  Skewis,  Mrs.  Bertha 
Kettlewell.  Mrs.  Edna  Croft.  Russell  Moulton,  Gail  Morgan,  Lewis  Hanson 
\rthur  Johnson,  Mrs.  Ethel  Freeman.  The  actual  membership  in  June, 
1916.   was  thirty. 

A  building  was  purchased  of  R.  H.  Kettlewell  in  19 13.  It  is  a  frame 
structure,  which  formerly  was  a  Methodist  Episcopal  church  and  later  was 
used  as  a  lodge  room. 

The  pastors  serving  this  society  have  been  as  follow:  Revs.  John  W. 
Croft,  Charles  E.  Croft,  A.  W.  Mead  and  the  present  pastor.  Rev.  G.  A. 
Wooden,  who,  in  giving  an  account  of  the  work  here,  said  :  "This  is  a  full 
gospel  movement.  We  stand  for  the  verbal  inspiration  of  the  whole  Bible 
and  we  preach  it,  live  it  and  teach  it  as  God  gives  us  light  upon  it.  We  are 
not  trying  to  build  up  a  denomination,  but  we  are  trying  to  build  up  the 
Kingdom  of  Christ  in  the  hearts  of  men  and  women." 

NORWEGIAN    EVANGELICAL    LUTHERAN    CHURCHES. 

The  Westbrook  Norwegian  Evangelical  Lutheran  church  is  ten  miles 
to  the  northeast  of  the  village  of  Westbrook  and  was  organized  by  Rev. 
J.  Chr.  Jacobson  in  1886.  It  has  a  present  total  membership  of  five  hun- 
dred and  thirteen  souls.  There  are  five  church  organizations,  all  under  one 
pastor,  as  follows:  Westbrook,  already  named;  Higlnvater  church,  eight 
miles  southwest  of  Lamberton,  organized  by  Rev.  J.  Chr.  Jacobson,  with  a 
membership  of  two  hundred  and  four  -mil,;  Amo  church,  four  miles  south 
of  Storden,  with  two  hundred  and  twenty  souls,  organized  by  the  minister 
just  named;  Trinity  church,  organized  by  the  same  minister,  having  a  present 
total    membership    of    one    hundred    and    ninety-three    souls,    and     Bethany 


234  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

church,  an  English  Lutheran  church  in  Westbrook  town,  organized  by  Rev. 
J.  Lewis,  who  has  served  as  pastor  almost  five  years.  The  total  member- 
ship of  Bethany  is  eighty-five  souls. 

Each  of  these  church  organizations  has  a  neat  frame  edifice  of  its  own. 
The  pastors  who  have  been  faithful  over  these  five  flocks  are  as  follow: 
Rev.  J.  Chr.  Jacobson,  thirty  years;  Rev.  L.  Lund,  three  years;  Rev.  L.  O. 
Pederson,  three  years,  and  Rev.  J.  Lewis,  about  five  years. 

By  these  five  churches  scattered  over  the  western  portion  of  Cotton- 
wood county  the  Lutheran  faith  is  taught  and  practiced  among  a  large  num- 
ber of  people,  mostly  of  the  Norwegian  nationality.  Be  it  said  to  the  credit 
of  these  people,  that  schools  and  churches  have  ever  been  liberally  supported 
by  them. 

EVANGELICAL    LUTHERAN    CHURCH. 

The  Evangelical  Lutheran  church  at  Jeffers  began  its  existence  on  May 
18,  1902.  The  ones  who  signed  up  for  the  first  organization  include  the 
following:  Christian  Schaper,  Garrett  Krupher,  W.  Krahn,  Aug.  YVolter, 
Fred  Palzin,  Henry  Schoper.  The  first  meetings  were  held  in  the  various 
homes,  in  the  lumber  yard  and,  in  fact,  almost  anywhere  that  a  gathering 
could  be  secured.  The  first  pastor  was  Rev.  W.  L.  Keller;  the  second,  Rev. 
Raul  Cornils,  who  accepted  the  call  of  the  church  May  23,  1904.  The  third 
ami  present  pastor,  the  Rev.  E.  Michaelis,  has  served  the  congregation  since 
March  1,   1 9 14. 

On  the  12th  of  February,  1911,  a  meeting  was  called  and  it  was  agreed 
to  build  a  church  building.  Those  who  signed  up  and  shouldered  the  responsi- 
bility of  construction  were  II.  Schoper,  J.  A.  Gerke,  Amel  Folgel,  Herman 
Peltz,  V  Gruenwald,  George  Krupke,  R.  R.  Ohls,  Peter  Hoick  and  Fred 
l'olzin.  Various  materials  and  a  great  amount  of  labor  were  donated  by 
the  different  families  and,  by  hard  work  and  constant  effort,  the  church 
was  dedicated  on  the  28th  of  August,  1011.  with  a  total  cash  expenditure 
of  one  thousand  live  hundred  and  eighty-two  dollars  and  fifty-two  cents. 
At  the  present  time  there  are  about  ten  families  in  the  congregation. 

The  following  article  was  taken  from  the  Windom  Reporter  of  Decem- 
ber [8,  [884:  "Dedication  services  will  he  held  at  the  German  Evangelical 
church  in  Germantown,  commencing  Friday,  December  10.  and  on  Sunday 
21,  in  the  forenoon,  the  church  will  be  dedicated.  The  following  clergymen 
will  be  present  :  Rev.  II.  Ihmce,  of  Mankato,  presiding  elder:  Rev.  J.  Smith, 
of  St.  Peter;  Rev.  I'-.  Simon,  of  Redwood  Falls;  Rev.  M.  Gastetter,  the 
resident   pastor.      \  general  invitation  is  given  to  the  public  to  be  present. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  235 

The  church  building  has  just  been  completed  at  a  cost  of  two  thousand  dol- 
lars. The  building  is  twenty-eight  by  forty-eight  feet  and  is  furnished  in 
good  style." 

NORWEGIAN    UNITED    EVANGELICAL    LUTHERAN    CHURCH. 

This  denomination  at  YVindom  was  organized  in  either  1881  or  1882 
and  now  has  a  membership  of  sixty-five  families  or  about  five  hundred 
members.  The  church  edifice  was  built  in  1896  and  the  parsonage  in  1897. 
The  pastors  have  included  these :  Revs.  Andrew  O.  Hagen,  O.  C.  Mhyre, 
H.  H.  Holte  and  F.  C.  Norman,  present  pastor.  Among  the  charter  and 
early  members  may  be  recalled  these:  A.  Quevli,  F.  Reese,  Tolef  Stener- 
son,  Gabriel  Olson,  Hans  O.  Solem,  Robertine  Pederson,  Ole  P.  Grotte, 
Peder  P.  Grotte,  Ole  Komprud,  Guilder  Pederson,  Olaf  Selness,  Andrew  J. 
Sandmell,  Oluf  Brixelien,  Iver  Olson  and  Halvor  Solem. 

A  Scandinavian  Evangelical  Lutheran  church  was  formed  in  YVindom 
in  1888.  Rev.  K.  J.  Wang  was  pastor  in  1901,  when  there  was  a  mem- 
bership of  thirty  families.  It  is  still  doing  its  work  in  an  humble  manner 
and  has  a  small  frame  church  building. 

DOWIE    ZIONISTS. 

In  1901  local  papers  show  that  YVindom  was  the  seat  of  a  branch  of 
the  Dowie  Zionist  society  so  famous  near  Chicago.  They  held  services  at 
the  hall  in  the  Cone  business  house. 

The  German  Evangelical  Lutheran  Trinity  congregation  was  organized 
at  Mountain  Lake  in  1898  by  Rev.  J.  Porisch.  Among  the  charter  mem- 
bers were  the  following:  John  Oeltjenbrnus,  Herman  Kremin,  John  Ehlere, 
John  DeWall.  John  Poppe,  Ed.  Radtke,  William  Nibbe,  II.  .Markwart.  J. 
Kunkel,  F.  Xeuman,  II.  Dietz,  E.  Kremin,  David  Meier,  A.  .Meier,  fohn 
Langeman,  John  Steinhauser,  George  Feil,  Gottfried  Feil,  W.  Dierks,  C. 
Roesner,  George  Heinitz,  G.  Heinitz,  D.  D.  Heinitz,  I).  Heinitz,  Carl  Jase, 
William  Mueller.  D.  I).  Steinle,  G.  Steinle,  Gottfried  Schmiers,  H.  .Ruddat, 
R.  Feil,  George  Schnivck.  E.  Bag,  ami  Gust.  Ott.  The  pastors  and  their 
order  of  servinj;'  have  been  as  follow:  Rev.  J.  Porisch,  [898  to  1900;  Rev. 
A.  Ziehlsdorff,  1900  to  1904;  Rev.  J.  Porisch,  1904  to  1910;  Rev.  W.  C. 
Rumsch.  1910  to  the  present  time. 

The  church  building  was  erected  the  same  year  the  congregation    v 
organized,  at  a  cosl  of  nine  hundred  and  sixty-live  dollars.     The  parochial 


236  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

school  was  started,  September  6,  IQ14,  in  a  school  building  owned  by  the 
church.  The  teachers  were  Rev.  W.  C.  Ruxnsch,  student  Lindenmeyer, 
student  Kohlhoff  and  Miss  F.  Winter.  Between  fifty  and  sixty  scholars 
attend.     The  present  membership  of  the  church  is  forty. 

LUTHERAN    CHURCHES. 

Immanuel's  Lutheran  congregation,  of  Rose  Hill  township,  was  organ- 
ized in  1880  by  Rev.  C.  H.  Schuttler  and  six  charter  members.  It  now  has 
a  membership  of  forty.  A  church  building  was  erected  in  1880,  costing 
two  thousand  dollars,  and  it  was  rebuilt  in  1907  at  a  cost  of  three  thousand 
dollars.  Children  of  the  congregation  are  taught  in  a  parochial  school  three 
days  in  each  week  alternate  years,  the  pastor  being  the  instructor.  The 
following  have  served  as  pastors  of  this  congregation :  Rev.  William 
Priggie,  after  the  founder,  Rev.  Schuttler,  had  been  in  charge  from  1880 
to  1890;  in  1893  came  Rev.  Ferd  Selme,  who  served  to  1896;  next  came 
Rev.  George  Stamm,  who  served  to  1902 ;  then  came  Rev.  Christian  Heuer, 
serving  till  1905;  Rev.  Jacob  Dachsteiner,  from  1905  to  1908,  when  Rev. 
O.  J.  Wolff,  the  present  pastor,  came. 

Trinity  Lutheran  congregation,  of  Westbrook,  was  organized  in  1901, 
by  Rev.  Christian  Heuer,  with  fourteen  members.  The  congregation  now 
has  a  membership  of  thirty-five.  A  frame  building  was  erected  in  1901, 
costing  one  thousand  dollars,  and  in  1910  a  parsonage  was  provided  costing 
twenty-five  hundred  dollars.  A  parochial  school  is  conducted  by  the  pastor 
Saturdays  and  Mondays  about  five  months  each  year.  This  denomination 
has  a  hcarge  and  a  church  at  a  point  in  Rose  Hill  township  above  mentioned, 
cared  for  by  the  pastor  of  the  Westbrook  church.  The  following  have 
served  as  pastors  of  the  Westbrook  congregation:  Revs.  Christian  Heuer, 
1901  to  1905;  Rev.  Jacob  Dagchsteiner,  1905-08;  Rev.  F.  Burgley,  1908-09; 
Rev.  ( ).  J.  Wolf,  1909-16. 

MENNONITE   CHURCH. 

This  denomination,  with  its  various  branches,  is  represented  only  among 
the  Russians  in  the  eastern  part  of  the  county,  in  and  near  the  village  of 
Mountain  Lake. 

The  First  Mennonite  church  at  Mountain  Lake  was  organized  in  1878 
by  Henry  Schultz  and  David  Loewen.  The  first  building  was  erected  in 
1882,  at  a  cost  of  fifteen  hundred  dollars  and  the  present  church  was  erected 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  237 

in  191 1  at  a  cost  of  five  thousand  dollars.  The  following  have  served  as 
pastors  of  this  church:  Revs.  David  Loewen,  John  Schultz.  Gerhard  Neu- 
feld,  Peter  Yoth,  Gerhard  Fast,  Jacob  Friesen,  Jacob  Stoesz,  A.  Friesen, 
D.  D.  Harder,  J.  Niessen,  I.  J.  Dick.  At  present  the  ministers  are,  Elder 
Jacob  Stoesz,  D.  D.  Harder,  Revs.  Dick  and  John  Niessen. 

The  Mennonite  Bergfelder  church,  which  dates  its  beginning  to  about 
1886,  is  located  north  of  Mountain  Lake  and  not  very  far  from  town.  The 
church  was  rebuilt  in  1913  under  the  pastorship  of  Rev.  D.  P.  Eitzen,  who 
is  now  the  present  pastor.  There  is  a  branch  church  at  Delft,  of  which 
Rev.  Eitzen  is  the  pastor.  The  membership  of  the  church  near  Mountain 
Lake  is  one  hundred  and  seventy-five. 

The  Mennonite  Bruderthaler  church  began  its  existence  in  1888  and 
was  organized  by  Aaron  Wall.  Among  the  charter  members  were  the  fol- 
lowing: Henry  Fast,  Gerhard  Fast,  Henry  Warkerten,  Dieter  Warkerten, 
John  J.  Dick,  Peter  Nickel,  John  Regier,  Gerhard  Buhler.  The  leaders  in 
the  church  at  the  present  time  include  some  of  the  most  prominent  men  in 
the  church  and  community.  Among  them  are,  Henry  Fast,  Heinrick  Fast, 
Jacob  A.  Wall,  H.  I.  Dick  and  Aaron  Wall. 

The  church  owns  about  seven  and  one-half  acres  of  land  two  and  one- 
half  miles  north  of  Mountain  Lake,  on  which  the  church  buildings  are 
located.  The  first  building,  constructed  in  1888,  was  twenty-six  feet  wide 
by  forty-four  feet  long,  but  the  church  grew  so  rapidly  that  this  building 
soon  became  too  small,  thus  necessitating  a  new  one.  In  1893  a  new  edifice 
was  constructed  at  a  cost  of  five  thousand  dollars.  The  dimensions  of 
this  building  are  twenty-eight  feet  wide  and  seventy  feet  long.  The  old 
building  was  then  used  as  a  school  building  and  a  home  for  the  pupils  who 
attend  school.  During  the  winter  twenty-five  to  thirty  pupils  attend  this 
school  under  the  guidance  and  leadership  of  Abraham  J.  P>ecker.  The 
present  membership  is  about  one  hundred  and  fifty,  not  as  large  as  at  one 
date.  l>efore  so  many  removed  from  the  county. 

Mennonite  Bethel  church,  at  Mountain  Lake,  was  organized  in  the  year 
1889.  by  H.  H.  Reiger  and  about  twenty-four  others.  The  first  secretary 
was  John  Tanzen:  the  chairman,  II.  II.  Reiger;  trustees,  N.  F.  Toews,  II. 
Goertz.  H.  H.  Regier,  H.  Schroeder,  Jacob  J.  Balzer  and  John  Tanzen. 
The  present  membership  is  two  hundred  and  seventy-three.  In  1890  a 
frame  church  was  erected  and  enlarged  in  1895.  The  cost  of  the  first 
building  was  sixteen  hundred  dollars  and,  as  enlarged,  the  total  cost  was 
six  thousand  dollars.     The  following  ministers  have   faithfully  served  this 


238  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

congregation:     Revs.  H.  H.  Reiger,  J.  J.  Balzer,  N.  F.  Toews  and  Peter  J. 
Friesen. 

This  church,  in  conjunction  with  four  others,  has  a  parochial  school — ■ 
a  German  school  of  the  union  type.  Three  instructors  are  engaged  and  the 
pupils  now  number  about  one  hundred.  A  two-year  course  is  maintained. 
The  school  building,  a  frame  structure,  cost  about  four  thousand  dollars 
and  the  accompanying  boarding  hall  cost  about  twenty-five  hundred  dollars. 
The  pupils  are  given  a  chance  to  board  at  six  dollars  a  month. 

CATHOLIC    CHURCHES    OF    THE    COUNTY. 

While  this  denomination  is  not  strong  in  Cottonwood  county,  there  are 
good  churches  at  a  few  points,  including  Windom,  Jeffers  and  Westbrook. 
It  is  doubtful  if  any  church  in  southern  Minnesota  has  ever  been  organized 
under  conditions  similar  to  the  Catholic  church  at  Westbrook.  It  was  the 
agitation  and  assistance  of  the  non-catholics  that  made  the  church  possible. 
After  much  solicitation  and  persuasion,  M.  J.  Breen  took  up  the  task  of 
securing  money  to  build  the  church  and  in  only  three  instances  was  he 
refused.  Of  all  those  who  subscribed,  only  one  man  refused  to  pay.  Lots 
for  the  church  building  were  donated  by  John  Sammons. 

In  February,  1914,  ground  was  broken  for  the  foundation  and  in  April 
the  masonry  was  completed.  On  the  7th  of  June.  191 5.  the  church  was 
dedicated,  at  a  total  cost  of  two  thousand  three  hundred  dollars.  However, 
much  work  and  material  were  donated.  Recently  an  improvement,  costing 
two  hundred  dollars,  has  been  made.  At  the  time  the  church  was  dedicated 
there  were  onlv  eleven  families  connected  with  the  church  and  since  that 
time  very  few  have  been  added.  At  present  the  congregation  is  served  once 
a  month  by  Father  Prokes,  of  Windom,  but  arrangements  have  been  made 
whereby  the  church  is  in  a  circuit  with  Dundee  and  now  the  congregation 
will  have  services  semi-monthly. 

!  ighteen  virus  ago  the  Catholic  families  in  Windom  could  be  counted 
on  the  fingers  of  the  two  hands.  As  immigration  continued  to  increase,  a 
few  Catholic  families  moved  into  the  town  and  community  and  the  need 
of  a  church  where  they  could  assemble  and  worship  according  to  the  tenets 
of  their  faith  was  sorely  felt  The  little  church  on  the  east  side  of  the  rail- 
mad  track,  owned  by  the  Lutheran  congregation,  was  procured  and  moved 
onto  tin'  two  lots  donated  by  the  president  of  the  Cottonwood  County  Bank. 
This  church  was  used  about  three  years  when  it  became  quite  inadequate 
to  the  needs  of  the  congregation.     An  agitation  for  a  new  building  was 


COTTONWOOD    AXD    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  239 

started,  which  resulted  in  the  up-to-date  and  modern  structure  located  in 
the  northeast  part  of  town.  This  building  was  dedicated,  November  24-27, 
1902,  at  a  cost  of  twelve  thousand  dollars.  Among  the  pastors  who  have 
served  the  congregation  have  been  the  following:  Father  Sande.  Father 
Yandeniker,  Father  Schneider,  Father  Hennekes,  Father  Prokes.  This 
congregation  now  has  about  sixty  families. 

On  January  17,  191 1,  the  Catholics  in  Jeffers  and  immediate  vicinity 
met  at  the  call  of  the  pastor.  Rev.  Anthony  Hennekes,  at  the  chapel  for  the 
purpose  of  raising  funds  for  a  church  building.  One  thousand  six  hun- 
dred dollars  were  subscribed  in  actual  money;  one  hundred  and  forty  dol- 
lars in  subscriptions,  and  four  village  lots  were  donated  by  August  Paufhal. 

On  February  7,  191 1,  announcement  was  made  to  the  people  that  Right 
Rev.  P.  R.  Heftron  had  given  his  permission  for  the  erection  of  the  church. 
Permission  was  also  given  to  the  Reverend  pastor  to  conduct  the  Sunday 
services;  to  conduct  high  mass  on  the  first  Sunday  of,  each  month;  to  hold 
vespers  on  the  fourth  Sunday  of  each  month  and  mass  the  following  morn- 
ing. Albert  Schneider  and  Theophilus  Tibbedeaux  were  presented  to  the 
elective  board  as  the  first  trustees  and  their  names  were  ratified. 

On  June  20,  191 1,  a  meeting  was  called  for  the  purpose  of  letting  the 
contract  for  the  building  of  St.  Augustine's  church.  The  contract  was 
awarded  to  Louis  Faucher,  of  Windom,  at  a  cost  of  one  thousand  eight 
hundred  and  twenty  dollars. 

On  August  20,  the  church  was  ready  fur  divine  service  and  the  church 
was  dedicated.  It  was  impossible  for  the  Right  Reverend  Bishop  to  be 
present,  so  the  regular  pastor  conducted  the  ceremonies.  The  day  was  ideal 
and  man}-  of  the  same  faith  came  from  neighboring  towns  and  communities 
for  the  occasion.  The  services  began  at  ten  o'clock  in  the  morning,  the 
dedicatory  services  being  followed  by  high  mass.  The  choir  from  Sand- 
born,  assisted  by  local  talent,  furnished  the  mu<ic  for  the  occasion.  The 
parish  of  Sandborn  also  donated  the  altar  for  the  church. 

The  first  child  baptised  in  this  parish  was  Helen  McShea,  the  daughter 
of  John  and  Mary  McShea.  This  church  now  has  a  membership  of  aboul 
thirty  families. 

EPISCOPAL  CHURCH. 

The  Church  of  the  Good  Shepherd,  at  Windom,  v,  a  organized,  Tune 
15,  [880,  by  the  Rev.  I).  Griffin  Gunn.  The  original  members  of  this  parish 
were   as   follow:      Mr.   and   Mrs.    Samuel   Collin-.    Mrs.    George    I  Mr. 

and  Mrs*.  Paul  Seeger,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Dunnicliff,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  F.  L.  Jones 


24O  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

and  others.  The  membership  in  the  spring  of  1916  was  thirty-eight.  A 
church  building  was  erected  in  1881,  the  first  church  services  being  held  on 
June  24. 

The  following  pastors  have  faithfully  served  this  church  since  its  organ- 
ization, thirty-six  years  ago:  The  Revs.  D.  Griffin  Gunn,  Charles  S.  Ware, 
C.  H.  Beaulieu,  F.  W.  White.  S.  Currie,  Elmer  E.  Lof Strom,  Robert  C.  Ten 
Broeck,  William  A.  Dennis  and  the  present  pastor,  Rev.  William  M.  Kearons. 
the  Church  of  the  Good  Shepherd:     "In  his  address  to  the  Council  of  1872, 

The  subjoined  is  found  in  a  written  history  of  the  parish  register  of 
Bishop  Whipple  recommended  that  the  clergy  on  the  line  of  each  railway 
system  organize  informally  and  accept  the  trust  of  the  vacant  mission  stations. 
*  *  *  In  his  annual  report  for  1874  the  Rev.  Edward  Livermore  names 
Windom  among  the  places  where  he  has  held  services  during  the  year.  On 
January  21,  1874,  Bishop  Whipple  made  a  visit  to  Windom  and  preached." 


CHAPTER  XII. 

BENCH   AND   BAR   OF   COTTONWOOD   COUNTY. 

■While  Cottonwood  county  may  not  have  had  many  illustrious  legal 
lights,  there  have  been  several  lawyers  of  more  than  ordinary  ability,  who 
have  practiced  at  the  Windom  bar  since  the  county  was  organized.  It  is 
to  be  regretted  that  no  bar  association  has  been  kept  up,  with  data  from 
which  to  write  a  more  creditable  chapter  on  this  profession,  but  from  old 
citizens  and  the  few  attorneys  who  are  in  practice  today,  of  the  older  class, 
the  following  facts  have  been  gleaned. 

The  pioneer  lawyer  of  the  county  was  doubtless  Emory  Clark,  who 
came  to  Windom  soon  after  the  county  was  organized.  It  may  be  said  of 
him  that  he  was  an  excellent  man  and  a  good  attorney.  He  died  at  Worth- 
ington,  Minnesota,  April  2,   1884. 

Attorney  A.  D.  Perkins  was  a  native  of  Erie  county,  New  York,  where 
he  was  born  on  March  24,  1847.  He  took  a  three-year  course  in  the  Griffith 
Business  College,  at  Springfield,  New  York.  He  studied  law  at  home  and 
in  law  offices  and  finally  opened  an  office  in  Alma,  Buffalo  county,  Wiscon- 
sin. His  next  location  was  at  Madelia.  He  was  not  successful  there  and, 
in  March,  1872,  came  to  Windom.  The  first  office  to  which  he  was  elected 
was  county  attorney  in  1872,  at  the  same  time  being  elected  to  the  office 
of  probate  judge.  In  1897  he  was  elected  a  member  of  the  upper  house  of 
the  state  Legislature,  serving  in  that  capacity  for  four  years.  He  was 
appointed  district  judge  of  the  thirteenth  judicial  district  of  Minnesota  in 
[885,  and  was  elected  to  that  office  in  1886.  After  he  retired  from  the 
bench  he  entered  church  and  Sunday  school  work,  in  which  he  was  highly 
successful. 

\.  W.  Amies,  attorncv,  graduated  from  Michigan  University  in  1885. 
He  returned  to  Windom  and  became  principal  of  the  schools.  Later  he 
became  the  law  partner  of  J.  S.  Tngalls.  He  is  now  the  present  judge  of 
the  probate  court  of  Cottonwood  county.  Mr.  Ingalls  removed  to  other 
parts  a  number  of  years  ago.  It  may  be  added  that  Mr.  Annes  taught 
(16) 


242  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

school  at  Madelia,  Watonwan  county,  three  years;  at  Morristown,  one  year, 
and  Windom  two  years.  He  graduated  in  law  at  Michigan  University ;  he 
was  county  attorney  of  Cottonwood  county  three  terms;  mayor  of  the  city 
and  member  of  the  school  board.  He  is  a  Mason,  an  Odd  Fellow  and  a 
Republican. 

George  N.  Laing  was  born  in  Ontario,  Canada,  November  16,  1850. 
He  studied  law  in  the  office  of  Professor  Carpenter  at  Madison,  Wisconsin ; 
graduated  from  the  law  school  at  that  place  in  18S1  and  shortly  afterward 
came  to  Minnesota  and  located  in  Windom.  He  was  elected  judge  of  pro- 
bate in  1S82,  1884,  1886  and  1888.  In  1887  he  was  appointed  as  one  of 
three  to  revise  the  probate  laws  of  Minnesota,  the  revision  of  which  was 
adopted  by  the  Legislature  at  the  session  of  1889. 

Judge  J.  G.  Redding,  who,  until  his  death,  was  one  of  the  leading  law- 
yers of  Windom,  was  born  at  Beaver  Dam,  Wisconsin,  in  1849.  At  seven- 
teen years  of  age  he  became  a  student  of  Hamline  University,  where  he  pur- 
sued his  studies  for  three  years.  He  then  engaged  in  teaching  school  and  later 
studied  law  for  two  years,  being  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1871.  He  came 
to  tbe  village  of  Windom  in  1872.  He  was  elected  clerk  of  the  court  in 
1882  and,  on  completion  of  that  term,  became  judge  of  probate.  He  was 
also  county  attorney  and  otherwise  prominently  assisted  in  the  affairs  of 
local  government.     He  died  on  May  10,  1916. 

W.  C.  Benbow,  attorney  at  law,  Windom,  was  born  in  Indiana  in  1S63. 
He  taught  school  six  terms.  Graduating  at  Ann  Arbor  Law  School  in  1890, 
he  at  once  identified  himself  with  this  people  and  was  elected  county  attorney, 
serving  two  years.  He  was  editor  of  the  Citizen  for  two  years  and  engaged 
in  the  brick  and  tile  business  here. 

Wilson  Borst,  attorney  at  Windom,  was  born  in  New  York.  He  was 
admitted  to  the  bar  in  New  York  in  1880  and  in  1881  he  located  in  law 
practice  at  Fulda,  Minnesota.  He  was  soon  afterward  appointed  attorney 
for  the  Chicago,  St.  Paul  &  Milwaukee  Railroad  Company,  establishing  a 
large  practice.  Pie  came  to  Windom  in  1894  and  served  as  city  attorney. 
Politically,  he  has  ever  been  influential.  He  has  long  been  known  as  one 
of  the  keenest,  best  posted  lawyers  in  southern  Minnesota  and  had  for  many 
years  one  side  of  almost  every  case  tried  in  the  courts  of  the  county.  In 
the  supreme  court  he  has  also  been  signally  successful.  He  has  one  of  the 
finest  libraries  found  in  a  private  home  or  law  office  in  the  state. 


COTTONWOOD    .VXD    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  243 

MEMBERS  OF  THE  BAR  IN    IQl6. 

The  following  are  the  practicing  attorneys  of  Cottonwood  county : 
O.  J.  Finstad,  county  attorney,  Windom;  Wilson  Borst,  Windoni;  Paul  S. 
Redding,  Windom;  N.  L.  Glover,  Windom;  A.  W.  Annes,  Windom;  J.  L. 
Sammons,  Westbrook. 

COURT   OFFICERS,    1916. 

Hon.  L.  S.  Nelson,  presiding  judge;  P.  G.  Neufeld,  clerk;  O.  J.  Fin- 
stad, comity  attorney;  O.  G.  Peterson,  sheriff;  J.  J.  Harper,  reporter. 


CHAPTER  XIII. 

EDUCATIONAL    INTERESTS    OF    COTTONWOOD    COUNTY. 

The  pioneer  settlers  of  this  county  were  of  the  sterling  type  of  Amer- 
ican and  naturalized  foreign  citizens  who  believed  in  education  and  in  the 
free  school  system  of  this  country.  Hence  we  find  that  as  soon  as  there 
were  the  required  number  of  scholars  in  any  given  part  of  the  county,  a 
school  district  was  organized,  a  school  house  erected  and  a  competent  teacher 
employed  to  instruct  the  young.  While,  between  the  dry  weather  and  the 
grasshoppers  of  the  seventies,  the  first  settlers  were  having  a  hard  struggle 
to  gain  a  livelihood,  yet  they  managed  to  maintain  a  school,  which  their 
children  might  attend  at  least  a  part  of  the  time.  The  early  school  houses 
were  neat,  though  quite  plain,  small  frame  structures,  which,  in  time,  were 
succeeded  by  more  spacious,  better  planned  and  more  comfortably  furnished 
buildings.  Many  of  the  officials  of  the  county  and  the  leading  business 
men  and  sturdy  fanners  of  Cottonwood  county  received  their  early  lessons 
in  these  pioneer  school  buildings,  away  back  in  the  seventies  and  early 
eighties.  They  well  recall,  and  frequently  refer  to,  the  dreary  winter  days, 
when  the  thoughts  of  both  teacher  and  pupil  were  centered  more  on  the 
clouds  and  the  drifting,  sifting  snows  of  a  genuine  Minnesota  blizzard  than 
on  the  lessons  found  in  the  text  books.  In  many  instances  schools  had  to 
be  closed  for  part  of  the  winter  term  on  account  of  the  deep  snows  and 
fearful  storms. 

But  with  the  advent  of  better  times,  and  the  increase  in  population  and 
wealth,  the  various  townships  in  this  counts'  provided  splendid  country  and 
village  school  houses,  in  which  modern  conveniences  were  to  be  found,  and 
such  a  state  of  affairs  has  gradually  developed  until  now  the  present  build- 
ings, their  sites  and  furnishings  are  as  good  as  the  commonwealth  affords. 

LANDMARK    GONE. 

The  Greal  Bend  school  house,  built  in  September,  1871,  was  destroyed 
by  lire  in  January,  1916.  Although  built  primarily  for  a  school  house,  it 
was  always  used  for  religious  purposes.  It  was  one  of  the  old  landmarks 
of  the  county  and  about  the  first  school  house  built  in  the  county. 


C0TT0XW00D    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES.    MINN.  245 

EARLY   SCHOOL   DISTRICTS. 

The  first  public  school  district  formed  in  this  county  was  district  No. 
2.  organized  by  the  board  at  the  first  county  seat,  Great  Bend,  November 

25,  1870.  It  was  on  petition  of  James  Thompson  and  others,  who  organ- 
ized, under  direction  of  the  county  board,  sections  4,  5.  6,  7,  8,  9,  17  and  18, 
of  township  105,  range  36  west,  into  a  school  district  in  Great  Bend  civil 
township. 

School  district  No.  1  seems  to  have  been  the  one  organized  under  the 
petition  of  Bernard  Caughlin  and  others,  the  same  being  composed  of  sec- 
tions 19,  20,  21,  28,  29,  30,  31,  32  and  33,  of  township  105,  range  36  west. 

District  No.  4  was  organized  by  the  county  commissioners  through  a 
well-signed  petition  presented  by  the  citizens  of  Westbrook  township,  and 
the  territory  included  in  the  district  was  sections  7,  8,  17,  18,  20,  29,  30,  31 
and  32,  of  township  108,  range  ^7  west,  and  sections  11,  12,  13,  14,  23,  24, 

26,  35  and  36.  in  township  108,  range  38,  in  Westbrook  township. 

At  the  same  meeting  of  the  board,  school  district  No.  5  was  formed 
in  Springfield  township,  from  sections  26,  2J,  28,  33,  34  and  35,  in  town- 
ship 105,  range  37. 

District  No.  7  was  organized  at  a  special  meeting  of  the  county  com- 
missioners, February  4,  1871,  the  same  being  in  Springfield  township  and 
composed  of  sections  1,  2,  3,  12,  13,  14,  10,  11  and  15,  in  township  105, 
range  37  west. 

School  district  No.  8,  in  Lakeside  township,  was  organized  February 
25,  1871,  of  sections  from  1  to  18  inclusive. 

Another  very  early  district  was  that  in  Mountain  Lake  township,  organ- 
ized at  a  special  meeting  of  the  county  commissioners,  May  13,  1871,  the 
territory  comprising  all  of  the  north  half  of  the  township  of  Mountain 
Lake. 

At  a  meeting  of  the  commissioners  in  \pril,  1871,  upon  a  petition  of 
Daniel  D.  Bates,  a  school  district  was  formed  from  the  south  half  of  Moun- 
tain Lake  township. 

The  same  day,  on  petition  of  Simeon  Greenfield  and  others,  a  school 
district  was  formed  from  sections  19,  20,  21,  28,  29,  30,  31,  32  and  33,  in 
Lakeside  township. 

School  district  Xo.  11  was  organized  on  March  T2,  1872.  and  comprised 
sections  7,  8,  17.  18,  19  and  20.  in  township  106,  range  35  west,  and  sec- 
tions 12,  13,  18,  19  and  20,  in  township  106,  range  36. 


246  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

EARLY    SCHOOL    IN   DISTRICT    NO.    35. 

The  following  is  a  description  of  one  of  the  old  school  houses  of  school 
district  No.  35,  Midway  township:  The  school  house  was  perhaps  the 
only  one  of  its  kind  in  the  county.  It  was  a  two-story  building  of  eight 
rooms,  two  of  which  were  for  school  purposes,  four  for  family  use  and 
two  for  sleeping  rooms.  Scholars  living  at  a  distance  came  on  Monday 
morning  and  remained  until  Friday  night.  Patrons  furnished  the  victuals, 
which  were  prepared  at  the  school  house.  At  one  time  this  was  the  largest 
school  in  the  county,  having  over  forty  pupils  enrolled,  fifteen  of  whom 
stayed  during  the  week.  Thus  a  district  school  and  a  boarding  school 
were  obtained,  with  none  of  the  disadvantages  of  either.  Mr.  Raildbeck 
served  as  the  teacher  for  a  number  of  years. 

The  German  school  at  Mountain  Lake  began  its  existence  in  Septem- 
ber, 1898,  with  Miss  Mary  Yanka  as  teacher.  At  first  the  school  was  held 
in  the  H.  P.  Goertz  building.  There  were  many  people  who  were  unfavor- 
able to  this  school  because  they  thought  the  public  schools  well  supplied 
the  needs  of  the  town  and  community.  However,  the  school  progressed 
with  much  success  and  as  an  educational  factor  has  played  an  important 
part  in  the  community. 

EARLY   SCHOOL  TEACHERS. 

Among  the  teachers  in  the  county  in  1873  were  the  following:  Alice 
( '.  Flint,  Alice  L.  Fitch,  Alice  J.  Brown,  Nettie  Mathews,  Emma  A.  Young. 
Mary  C.  Nourse,  Nellie  C.  Imus,  Edgar  A.  Holmes,  Orrin  P.  Moore  and 
G.  S.  Redding. 

Among  the  teachers  in  1874,  in  addition  to  several  of  those  mentioend 
in  [873,  were  the  following:  Pars  O.  Flage,  Eva  Cook,  Orrill  Wolcott, 
Nettie  Sacket,  Mrs.  Bell  Sheldon,  Kittie  M.  Tingley,  Edith  M.  Taylor,  Mary 
Yale,  Melissa  Seeley,  Maggie  Morrison,  William  A.  Peterson,  Mary  Bates, 
Mrs.  Oella  P.  Mason,  Mary  E.  Chapel,  Mrs.  Rilla  Redding  and  Alva  B. 
Swayne. 

In  [875  the  needs  of  the  schools  were  growing  and  several  more  teachers 
entered  the  profession,  among  whom  were:  Delia  Clark.  Matiie  Under- 
wood, Lillie  J.  Smith.  Alice  R.  Jones,  Lucy  E.  Vanbuskirk,  Flora  L.  Oakes, 
Kittie  Tingley,  Katie  Lamoreau,  Belle  Graham,  Belle  Smith,  Mrs.  Sophie 
Hayden,  Mrs.  M.  E,  Jackson,  Clara  E.  Greenfield,  Fannie  Herrick,  Lann  Pat- 
rick, Maggie  McGaughey,  Emma  B.  Chapel,  George  Libby,  Edith  C.  Allen, 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINX.  J47 

Minnie   Fitch,    Naomi    Haycraft,    Laura    Merrill,    Abbie   Greenfield,    Ida    I. 
!  [oople  and  Jessie  Underwood. 

In  these  early  days  of  education  the  school  terms  were  very  short,  not 
more  than  four  months  and  more  often  two  or  three.  It  was  no  uncommon 
thing  for  a  teacher  to  instruct  twenty  or  thirty  days  and  then  resign,  some- 
times voluntarily  and  other  times  upon  request.  A  rather  unique  feature 
in  connection  with  the  educational  system,  if  it  can  be  said  that  one  really 
existed,  was  the  custom  of  bonding  teachers,  especially  young  lady  teachers. 
It  has  been  hinted  to  the  author  that  this  was  on  account  of  the  many  young 
ladies  who  were  picked  out  as  being  suitable  to  grace  the  household  of  some 
industrious  farmer  or  business  man  in  need  of  a  helpmate. 

FIRST  SCHOOL   HOUSE  IN   THE  COUNTY. 

The  first  school  house  in  Cottonwood  county  was  erected  in  1871  in 
district  Xo.  1,  Great  Bend  township,  and  its  first  term  of  school  was  taught 
by  Miss  Xettie  Sackett. 

BINGHAM     LAKE    SCHOOLS. 

The  school  and  village  history  of  Bingham  Lake  began  about  the  same 
time.  The  village  now  owns  a  four-room  school  building  and,  although  not 
modern  in  every  sense,  it  is  perfectly  adequate  and  sanitary.  It  is  provided 
with  excellent  fire  escapes,  so  that  the  building  can  easily  be  emptied  in  thirty 
seconds.  Ten  grades  are  taught  by  four  teachers,  with  Jesse  Hustob  as 
principal.     During  the  past  year  one  hundred  and  thirty  pupils  were  enrolled. 

STORDEN    SCHOOLS. 

The  school  history  of  Storden  is  nol  very  old.  for  it  was  only  twelve 
years  ago  when  the  school  building  on  the  Kahoi  Anderson  farm  was  moved 
into  town  in  order  that  a  central  location  might  be  secured.  Since  then  an 
addition  has  become  necessary  to  accommodate  the  need's  of  the  school.  Dur- 
ing the  school  year  of  1915-1916  ninety-six  pupils  were  enrolled.  There  is 
much  agitation  for  a  consolidated  school,  which  is  certainly  commendable 
and  which,  if  secured,  will  mean  a  new  building,  a  high  school  and  a  better 
community  interest.  The  school  board  i>  composed  of  the  following:  Chair- 
man, J.  C.  Hanson;  treasurer,  A.  II.  Anderson;  clerk,  S.  Anderson. 


24S  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

SCHOOL    AT    JEFFERS. 

A  school  for  the  village  of  Jeffers  became  a  reality  on  March  31,  1902, 
when,  at  a  special  school  meeting,  eight  thousand  dollars  worth  of  bonds  were 
voted  for  the  purpose  of  buying  a  school  site  and  the  erection  of  a  building. 
This  amount  was  seen  to  be  insufficient,  therefore,  on  the  12th  of  May, 
1902,  two  thousand  dollars  more  was  voted. 

The  school  is  enjoying  a  very  steady  growth,  the  enrollment  having 
increased  until  at  the  present  time  the  number  is  one  hundred  and  sixty-seven. 
Five  teachers  are  employed  and  two  years  of  high  school  work  are  given. 
The  principal  for  the  school  year  of  1916  and     191 7  is  Prof.  O.  E.  Olson. 

WESTBROOK    SCHOOLS. 

No  records  are  at  hand  on-  the  first  organization  of  common  school 
township  No.  57,  but  the  early  settlers  of  this  vicinity  promptly  provided  for 
the  educational  welfare  of  their  children.  The  little  frame  school  house 
that  stood  at  the  intersection  of  the  cross-roads  on  the  northwest  edge  of  town 
will  be  remembered  by  many  as  the  seat  of  learning  and  social  betterment 
of  the  earlv  years.  In  1899  the  building  was  moved  to  the  location  where 
the  imposing  brick  structure  now  stands.  The  teachers  at  this  period  were 
Clara  M.  Jaeger  and  Anna  M.  Amundson,  both  of  whom  held  second-grade 
certificates  and  received  the  munificent  sum  of  thirty  dollars  per  month. 
On  the  4th  of  August,  1900,  a  meeting  was  held  for  the  purpose  of  voting 
on  an  application  for  a  state  loan  of  two  thousand  dollars  for  the  purpose 
of  erecting  a  new  building.  The  meeting  was  presided  over  by  Adolph 
Peterson,  and  Henry  Peterson  acted  as  clerk.  Judging  from  the  number  of 
votes  cast,  fourteen,  all  in  favor  of  the  resolution,  the  number  of  legal 
voters  in  Westbrook  at  that  time  was  not  large.  A  two-story  frame  building 
was  erected,  but  in  less  than  two  years  it  was  found  inadequate  and  it  was 
proposed  to  build  an  addition.  The  more  conservative  citizens  thought  it 
would  he  heller  and  cheaper  in  the  end  to  build  a  modern  school  building 
for  tin-  future  a^  well  as  the  present,  so  arrangements  were  made  for  renting 
additional   room  and  plans  made   for  the  present  commodious   structure. 

The  teachers  of  the  early  Westbrook  history  were  Carrie  Seely.  Mrs. 
Cone,  of  Windom,  Winnie  [sham,  Myrtle  Stillings,  Alice  Seely,  Mrs.  Roberts 
and  Sadie  Wheeler.  Tin-  last  to  instruct  in  the  old  frame  building  were  G. 
A.  foster.  Bertha  Byington,  Eleanor  Reese,  and  Alice  Seely,  who  taught  the 
first  and  second  grades  in  the  rented  cottages. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  249 

The  village  grew  apace  and  the  needs  of  the  school  required  that  it 
be  organized  as  an  independent  school  district.  For  that  purpose  a  meeting 
was  held  on  January  19,  1903,  at  which  C.  A.  Zieska  was  chairman  and  M.  A. 
Johnson,  clerk.  When  the  vote  was  counted,  the  result  showed  fifty-two 
for  the  resolution  and  three  against. 

On  February  2  a  board  of  six  members  was  chosen,  which  included  the 
following  men:  J.  N.  Rivers,  J.  B.  Langum,  H.  W.  Footh,  J.  J.  Christy, 
J.  A.  Pearson  and  M.  A.  Johnson.  Upon  these  men  devolved  the  burden 
of  erecting  the  new  building  and  directing  the  destiny  of  the  school. 

Early  in  1903  steps  were  taken  toward  the  actual  construction  of  the 
new  building.  The  one  that  was  first  proposed  consisted  of  an  eight-roi  mi 
building  and  a  full  basement.  These  plans  were  accepted  and  seventeen  thou- 
sand dollars  worth  of  bonds  voted,  the  vote  standing  sixty-three  to  one  in 
favor  of  the  bond  issue.  As  evidence  of  the  district's  sound  credit,  it  may 
be  mentioned  that  the  five  per  cent,  bonds  were  disposed  of  at  a  lively  scram- 
ble by  Eastern  investors  to  Winona  capitalists  at  a  premium  of  seventy-five 
dollars  for  the  issue.  Tbe  building  was  constructed  the  same  year  and  now 
stands  as  a  monument  to  those  who  contended  so  earnestly  for  higher  edu- 
cation. 

At  present  eight  teachers  are  employed  and  they  have  charge  of  an 
enrollment  of  about  two  hundred  and  twenty-five.  Prof.  J.  B.  Wright  is 
the  superintendent,  he  having  served  in  the  capacity  for  several  years,  a  fact 
which  bespeaks  high  credit  for  him,  as  he  has  labored  honestly  and  faithfully 
for  the  betterment  and  growth  of  the  school  and  surely  he  has  been  rewarded. 
However,  his  success  is  due  in  a  great  measure  to  the  strong  support  and 
hearty  co-operation  of  the  school  board,  which  at  the  present  time  is  composed 
of  the  following  citizens:  President,  II.  \\  .  Footh;  treasurer.  J.  !•'..  Villa; 
secretary,  W.  E.  Mead;  J.  E.  Nelson,  Rev.  ( ).  J.  Wolff  and  .Mrs.  E.  P. 
Pederson. 

The  school  is  one  of  the  few  in  the  state  to  own  a  school  farm.  It 
was  acquired  under  the  old  Putnam  system,  bin  failed  l>ecause  of  the  usual 
reasons.  In  fact,  there  is  only  one  in  the  state  that  can  be  said  to  be  a  sui 
cess  and  this  one  is  at  ( 'okato.  The  farm  at  Westbrook  is  at  present  leased 
to  renters  and  consists  of  six  and  three-fourths  acres  on  the  northwesl  side 
of  the  town. 

The  pupils  have  many  of  the  advantages  of  the  city  school,  in  that  agri- 
culture, domestic  science  and  manual  training  are  offered  to  those  who  may 
desire  special  courses. 


25O  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINX. 

WINDOM    CITY    SCHOOLS. 
By  Hon.  C.  W.  Gillam. 

The  history  of  Windom's  public  school  is  so  closely  connected  with  the 
progress  of  Windom  itself  that  it  is  almost  impossible  to  give  one  without 
giving  the  other. 

Windom  was  located  on  the  present  site  in  the  summer  of  1871,  and  the 
first  school  was  held  in  the  early  fall  in  the  upper  room  of  Loop  &  Wood's 
lumber  office,  with  Miss  Lawton  as  teacher.  This  was  sort  of  a  select  school, 
but  in  October  and  November  of  that  same  year  Harvey  Klock  erected  a 
building  where  the  Redding  building  (formerly  occupied  by  the  Odd  Fellows 
hall)  now  stands,  the  upper  floor  being  used  for  the  Masonic  hall.  The 
lower  floor  was  rented  by  the  school  officers  for  a  public  school,  and  on 
Monday,  December  18,  1871,  the  first  public  school  in  Windom  was  opened, 
with  O.  Phelps  as  teacher.  Mr.  Phelps,  I  believe,  taught  through  the  winter 
term  of  1872  and  the  summer  term  was  taught  by  Miss  Clark,  who  after- 
wards became  Mrs.  Loop,  daughter  of  Lyman  Clark. 

In  October,  1872,  an  eight-mill  tax  was  levied  for  teacher's  wages  and 
an  eight-mill  tax  for  rent  and  fuel.  School  opened  this  year  on  November 
11,  with  Miss  Imus  as  teacher,  followed  a  little  later  in  the  season  by  Miss 
Alice  Flint  (now  Mrs.  C.  A.  Ludden,  of  Pomono,  California),  who  taught 
during  the  spring  and  summer  of  1873  with  an  enrollment  of  forty  pupils. 

Windom  had  grown  so  rapidly  that  our  people  saw  that  it  would  be 
necessary  to  provide  more  room  to  accommodate  our  school  and,  to  that  end, 
a  meeting  was  called  for  March,  1873,  to  vote  on  the  proposition  of  bonding 
our  school  district  for  four  thousand  dollars  to  build  a  new  school  house. 
The  proposition  carried,  and  in  May,  1873.  the  contract  was  let  to  Samuel 
Wilson,  father  of  Scott  Wilson,  to  erect  a  two-story  school  building  on  the 
ground  occupied  by  the  present  building  (two  lots  having  been  donated  for 
that  purpose  by  the  townsite  company).  The  contract  was  let  for  the  sum 
of  two  thousand  nine  hundred  and  ninety-five  dollars,  and  thus  was  started, 
forty  years  ago,  Windom's  first  school  building,  which  was  practically  com- 
pleted in  December  of  the  same  year. 

On  October  9,  [873,  our  school  officers  voted  to  have  eight  months 
school  and  William  Prentiss,  who  was  then  county  superintendent  (now  a 
prominent  lawyer  in  Chicago),  was  elected  to  have  charge  of  the  school. 
School  opened  in  the  new  building  on  December  3,  1873,  aUl'  '"'"'Mil  that  time 
on  Windom  began  to  be  in  the  front  rank  as  a  school  town.  With  as  fine 
a  school  building  as  any  town  of  its  size  in  the  state  and  with  a  people  who 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINX.  25 1 

were  determined  to  make  this  school  the  best  possible,  people  began  to  settle 
in  and  around  our  village  to  avail  themselves  of  our  school  privileges  as  early 
as  the  seventies. 

Mr.  Prentiss  was  again  elected  for  the  year  1875-76  and  another  depart- 
ment was  added,  with  Miss  Chapel  as  teacher.  Probably  no  teacher  that  has 
ever  occupied  our  school  room  had  a  greater  influence  over  the  eighty  to 
one  hundred  pupils  then  enrolled  than  did  Mr.  Prentiss.  He  was  a  friend 
to  everyone,  a  social,  lovable  man,  and  under  his  administration,  during 
those  hard,  trying  grasshopper  times,  our  school  prospered.  The  social 
life  of  our  town  centered  around  our  school.  We  had  a  literary  society, 
debating  society,  spelling  school  and  so  forth,  participated  in  by  people  of 
the  town  as  well  as  pupils  of  the  school.  Mr.  Prentiss  left  us  when  the 
winter  term  closed  in  the  spring  of  1876  and  returned  to  Macomb,  Illinois, 
to  study  law.  Mrs.  Jackson,  of  Bingham  Lake,  and  Miss  Redding  were 
elected  to  teach  for  the  year  of  1876-77  and  in  the  fall  of  1877  the  board, 
deciding  to  have  three  departments  for  the  winter  and  two  for  the  summer, 
voted  the  sum  of  one  thousand  dollars  for  the  school  expenses,  so  you  see 
our  teachers  did  not  get  rich  in  those  days. 

In  the  fall  and  winter  of  1877-78  L.  C.  Jones,  of  Bingham  Lake,  was 
elected  principal,  with  two  assistant  teachers.  Miss  Taylor  and  Miss  Francis 
Cooke,  and  the  same  line  of  work  was  adhered  to  as  the  previous  year.  In 
the  fall  of  1878  Mr.  Ingalls.  Miss  Delia  Clark  and  Miss  Bell  Smith  (now 
Mrs.  T.  C.  Collins)  were  elected  to  teach  fur  the  fall  and  winter  term.  It 
seemed  that  the  people  had  not  been  taking  the  interest  in  the  school  that 
they  should  and  Mr.  Ingalls  opened  his  school  with  an  appeal  to  tin-  people 
to  visit  the  school  more  often  and  co-operate  with  the  teachers  to  improve  it 
and  to  help  make  it  a  success. 

In  the  fall  of  1879  L.  J.  Robinson,  of  New  York,  was  elected  principal 
and  Mr.  Moore  and  Miss  Underwood,  assistants.  Under  Mr.  Robinson's 
supervision  our  school  took  on  new  life  and  did  good  work.  After  completing 
his  school  year  .Mr.  Robinson  joined  the  ranks  M  Windom's  business  men 
and  thereafter  took  a  prominent  part  in  the  upbuilding  and  improvement  of 
our  school.  In  the  fall  of  1880.  at  tin-  school  meeting  held  in  September, 
the  ladies  of  the  town  decided  to  take  a  hand  in  the  election  of  school  offi- 
cers. In  speaking  of  the  meeting  the  Wmdom  Reporter  said:  "This  is  tin- 
first  time  the  ladies  have  taken  a  part  in  our  school  meetings  and  we  ju 
from  the  interest  taken  by  them  that  they  will  hoop  'er  up  to  the  ugl) 
hereafter."  They  did  a  great  deal  of  talking  hack,  showing  that  the  fellow-, 
who  think  the  ladies  don't  know  how  to  vote  were  very  badly  in  error.     They 


252  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

behaved  well,  did  not  smoke,  nor  buttonhole,  nor  treat,  nor  do  anything  to 
corrupt  the  meeting  (but  they  elected,  if  I  am  not  mistaken,  Mrs.  E.  C.  Hunt- 
ington a  member  of  the  school  board).  This,  I  believe,  was  the  first  time 
the  ladies  of  our  town  had  taken  an  active  part  in  the  business  part  of  our 
school  management. 

In  the  fall  and  winter  of  1880  and  1881  school  opened  with  Mr.  Graves 
as  principal  and  Misses  Delia  Clark  and  Florence  Holmes  as  teachers  in  the 
two  departments.  There  was  a  total  enrollment  during  the  winter  term  of 
one  hundred  and  twenty-one  and,  in  connection  with  the  other  work,  the 
social  literary  department  of  our  school  was  especially  active.  Debating 
societies  were  organized  in  which  the  people  of  our  town  took  an  active  part 
with  the  pupils  of  our  school.  Spelling  schools  were  held,  dramatic  enter- 
tainments were  given  and  a  general  co-operation  of  students,  parents  and 
teachers  along  these  lines  added  much  to  the  success  of  the  school  during 
the  term.  At  the  school  meeting  held  in  September,  188 1,  a  nine-months 
school  was  voted  ami  one  thousand  one  hundred  and  fifty  dollars  was  levied 
for  school  purposes  and  one  hundred  and  fifty  dollars  to  build  a  wood  shed. 
School  opened  on  September  19  with  A.  W.  Amies,  of  Madelia  (later  a 
judge  of  probate),  who  had  just  finished  a  three-year  term  at  Madelia,  as 
principal,  and  Miss  Delia  Clark  and  Miss  Florence  Holmes  as  teachers  of 
the  primary  and  intermediate  departments.  Mr.  Amies  had  a  very  success- 
ful term  and  was  re-engaged  for  the  year  1882-83  with  the  same  assistants 
in  the  other  departments. 

After  completing  his  term,  Air.  Amies  returned  to  finish  his  law  course 
at  Michigan  University,  and  11.  J.  Keith  was  elected  as  principal  for  the 
year  [883-84,  with  .Miss  Delia  Clark  and  Miss  Nettie  Goss  for  the  primary 
and  intermediate  departments.  Our  school  had  increased  in  number  and 
when  Mr.  Keith  took  charge  he  found  a  total  enrollment  of  one  hundred 
and  forty.  Under  .Mr.  Keith's  administration  our  school  began  to  plan  some 
improvements.  Cp  to  this  time  it  had  been  sailing  along  under  the  old 
common  school  law.  with  no  apparent  end  in  view  except  to  give  our  young 
people  tlie  same  advantages  they  might  gel  in  any  district  school  of  the 
county,  but  Mr.  Keith,  will)  the  assistance  of  Mr.  Robinson,  who  bad  now 
become  our  county  superintendent,  planned  an  eight-year  course  of  stud}  : 
high  school  studies  to  be  introduced  as  rapidly  as  the  needs  of  the  school 
demanded,  and  a  definite  plan  of  action  for  future  progress  was  mapped 
out  and  a  regular  course  of  study  was  planned  for  each  grade.  Cp  to  this 
time  one  thousand  three  hundred  dollars  bad  been  the  most  that  was  levied 
in   any  oik-   year    for   school    purposes,   but   at    the  school   meeting  held   Sep- 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  253 

tember  5,  1884,  our  people  began  to  show  signs  of  breaking  ties  that  up 
to  this  time  had  held  them  to  the  old  common  school  system  and  began  to 
agitate  the  question  of  organizing  an  independent  school  district.  The  seeds 
of  progress  had  been  sown  and  had  begun  to  grow,  a  public  sentiment  had 
been  created  by  the  progressive  men  of  our  town  who  were  determined  to 
make  our  school  the  best  possible,  and  so  a  tax  of  one  thousand  six  hundred 
dollars  was  levied  and  a  nine-months  school  in  all  departments  decided  upon. 
T.  J.  Hunter  was  elected  principal,  with  Miss  Johnson  and  Miss  Delia 
Clark  as  teachers  for  the  year  1884-85.  School  opened  September  15  and 
had  an  enrollment  of  about  one  hundred  and  seventy  before  the  term  ended. 
At  the  annual  school  meeting  held  in  July,  1885,  the  report  showed  that  two 
thousand  dollars  had  been  expended  for  the  year  and  a  nine-months  school 
was  voted.  A.  W.  Amies,  who  had  finished  his  law  course  at  the  University 
of  Michigan  and  returned  to  Windom,  was  again  selected  as  principal  of  our 
school,  with  Miss  Delia  Clark  and  Miss  Johnson  as  teachers  in  the  primary 
and  intermediate  departments.  School  was  opened  in  September  and  before 
the  term  closed  had  an  enrollment  of  one  hundred  and  seventy-five.  Up 
to  this  time  Mr.  Annes  was  the  only  man  to  be  given  a  second  term  as 
principal,  with  the  possible  exception  of  Mr.  Prentiss  in  the  seventies.  Is  it 
any  wonder  we  made  slow  progress?  Under  Mr.  Amies'  second  administra- 
tion the  seed  of  progress  had  been  '-own  nearly  two  years  before  it  began 
to  mature  and  the  result  was  that  in  May,  1886,  independent  school  district 
Xo.  6  was  organized  and  the  first  board  of  education  was  elected,  consisting 
of  I-'..  C.  Huntington,  J.  H.  Tilford,  J.  S.  Kibbey,  A.  W.  Amies.  J.  S.  Ingalls 
anil  L.  J.  Robinson.  Our  school  started  on  the  road  with  living  colors  that 
was  eventually  to  lead  to  a  high  school.  <  )ur  district  had  already  been  bonded 
for  four  thousand  dollars,  a  portion  of  which  was  already  due  and  still  unpaid, 
and  a  special  meeting  was  called  for  June  7,  [886,  to  vote  on  the  proposition 
to  rebond  the  said  district  and  also  to  secure  additional  grounds  for  school 
purposes.  This  meeting  was  adjourned  to  the  regular  meeting  to  be  held 
July  17.  It  was  given  out  by  the  board  that  was  elected  in  May  that  their 
policy  would  be  to  establish  a  system  of  grading  of  study  as  nearly  as  pos- 
sible to  the  one  laid  down  by  the  state  high  school  board,  intending  to  start  a 
class  at  the  opening  of  the  fall  term  on  the  high  school  course.  Their  policy 
also  included  the  rebonding  of  the  district,  taking  up  the  old  bonds,  that 
were  drawing  eight  per  cent,  interest,  and,  with  the  con  enl  -1  the  people, 
rebonding  at  a  lower  rate  of  interest.  But,  alas  for  the  plans  of  mire  and 
men.  When  the  regular  meeting  was  over  it  was  found  that  nearly  all  of 
this  board  bad  been  defeated  and  practically  a  new  board  elected.     Windom 


254  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

up  to  this  time,  with  a  population  of  one  thousand  people  and  two  hundred 
scholars,  had  nothing  much  better  to  offer  in  the  way  of  school  privileges 
than  the  poorest  district  in  the  county :  but  progress  was  in  the  air,  and  in 
the  minds  of  many  of  our  people  it  was  believed  that  we  must  provide  better 
school  advantages,  or  our  young  people  would  soon  leave  home  to  attend 
school  elsewhere.  So,  in  the  spring  of  1887,  our  board  purchased  two  lots 
north  of  the  old  school  building  for  additional  grounds. 

In  July,  1887,  our  school  board  elected  James  Ruane,  later  editor  of 
the  Slayton  Gazette,  as  principal,  and  Miss  Silver  and  Miss  Delia  Clark  as 
teachers  for  the  intermediate  and  primary  departments,  and  voted  nine 
months  school.  At  the  annual  school  meeting  held  in  July,  18S7,  the  report 
showed  an  enrollment  of  two  hundred  and  eighteen  for  the  year,  with  three 
departments.  Think  of  three  teachers  doing  justice  to  two  hundred  and 
eighteen  pupils!  A  tax  levy  of  two  thousand  one  hundred  dollars  was  voted 
for  school  purposes  for  the  coming  year.  At  this  meeting  John  Clark,  who 
built  and  owned  the  Park  Hotel,  and  who  was  a  progressive  man  from  the 
East  and  very  public  spirited,  made  a  strong  speech  in  favor  of  building 
a  new  school  building  and  urged  the  establishing  of  the  high  school,  but 
nothing  farther  was  done  at  this  time.  Our  school  board  decided  to  employ 
four  teachers  for  the  coming  year.  James  Ruane,  who  had  been  taken  sick 
soon  after  school  opened,  was  obliged  to  resign,  and  M.  H.  Manuel  was 
secured  to  take  his  place,  after  a  three  weeks'  adjournment  of  the  depart- 
ment. Our  school  made  good  progress  under  Professor  Manuel's  adminis- 
tration and  the  board  re-elected  him  for  the  year  1888-89  and  also  decided 
to  add  another  department  and  build  an  addition  to  the  school  house. 

HIGH    SCHOOL    DEPARTMENT    ADDED. 

In  June.  jX88,  a  special  meeting  was  held,  at  which  it  was  voted  to  build 
a  two-story  addition  on  the  north  side  of  the  old  school  building  on  the  lot 
purchased  the  previous  year,  and  the  board  was  voted  permission  to  borrow 
three  thousand  five  hundred  dollars  for  the  purpose.  School  opened  Septem- 
ber 10  that  fall  with  four  departments.  Professor  Manuel  as  principal.  Miss 
Helen  Hunt  for  the  grammar  department.  Miss  Silver  for  the  intermediate, 
and  Miss  Delia  (lark  for  the  primary.  During  this  term  all  of  our  teachers 
put  forth  every  effort  in  their  power  to  prepare  a  class  for  the  high  school 
work  and  to  carry  out  the  graded  plan.  They  also  prepared  classes  for  the 
first  state  examination  and  the  result  was  that  the  following  year  the  upper 
room  of  the  new  addition  was  finished  and  a  high  school  department  added. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  255 

In  December,   1890,  the  state  high  school  board  placed  the  Windom  high 
school  on  the  map  as  a  full-fledged  state  high  school. 

THE    PASSING    OF    AN    EXCELLENT    TEACHER. 

There  is  one  event  in  connection  with  our  school  that  happened  about 
this  time  that  I  feel  I  ought  to  call  your  attention  to  just  now  and  that 
was  the  passing  of  Miss  Delia  Clark  from  the  teaching  force  of  our  school. 
For  nearly  fifteen  years  she  had  devoted  her  entire  time,  her  talents,  and 
practically  her  life,  to  the  primary  department  of  our  school,  with  always  a 
very  large  enrollment  in  her  department,  running  as  high  as  seventy-five 
to  eighty  some  years.  You  teachers  who  have  handled  small  children  can 
realize  something  of  the  responsibility  that  was  upon  her  shoulders.  She  was 
not  only  a  teacher  to  these  children,  but  practically  a  mother,  as  well,  always 
looking  after  their  welfare  in  school  and  out,  visiting  them  in  sickness,  and 
encouraging  them  in  every  way  she  could.  No  mother  has  ever  watched  over 
her  children  closer  than  did  this  little  woman  over  her  flock  of  children 
that  was  placed  in  her  charge.  It  was  no  uncommon  sight  to  see  her  com- 
ing down  the  street  from  school  house  with  a  dozen  or  more  of  her  little 
folks  as  close  to  her  as  they  could  get.  Her  services  to  our  sch  ■<  il  and  to 
the  mothers  of  Windom  cannot  be  estimated,  and  no  amount  of  money  could 
ever  repay  her  for  the  sacrifice  she  ha-  made  for  the  children  of  our  com- 
munity during  those  fifteen  years. 

P.  G.  Fullerton  had  now  been  elected  principal,  with  four  other  teachers 
to  assist  in  the  other  departments,  and  our  school  continued  to  grow.  We 
graduated  our  first  class  in  the  summer  of  1892  as  follows:  Miss  Jennie 
Warren,  Miss  Nellie  Scott.  Miss  Ada  Ellis,  Miss  Edna  Jefferson  and  Miss 
Cora  Smith. 

Mr.  Fullerton  was  re-elected  for  the  year  [892-93,  and  more  improve- 
ments and  new  apparatus  were  constantly  1  icing  a' Med  to  increase  the  effi- 
ciency of  our  school. 

In  the  fall  of  1893  A.  X.  Farmer  was  elected  superintendent  for  the 
school  year  of  1893-94  with  a  good  cor])-  of  teachers  and  that  year  a  class 
of  three  was  graduated.  Our  school  was  now  growing  by  leaps  ami  bounds, 
more  teachers  were  being  added,  and  it  was  very  evident  that  more  room 
would  have  to  he  provided.  In  July  of  this  year  our  board  voted  to  have 
free  text  books  and  also  to  secure  another  room  for  school  pur|X)ses.  Such 
a  room  was  fitted  up  in  the  temple  for  a  temporary  school  room,  and  torn- 
thousand  dollars  was  voted    tor  the  support  of  the  school   for  the  ensuing 


256  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

year.  Our  board,  as  well  as  the  people  of  the  town,  now  saw  that  the  time 
had  come  when  we  must  build  a  larger  building  and  as  a  step  in  that  direction 
a  meeting  was  called  for  July  11,  1894,  for  the  purpose  of  voting  upon  the 
proposition  of  building  a  new  school  building  upon  the  present  site,  and 
bonding  the  district  for  twenty  thousand  dollars  to  cover  the  cost.  The 
result  was  that  the  proposition  carried,  the  bonds  were  sold,  and  the  contract 
for  the  new  school  was  let  to  Donehue  &  Hoffman,  of  St.  Paul,  for  sixteen 
thousand  six  hundred  dollars.  Another  lot  was  bought  of  J.  C.  Christy  and 
added  to  the  school  ground  and  six  thousand  dollars  was  voted  for  school 
purposes  the  coming  year. 

Professor  Farmer  was  re-elected  as  superintendent  for  the  year  1894-95 
with  practically  the  same  corps  of  teachers,  and  later  the  school  moved  into 
the  new  building.  Our  school  continued  to  increase  in  the  number  of  pupils 
enrolled,  a  large  number  of  them  coming  from  the  country  to  attend.  Pro- 
fessor Farmer  was  again  elected  for  the  year  1895-96.  For  the  year  1896- 
97  Mr.  Blanche,  who  had  been  filling  the  place  as  assistant  superintendent, 
was  elected  superintendent. 

For  the  year  1897-98  A.  F.  Armstrong  was  elected  superintendent  and 
at  the  annual  meeting,  held  in  July,  the  report  showed  a  total  expenditure  of 
twelve  thousand  nine  hundred  and  twenty-five  dollars  for  the  year  and  a 
cash  balance  on  hand  of  three  thousand  three  hundred  and  seven  dollars. 
In  1898  and  1899  Mr.  Armstrong  was  re-elected  with  an  able  corps  of 
teachers  to  assist  him,  and  this  year  a  class  of  three  graduated. 

(  )n  April  7,  1899,  J-  M.  Rhodes  was  elected  superintendent  for  the 
year  1899-1900.  He  was  a  man  equipped  in  every  way  for  the  position  and 
under  his  directions  our  school  progressed  very  rapidly.  In  the  spring  a 
class  of  nine  was  graduated  and  from  this  time  on  to  the  present  I  believe 
our  school  continued  to  graduate  a  class  each  year.  Mr.  Rhodes  was  re-elected 
for  the  year  1900-01.  and  at  the  meeting  he  showed  our  school  to  he  in  a 
very  prosperous  condition,  with  a  large  enrollment  and  a  cash  balance  in  the 
treasury  of  seven  thousand  one  hundred  and  ninety-six  dollars  and  twenty- 
seven  cents. 

MORE   IMPROVEMENTS    MADE. 

It  was  beginning  to  become  a  problem  to  provide  room  to  accommodate 
the  pupils  that  wanted  to  attend  our  school  and  our  hoard  saw  that  it  would 
onl)  he  a  short  time  when  something  would  have  t<>  he  done.  So  they  called 
a  special  meeting  of  the  district  for  October  _-'.  looo.  for  the  purpose  of 
voting  on  the  proposition  of  buying  the  Stedman  property,  adjoining  the 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  257 

school  grounds,  and  also  purchasing  a  site  for  a  school  building  on  the  east 
side  of  town.  The  result  was  the  purchase  of  the  Stedman  property  for 
one  thousand  six  hundred  dollars,  and  of  block  3  on  the  east  side,  for  one 
thousand  dollars,  and  it  was  voted  by  the  board  to  elect  fifteen  teachers  for 
the  ensuing  year. 

In  July,  1901,  Mr.  Rhodes  tendered  his  resignation  and  Mr.  Conger,  of 
Minneapolis,  was  elected  for  the  year  1901-02. 

In  the  summer  of  1902,  A.  M.  Locker  was  elected  superintendent  for 
the  year  1902-03  and  music  was  added  to  our  school  in  connection  with  the 
library. 

Our  board  now  saw  that  we  would  have  to  have  more  room  the  comine 
year  to  care  properly  for  the  increased  attendance  and  they  called  a  special 
meeting  on  June  20,  1903,  for  the  purpose  of  voting  on  the  question  of  build- 
ing a  school  house  and  raising  funds  for  the  same  and  deciding  on  a  site. 
The  result  was  our  board  was  instructed  to  build  a  four-room  building  on 
block  3,  on  the  east  side  of  the  town,  and  on  July  8,  1903,  the  contract  was 
let  to  J.  B.  Nelson,  of  Mankato,  for  six  thousand  seven  hundred  and  twenty- 
two  dollars,  all  of  which  was  afterwards  paid  for  from  funds  on  hand  with- 
out an  additional  bond  issue,  and  at  the  annual  school  meeting  held  in  July, 
1904,  the  report  showed  that  the  school  house  had  been  completed  and  paid 
for  and  a  balance  on  hand  of  two  thousand  four  hundred  and  nineteen  dol- 
lars and  fifty-nine  cents. 

In  191 1  the  construction  of  a  new  school  building  was  begun,  at  a  cost 
of  forty  thousand  dollars,  for  high  school  and  grade  purposes,  commodious 
and  well  arranged.  The  aim  of  the  school  board  was  to  make  it  as  near  per- 
fect as  possible  in  respect  to  its  light,  heat  and  ventilation.  This  building 
was  dedicated  in  January,  1912,  with  the  usual  dedicatory  ceremonies.  Among 
the  notable  visitors  present  were  President  Vincent,  of  the  State  University, 
and  Hon.  George  B.  Aiton,  state  high  school  inspector.  In  the  hitter's 
remarks  he  said  that  as  a  preparatory  school  Windom's  was  second  to  none 
in  the  state  of  Minnesota. 

The  basement  of  the  building  contains  a  gymnasium,  sixty-five  by  thirty- 
five  feet,  a  domestic  science  room,  and  lavatories  furnished  with  lockers  and 
shower  baths.  The  first  floor  contains  quarters  for  four  grade  rooms,  a 
normal  department  and  an  ungraded  room.  The  second  floor  provide 
high  school  assembly  room,  sixty  by  forty-eight  feet,  a  library,  double  office, 
a  teachers'  room,  two  class  rooms  and  a  place  for  supplies.  The  old  assem- 
bly hall  is  divided  into  class  rooms  for  the  sciences  and  languages. 
(17) 


258  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

On  March  19,  1914,  the  board  had  a  meeting  and  selected  E.  T.  Ches- 
nut  as  superintendent  for  the  year  1914-15  and  his  work  has  been  so  satis- 
factory that  he  is  still  serving  in  that  capacity. 

The  school  year  of  1915-16  was  perhaps  the  most  successful  and  pros- 
perous in  the  history  of  the  school,  due  in  greater  part  to  the  untiring  efforts 
of  Superintendent  Chesnut,  assisted  by  an  accommodating  and  appreciative 
school  board.  The  board  of  education  at  the  time  this  is  written  consists 
of  the  following:  President,  D.  U.  Weld;  secretary,  Dr.  F.  R.  Weiser;  treas- 
urer, A.  D.  Nelson;  Jene  Anderson,  T.  A.  Perkins  and  Dr.  H.  C.  Beise. 
The  exact  amount  paid  out  by  the  board  for  the  school  maintenance  for  the 
school  year  of  1915-16  was  twenty-four  thousand  three  hundred  and  thirty 
dollars  and  eighty-six  cents. 

The  high  school  offers  everything  in  its  course  of  study  that  is  found 
in  our  city  schools,  including  domestic  science,  manual  training,  a  complete 
commercial  course,  agriculture,  mechanical  drawing  and  three  different  lan- 
guages. 

MOUNTAIN   LAKE   PUBLIC   SCHOOL. 

There  is  nothing  of  a  public  nature  for  which  the  people  of  Mountain 
Lake  have  more  reason  to  feel  grateful  than  their  public  school.  In  order 
to  give  a  brief  history  of  the  school  it  is  necessary  to  begin  with  the  organ- 
ization of  the  school  district  in  1871.  At  that  time  there  was  erected  a  little 
"box  house,"  fourteen  feet  by  twenty  feet,  and  which,  in  the  modern  sense, 
would  be  called  a  cheap  shanty.  The  weather  boarding  was  of  boards 
placed  edge  to  edge,  perpendicular  to  the  foundation.  It  was  through  these 
cracks  that  the  cold  winter  winds  whistled  and  shrieked  and,  with  other 
things,  caused  the  big  boys  to  snigger  out  loud  and  finally  to  stand  on  the 
floor  with  their  noses  in  a  ring.  The  school  benches  were  of  sawed  boards 
and  were  placed  around  the  wall,  and  the  teacher's  desk,  if  it  may  be  called 
such,  was  near  the  center  of  the  room.  About  sixteen  or  eighteen  pupils 
was  the  total  enrollment. 

In  1872  the  school  district  comprised  nearly  all  of  what  is  now  Midway 
and  Mountain  Lake  townships,  but,  considering  this  broad  area,  only  thirty- 
six  pupils  were  in  attendance.  After  1874,  the  boundaries  of  the  district 
contracted  from  year  to  year  and  in  1S87  the  district  comprised  only  six 
and  three-quarter  sections.  In  1888,  the  village  formed  an  independent 
school  district. 

Tn  1875  the  one-room  school  house  was  situated  on  the  present  site  of 
the  Mennonite  hospital.     This  building  was  used  for  about  live  years,  hut 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  259 

as  immigrants  were  coming  in  fast,  it  was  necessary  to  erect  a  more  com- 
modious building.  A  two-story,  two-room  building  was  erected  and  used 
for  about  -ten  years.  Additions  were  made,  until  the  building  consisted  of 
four  rooms.  The  need  for  a  more  improved  and  modern  building  became 
imminent,  which  led  to  the  sale  of  the  building  to  a  hospital  corporation 
and  the  final  construction  of  the  present  modern  structure  in  about  1908, 
at  a  cost  of  thirty-two  thousand  dollars.  Already  the  building  has  become 
too  small  to  accommodate  the  needs  of  the  school  and  a  fifteen-thousand- 
dollar  addition  is  to  be  built  within  the  next  two  years. 

Among  the  early  teachers  who  will  be  recalled  by  many  of  the  old 
settlers  are :  O.  P.  Moore,  who  will  always  be  remembered  on  account  of 
his  spelling  reforms;  Mr.  Sharp,  Mrs.  Kennedy,  J.  J.  Balzer,  I.  I.  Bargen, 
Mr.  Miller,  Miss  Rice,  Miss  Dredge,  Miss  Yanke  and  others. 

The  present  school  system  has  at  its  head  Superintendent  H.  A.  Falk, 
who  has  been  weighed  in  the  balance  and  found  equal  to  every  occasion  and 
emergency.  He  is  assisted  by  an  able  corps  of  sixteen  teachers  and  an 
appreciative  and  helping  school  board  consisting  of  the  following  men: 
President.  H.  P.  Goertz;  clerk,  J.  H.  Dickman;  treasurer,  Frank  Balzer; 
A.  A.  Penner,  J.  I.  Bargen  and  D.  Ewert.  In  the  person  of  H.  P.  Goertz, 
Mountain  Lake  has  a  public  spirited  citizen  of  whom  it  may  well  be  proud. 
When  a  lad  of  fifteen  years  he  came  to  Mountain  Lake  in  1875  and  ever 
since  has  been  a  man  of  public  and  business  affairs,  working  tirelessly  for 
the  growth  and  betterment  of  his  community.  He  has  served  for  twenty- 
seven  years  continuously  as  president  of  the  school  board,  a  fact  which 
alone  speaks  of  the  high  esteem  of  his  fellow  citizens. 

The  total  enrollment  for  the  past  school  year  was  three  hundred  and 
eighty-five,  of  which  number  the  high  school  contributed  about  one  hundred. 

In  several  respects  Mountain  Lake  may  not  excel  other  villages  of  its 
class  in  the  state,  but  when  educational  interests  are  considered  it  would  be 
a  difficult  matter  to  find  another  village  of  the  same  size  that  can  offer  such 
educational  advantages.  Besides  a  German  academy,  the  village  has  a  public 
school  building  that  might  do  honor  to  a  town  of  a  much  greater  population 
and  superior  business  advantages.  The  brick  edifice  is  situated  on  a  hillock 
in  the  north  central  part  of  town,  surrounded  by  a  gently  sloping  lawn  inter- 
spersed with  flowers,  trees  and  shrubbery.  The  village  owns  a  two-acre 
tract  devoted  entirely  to  agricultural  purposes.  Individual  plats  arc  given 
to  students  for  the  growing  of  crops  and  garden  products,  which,  when  ready 
to  market,  are  sold  and  the  proceeds  placed  in  the  agricultural  fund. 


26o  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

In  the  way  of  athletics  the  high  school  has  always  been  among  the  lead- 
ers, especially  in  basket  ball.  Several  times  they  have  been  champions  of 
their  district  and  on  one  or  two  occasions  have  been  the  final  contenders  for 
the  state  championship. 

RURAL    SCHOOL    COMMENCEMENTS. 

The  third  annual  rural  school  graduating  exercises  occurred  in  the 
Wonderland  theater  July  I,  191 6.  The  theater  was  packed  with  an  inter- 
esting audience  which  enjoyed  the  splendid  program  prepared  by  Superin- 
tendent Iverson. 

The  rural  school  graduation  has  come  to  be  an  important  event  in  the 
county.  It  means  as  much  to  the  pupils  of  rural  schools  to  receive  a  diploma 
of  work  well  done  as  it  does  to  the  city  pupil.  The  first  event  of  this  kind 
did  not  attract  much  attention.  The  one  held  in  191 5  was  not  very  well 
attended,  while  the  one  in  1916  was  a  success  in  every  detail.  Future  events 
of  this  character  will  doubtless  grow  in  magnitude.  State  Superintendent 
Shultz  gave  the  principal  address  to  the  forty-five  graduates.  His  address 
carried  with  it  the  idea  of  preparedness,  not  for  war,  but  for  life. 

In  the  afternoon  the  school  officers  held  a  meeting  for  the  promulgation 
of  ideas  pertaining  to  the  betterment  of  school  affairs.  Superintendent 
Shultz  sp<>ke,  as  also  did  Senator  Gillam.  Before  adjournment  an  organ- 
ization was  formed  known  as  "Rural  School  Officers  Association,"  which  is 
intended  to  be  a  permanent  affair  and  to  take  up  matters  of  general  benefit 
in  school  affairs.  The  first  officers  include  the  following:  C.  W.  Stark, 
Selma,  president ;  R.  C.  Asquith,  secretary ;  John  Gustafson,  Dale,  treasurer. 

SALARIES    PAID   COUNTY    SUPERINTENDENTS. 

Many  changes  in  the  salary  and  plan  of  remunerating  the  county  school 
superintendents  of  Cottonwood  county  have  obtained.  The  following 
changes  arc  noted  in  the  commissioners  records:  In  1872  the  salary  was 
fixed  at  $20  per  year:  in  1879  it  was  increased  to  $350  per  year;  in  1880  it 
was  changed  to  $450  per  year:  in  1882  it  was  increased  to  $520;  in  1887  it 
was  fixed  al  $600  per  year:  in  1889  it  was  changed  to  $650;  in  1802  the 
plan  was  changed  and  the  superintendent  received  eleven  dollars  per  school 
district  in  the  county.  In  1912  it  is  shown  that  the  salary  was  $1,500  and 
the  officer  paid  all  of  his  own  expenses.  In  1014  the  wages  were  changed 
to  $1,200.     The  record  reads:     "On  motion,  the  salary  of  the  county  school 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 


26l 


superintendent,  A.  R.  Iverson,  is  fixed  at  $1,200  a  year,  with  $500  addi- 
tional for  clerk  hire  and  expenses,  the  same  to  be  paid  monthly.  In  1915 
another  change  was  made  by  the  commissioners  and  the  salary  of  the  county 
superintendent  was  placed  at  $1,450,  he  to  pay  his  own  expenses;  also  $250 
for  clerk  hire  was  allowed  him. 

LAST    SCHOOL    LANDS    SOLD    IN     1891. 

Of  the  vast  acreage  of  school  lands  sold  in  this  county,  the  last  sales 
were  made  in  the  month  of  May,  1891,  when  three  thousand  acres  were  dis- 
posed of — all  there  was  left  at  that  date. 

COUNTY    SUPERINTENDENT'S   REPORT    FOR    I915. 


School 

Male 

Female 

Average  Salary, 

Auiak'e  Salary 

Total 

Months 

District 

Teachers 

Teachers 

Female 

Male 

Enrollment 

Selioo. 

I 



I 

$55 



16 

8 

2 



I 

55 



15 

8 

3 



I 

60 



43 

8 

4 



I 

50 



18 

7 

5 



I 

55 



15 

8 

7    (S.   E.) 

-- 

I 

50 



3 

8 

7    (N.   W.) 



I 

52 



16 

8 

10 



I 

18 



18 

9 

11    (semi-gr.) 

__ 

2 

108 



47 

8 

12 

I 



_- 

$65 

20 

7 

13 



I 

40 



21 

7 

14 



I 

50 



22 

8 

15  pupils  trans 

ferred  to 

Mountain  Lake. 

16   (south) 

1 

— 

— 

68 

23 

7 

16    (south) 



1 

60 



20 

7 

16    (north) 

1 



— 

65 

22 

7 

16    (north) 



1 

60 



34 

8 

16    (central) 



1 

68 



24 

7 

17 



1 

55 



9 

8 

18 



1 

40 



23 

8 

19 



T 

55 



22 

8 

20 

__ 

I 

53 



13 

9 

21 

__ 

I 

50 



37 

8 

262 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 


School 

Male 

Female   Average  Salary, 

Average  Salary, 

Total 

Months 

District 

Teachers 

Teachers        Female 

Male 

Enrollment 

School 

22 



I                     60 



25 

8 

23 



I                     50 



II 

8 

24 



I                     50 



15 

7 

25 



I                     DO 



25 

9 

26 



I                     50 



28 

7 

2/ 



I                     50 



42 

8 

28 



1            55 



42 

8 

29 



1            55 



51 

8 

30 



1            56 



19 

7 

31 



1            60 



31 

8 

32 

I 

— 

75 

17 

6 

33 

I 

— 

70 

20 

6 

34 



1            60 



41 

8 

35 

-- 

1            55 



34 

8 

36 



1            50 



2S 

8 

37 

I 

— 

75 

33 

7 

38 



1  .         55 



36 

8 

39 



1            55 



27 

7 

40 



1            50 



24 

8 

4i 



1            55 



23 

7 

42 



1            60 



28 

7 

43 



1            50 



29 

7 

44 



1            60 



42 

8 

45 



1            50 



3i 

7 

46 

(south) 

-- 

1             55 



15 

7 

46 

(north) 

-- 

1            55 



28 

8 

47 



1            50 



16 

8 

48 



1            60 



48 

8 

49 



1            50 



36 

8 

5o 

(semi-gr.) 



2          120 



92 

9 

5i 



1            50 



3i 

7 

52 

-- 

1            55 



29 

7 

53 



1            55 



19 

8 

54 



1            50 



12 

8 

55 

-- 

1            55 



24 

8 

56 

-- 

1            45 



24 

8 

58 

-- 

1             60 



30 

8 

COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 


263 


School 

Male 

IVliiiilr 

Average  Salary 

Average  Salary, 

Total 

Months 

District 

Teachers 

Teachers 

Female 

Male 

Enrollment 

School 

59 

-- 

55 



23 

8 

60 

-- 

50 



27 

7 

61 



60 



35 

8 

62 

— 

67 



35 

6 

63 

— 

50 



23 

7 

64 

— 

60 



27 

8 

65 

-- 

67.50 



32 

6 

66 



48 



20 

8 

67 

— 

52 



4 

6 

68 

-- 

55 



38 

7 

69 

I 



— 

55 

33 

6 

/o 

— 

70 



3i 

7 

72 

-- 

50 



23 

8 

73 

-- 

53 



36 

8 

75 

-- 

50 



21 

8 

76 

— 

55 



23 

8 

77 

I 



-- 

55 

29 

7 

78 

-- 

50 



26 

8 

79 

— 

50 



21 

7 

80    (east) 

I 

-- 

— 

52.50 

7 

6 

80    (central) 

I 



-- 

65 

22 

7 

80    (west) 

I 

-- 

-- 

67.50 

3i 

7 

Total 

12 

71 

2,152 

Average 

-- 



$54-3o 

$64.40 



150 
Days 

HIGH  SCHOOL  AND  GRADED 

SCHOOL  DISTRICTS 

School 

Hale 

Female 

Average  Salary, 

Average  Salary, 

Total 

Months 

District 

T<-.'!<   l"T- 

Teachers 

1  '  male 

Male 

Dnrollmenl 

S.'l 1 

6 

3 

19 

$67 

$143 

651 

9 

8 

1 

3 

55 

95 

147 

9 

57 

3 

12 

64 

95 

348 

9 

74 

2 

6 

62.50 

106 

221 

9 

7i 

1 

10 

4 

44 

52.50 

100 

167 

9 

Total 

S60 

$108 

1.534 

9 

Grand  total 

22 

US 

57-15 

86.20 

3.686 

264  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

A  grand  state  spelling  contest  is  held  each  year  at  the  state  fair  in  the 
Institute  building.  Each  county  in  the  state  is  allowed  to  send  two  repre- 
sentatives to  this  contest,  the  same  to  be  winners  of  county  spelling  contests. 

In  Cottonwood  county,  township  contests  were  held  during  the  past 
school  year  and  the  winners  selected  from  the  various  townships.  The  town- 
ship winners  met  at  Windom,  June  30,  1916,  to  compete  for  the  county 
championship.  Rosie  Peterson  of  Westbrook  township,  and  Almira  Riffle, 
of  Mountain  Lake,  won  in  die  contest,  Miss  Peterson  winning  in  the  oral 
test  and  Miss  Riffle,  the  written.  Separate  contests  are  held  at  the  state 
fair,  and  premiums  amounting  to  forty-five  dollars  are  given  in  each  division. 

In  1910  the  enrollment  in  the  semi-graded  and  rural  schools  of  the 
county  was  2,243;  number  of  male  teachers,  12;  number  of  female  teachers, 
J2;  average  wage  of  male  teachers,  $48.33;  average  wage  of  female  teach- 
ers, $40.36;  total  number  of  libraries,  68;  volumes  in  libraries,  5,646;  value 
of  libraries,  $3,388.88;  number  of  school  districts,  79. 

In  the  high  school  and  graded  school  districts  the  enrollment  was  878; 
number  of  male  teachers,  8;  number  of  female  teachers,  36;  average  wage 
for  males,  $105;  average  wage  for  females,  $58.  Officers  at  that  time  were 
Mr.  Hale,  president;  Mr.  Hubbell,  vice-president;  Mr.  Nelson,  secretary- 
treasurer. 

AN    EARLY    SCHOOL    SUPERINTENDENT. 

William  Prentiss,  now  an  attorney  praticing  in  Chicago,  served  as  countv 
school  superintendent  of  this  county  from  his  appointment  in  the  spring  of 
1873  to  1877.  He  left  the  old  farm  home  in  McDonough  county,  Illinois, 
in  April,  1869,  going  to  Minnesota  in  search  of  health,  as  he  had  symptoms 
of  pulmonary  trouble,  which  compelled  him  to  quit  his  college  course  at  Knox 
College,  Illinois.  He  succeeded  in  regaining  his  health.  In  the  spring  of 
1871  he  drove  a  pair  of  horses,  with  covered  wagon,  from  his  old  home  in 
Illinois,  over  the  stales  of  Illinois  and  Iowa  and  landed  at  Mankato,  Minne- 
sota, from  which  point  he  went  direct  to  Three  Lakes,  Cottonwo.nl  countv. 
He  had  pre-empted  land  and  taken  a  homestead  and  on  a  portion  of  this  he 
put  in  oats;  broke  prairie  during  the  early  part  of  the  season;  worked  dur- 
ing harvest  time  in  P>lue  Earth  county,  where  he  remained  during  the  follow- 
ing winter.  In  1872  he  again  broke  prairie  on  his  Cottonwood  claims; 
harvested  near  Madelia,  Watonwan  county,  binding  the  half  of  one  hundred 
and  sixty  acres  of  wheat  and  oats  on  a  Marsh  harvester.  Late  in  that  autumn 
he    returned    to    Illinois    and    on    Christmas    day    married    Elizabeth    Helen 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  265 

McCaughey  and  brought  her  to  Cottonwood  county  the    following   spring, 

[873- 

He  became  an  active  member  of  the  Patrons  of  Husbandry  and  was 
lecturer,  secretary  and  master  of  a  grange. 

In  1873,  the  first  year  of  the  grasshoppers  in  this  county,  he  lost  all  save 
his  wheat  and  oats  crop.  He  was  appointed  county  school  superintendent 
of  schools  in  this  county  in  the  spring  of  1873,  as  above  mentioned.  He 
went  through  the  entire  grasshopper  scourge  in  this  county,  losing  everything 
he  had  except  the  pre-empted  quarter  section,  and  left  Cottonwood  county 
heavily  in  debt  in  the  spring  of  1876.  He  had  taught  school  in  Windom 
in  the  winter  of  1873-4  and  1875-6.  He  left  this  county  simply  because 
the  grasshoppers  would  not  let  him  stay.  He  re-settled  in  Macomb  county, 
Illinois,  and  began  the  study  of  law,  being  admitted  to  the  bar  in  June.  1878. 
The  following  November  he  was  elected  state's  attorney  of  McDonough 
county  and  was  re-elected  in  1880.  In  August,  1891,  he  moved  to  Evanston 
and  in  1897  to  Chicago,  where  he  is  still  practicing  law  successfully.  He  also 
kept  up  an  interest  in  agriculture  and  owned,  a  few  years  since,  a  farm  in 
Illinois  and  a  fruit  farm  in  Allegan  county,  Michigan.  He  served  as  one 
of  the  three  civil  service  commissioners  for  Chicago  at  one  time. 

BURNING   OF  THE  BIG   BEND  SCHOOL   HOUSE. 

When  the  Big  Bend  school  house,  the  second  in  the  county,  was  burned 
a  few  years  since,  William  A.  Peterson  wrote  an  article  on  its  passing.  As 
the  historic  facts  therein  are  too  good  to  be  lost,  excerpts  from  the  article 
are  here  incorporated  in  the  annals  of  Cottonwood  county: 

"When  the  old  'Bend'  school  house  was  destroyed  by  fire  an  old  land- 
mark in  the  history  of  this  county  was  destroyed.  The  building  was  the 
second  built  in  the  county  and  was  erected  in  the  fall  of  1872 — forty-three 
years  ago.  The  first  term  of  school  held  in  this  county  was  taught  by  Miss 
Xettie  Sackett,  a  girl  of  fifteen  years  of  age,  during  the  summer  of  1871, 
in  a  sod  claim  shanty  erected  by  Isaac  Vansky  alx>ut  three-quarters  of  a  mile 
to  the  northwest  of  the  site  on  which  this  school  house  was  later  built. 

•'During  the  winter  of  1871-72,  a  term  of  school  was  taught  in  the  sod 
shanty  by  Cyrus  M.  Finch  and  in  the  winter  of  1X72-73  John  E.  Teed, 
brother  of  William  M.  Teed  and  Mrs.  I).  B.  Jones,  taught  the  first  school 
in  the  new  school  building  above  referred  to.  'fhc  building  was  not  then 
as  large  as  it  was  later. 

"The  old  school  house  has  been  the  social  center  of  a  large  neighborh 1 


266  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

since  it  was  first  built  and  many  notable  gatherings  have  been  held  there 
and  many  quite  famous  speakers  have  addressed  audiences  in  it.  The  Bend 
neighborhood  has  always  been  a  religious  community,  since  its  first  settle- 
ment. The  first  sermon  I  heard  preached  in  the  county,  and  it  was  doubtless 
the  first  ever  heard  here,  was  preached  by  Rev.  Edward  Savage,  then  a  young 
unmarried  man,  just  out  of  college.  It  was  preached  in  a  claim  shanty  on 
the  Dave  Evans  farm  of  eighty  acres,  in  the  summer  of  1870.  Somewhere 
about  the  same  time,  Rev.  Peter  Baker,  an  itinerant  Methodist  Episcopal 
preacher,  began  preaching  in  the  neighborhood  occasionally.  During  the  same 
year,  1871,  preaching  services  were  held  in  the  sod  school  house  above 
referred  to,  and  a  Sunday  school  was  organized.  After  the  Bend  school 
house  was  erected,  in  the  fall  of  1872,  divine  services  and  Sunday  school 
were  held  there  and  were  continued  regularly  for  the  last  forty-three  years. 
"The  first  Methodist  church  in  this  county,  I  think,  was  organized  there; 
Rev.  J.  W.  Lewis  was  the  first  pastor. 

"The  Des  Moines  Valley  Patrons  of  Husbandry  (Grange)  was  organized 
and  held  its  meetings  and  social  gatherings  in  this  building  for  a  number  of 
years.  Hon.  William  Prentiss,  now  of  Chicago,  a  former  county  school 
superintendent,  was  one  of  the  officers  and  lecturers  for  this  society. 

"Political  meetings,  farmers'  clubs  and,  in  fact,  gatherings  of  all  kinds 
have  been  held  there.  It  has  been  a  central  place  of  meeting  for  a  large  com- 
munity for  all  these  long  years. 

"Many  of  the  younger  generation  of  the  valley  and  old  settlers  have 
a  very  warm  spot  in  their  hearts,  and  many  a  fond  recollection  of  this  old 
school  house  has  been  the  pleasure  of  these  people.  But  it  is  gone.  The 
fiery  elements  have  licked  it  up  and  we  fondly  hope  to  see  a  modern  and  more 
pretentious  edifice  erected  on  the  very  spot  where  it  stood  for  so  many  years. 
Nothing  can  ever  take  its  place  in  our  hearts  and  memories,  nor  quench  our 
love  for  dear  old  'Bend  school  house.'  " 


CHAPTER  XIV. 

BANKS  AND   BANKING. 

Prior  to  the  spring  of  1881  Cottonwood  county  had  no  bank  within  its 
borders — in  fact,  there  had  not  been  much  demand  for  such  a  business  insti- 
tution up  to  within  a  few  years  of  that  date.  The  men  who  first  came  to 
locate  in  this  county  had  been  for  the  most  part  soldiers  of  the  Civil  War  and 
immigrants  from  beyond  the  big  seas,  and  neither  class  had  much  money 
to  deposit,  even  had  there  been  such  an  institution  here.  Much  of  the  money 
borrowed  by  the  people  of  Cottonwood  county,  in  order  to  get  established 
here,  was  obtained  from  some  of  the  Eastern  loan  companies  who  usually 
exacted  two  per  cent  commission  for  securing  a  loan  and  then  the  borrower 
had  to  pay  ten  per  cent,  and  even  higher  interest  for  the  use  of  the  money. 

But  as  the  farmers  and  business  men  in  various  sections  of  the  county 
commenced  to  thrive  and  "get  a  few  dollars  ahead,"  the  demand  for  a  bank 
was  keenly  felt,  as  the  people  had  to  go  to  Mankato  or  New  Ulm  to  do  their 
banking  business.  Every  city  and  village  within  the  county  now  has  one 
or  more  banks  and  all  do  a  good,  safe  business.  The  amount  of  their 
deposits,  as  shown  in  their  detailed  history  in  this  chapter,  shows  that  the 
poverty  of  thirty  and  forty  years  ago  has  all  been  changed  into  good  bank 
accounts. 

THE  BANK  OF  WINDOM. 

The  Bank  of  Windom,  the  pioneer  banking  house  of  Cottonwood  county, 
was  established  in  1881.  Among  the  presidents  were  John  Hutton  and  J.  N. 
McGregor.  \V.  J.  Clark  was  its  assistant  cashier.  It  was  reorganized  into  a 
state  bank  in  1885,  with  a  paid-up  capital  of  forty  thousand  dollars.  In  May, 
1892,  the  capital  was  increased  to  one  hundred  thousand  dollars  (authorized 
amount),  of  which  sixty-five  thousand  dollars  was  paid  up.  Its  directors 
were,  in  1893,  John  Hutton,  A.  Queveli,  W.  J.  Clark,  C.  A.  Ludden,  J.  N. 
McGregor,  E.  C.  Huntington  and  J.  II.  (lark. 

THE   FIRST   NATIONAL   BANK  OF  WINDOM. 

The  First  National  Bank  of  Windom  was  organized  as  the  successor  of 
the  oldest  banking  house  in  the  county — the  Bank  of   Windom,  organized 


268  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

in  March,  1881.  The  First  National  was  organized  on  April  26,  1897,  on 
a  capital  of  fifty  thousand  dollars,  same  as  it  carries  today.  It  was  estab- 
lished by  John  Hutton,  A.  D.  Perkins,  J.  N.  McGregor,  W.  J.  Clark,  E.  C. 
Huntington,  T.  A.  Perkins  and  others.  The  first  officers  were:  A.  D.  Per- 
kins,  president;  John  Hutton,  vice-president;  W.  J.  Clark,  cashier;  T.  A. 
Perkins,  assistant  cashier.  The  officers  in  June,  1916,  are:  \Y.  J.  Clark, 
president;  E.  C.  Huntington,  vice-president;  Carl  Nelson,  vice-president; 
T.  A.  Perkins,  cashier;  N.  M.  Nelson,  assistant  cashier.  The  present  board 
of  directors  are,  Jens  Anderson,  W.  J.  Clark,  E.  C.  Huntington,  Carl  Nelson 
and  T.  A.  Perkins. 

The  recent  statements  show  deposits  amounting  to  one  million  dollars. 
The  resources  and  liabilities  are  one  million,  two  hundred  and  fifty  thousand 
dollars;  surplus  one  hundred  and  fifty  thousand  dollars.  The  magnificent 
bank  building  is  constructed  of  buff  Bedford  sandstone,  erected  in  191 1  at 
a  cost  of  thirty-two  thousand  dollars.  The  citizens  of  Cottonwood  county 
and  the  county  seat  town  may  well  feel  a  pride  in  having  so  splendid  a  bank- 
ing house  as  that  of  the  First  National  Bank.  Its  management  has  always 
given  satisfaction  to  the  hundreds  of  patrons  who  have  trusted  their  funds 
to  it. 

Of  its  predecessor,  the  old  Bank  of  Windom,  it  may  be  stated  that  it  was 
founded  by  P.  C.  Kniss,  of  Lu  Verne,  who  conducted  it  less  than  one  year, 
when  lie  sold  to  Erick  Sevatson  and  A.  D.  Perkins,  who  conducted  it  as  a 
private  bank  for  sometime  thereafter.  Finally,  A.  D.  Perkins  and  others 
established  what  was  known  as  the  "People's  Bank."  which  was  the  most 
successful  bank  in  the  place.  Seeing  that  this  was  true,  the  owners  of  the 
old  Windom  Bank  desired  to  merge  with  the  People's  Bank,  which  was  con- 
sumated,  Mr.  Perkins  was  elected  president  of  the  new  bank  and  the  officers 
m|'  tin-  Firsl  National  included  the  officers  of  the  old  bank  in  part,  as  will 
be  observed  above.  Hence  the  First  National  is  the  direct  successor  to  the 
first  bank  in  Cottonwood  county,  which  was  established  in  March,   1881. 

THE    WINDOM    NATIONAL    BANK. 

The  Windom  National  Bank  was  established  August  6,  [902,  by  D.  U. 
Weld,  C.  \V.  Gillam,  Dr.  11.  C.  Beise,  H.  M.  Goss,  C.  B.  Pierce,  M.  L. 
Fisch,  M.  T.  DeWolf,  F.  Z.  Weld,  F.  J.  Carpenter,  Jens  Anderson,  John 
J.  Rupp  and  others.  Its  first  and  presenl  capital  is  thirty-five  thousand  dol- 
lars. This  banking  institution  opened  its  doors  for  business,  December  10, 
1902.      In  January,    1903,   it  bad  resources  of  more  than  seventy  thousand 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  269 

dollars;  in  1905  it  reached  seventy-eight  thousand  aad  more;  in  [909  it  was 
almost  three  hundred  and  fourteen  thousand;  in  191 1  it  had  reached  almost 
five  hundred  thousand  dollars  and,  March  7,  1916,  its  statements  show  about 
seven  hundred  thousand  dollars  in  total  resources.  On  the  date  last  named 
the  following  is  a  copy  of  their  statement  of  resources  and  liabilities: 
Resources — Loans  and  discounts,  $458,976.66;  overdrafts,  $519.39;  United 
States  bonds,  $35,000;  banking  house,  $17,800;  cash  and  due  from  banks, 
Si  13,435.29;  total  resources,  $623,731.34.  Liabilities — Capital  stock, 
$35,000;  surplus  fund  (earned),  $35,000;  undivided  profits,  $11,736.59; 
circulation,  $35,000;  deposits,  $506,994.75;  total  liabilities,  $623,731.34. 

A  general  commercial  banking  business  is  transacted  by  this  concern, 
and  in  the  fourteen  years  of  its  history  it  has  built  up  a  splendid  business 
and  earned  a  surplus  equal  to  its  capital  after  paying  dividends  every  year 
since  its  organization  to  its  stockholders.  The  resources  and  liabilities  at 
the  last  call  amounted  to  $627,493.14;  deposits,  $510,476.99. 

The  banking  corporation  own  their  own  hank  building,  a  solid  pressed 
brick  structure,  trimmed  with  blue  Bedford  stone,  erected  in  1902,  at  a  cost 
of  seventeen  thousand  five  hundred  dollars. 

The  officers  of  the  bank  from  its  organization  have  been:  D.  U.  Weld. 
president ;  C.  W.  Gillam,  vice-president :  John  J.  Rupp,  cashier.  J.  B.  Bens.  >n 
is  at  present  the  assistant  cashier  and  M.  C.  Langley,  teller.  The  present 
directors  are,  D.  U.  Weld,  C.  W.  Gillam,  M.  T.  De  Wolf,  C.  B.  Pierce.  M. 
L.  Fish,  H.  S.  Kellom  and  John  J.  Rupp.  But  few  banks  in  Minnesota  can 
show  a  better  record  during  the  years  of  its  history  than  this  one  at  Windom. 

FARMERS  STATE   BANK,   WINDOM. 

The  Farmers  State  Bank,  at  Windom,  was  organized  on  August  i, 
1907,  by  T.  C.  Collins,  B.  Klassen,  E.  D.  Mooers,  II.  E.  Hanson,  Andrew 
C.  Olson,  J.  F.  French.  John  Paulson,  C.  A.  Baxter  and  I).  A.  Noble.  The 
original  capital  stock  was  thirty-live  thousand  dollar-,  same  as  today.  1 
first  officers  were,  T.  C.  Collins,  president;  ( '.  A.  Baxter,  vice-president;  H. 
E.  Hanson,  cashier;  E.  A.  Sime,  assistant  cashier.  The  officers  in  1916 
are,  H.  E.  Hanson,  president;  Dr.  L.  Sogge.  vice-president;  \1  T.  Anderson, 
cashier;  E.  A.  Sime,  assistant  cashier. 

A  good  brick  bank  building  was  erected  in  1895,  which  cost  the  builder- 
eight  thousand  dollars.  It  should  be  understood  that  this  bank  succeeded 
to  the  business  of  the  old  Cottonwood  County  Bank,  with  which  T.  C. 
Collins  and  others  were  connected. 


2/0  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

The  directors  of  the  Farmers  Savings  Bank  are  now  (1916),  Dr.  L. 
Sogge,  H.  E.  Hanson,  R.  D.  Collins,  E.  D.  Mooers,  John  Paulson,  D.  A. 
Noble,  Andrew  C.  Olson,  W.  I.  Silliman  and  E.  H.  Klock.  At  the  close  of 
business,  June  30,  1916,  their  statement  shows  that  the  institution  had 
resources  and  liabilities  amounting  to  $412,925.72.  The  resources  were 
divided  as  follows:  Loans  and  discounts,  $379,141.04;  overdrafts, 
$1,667.27;  banking  house,  $10,500;  cash  and  due  from  banks,  $21,685.41. 
Their  deposits  are  as  follows :  Time  deposits,  $283,920.22 ;  demand  deposits, 
$78,327.61,  making  a  total  of  $362,247.83. 

people's  bank  of  windom. 

This  bank  was  established  on  December  18,  1892.     Its  popular  president 

was  Senator  E.  Sevatson.     J.  E.  Foss  was  the  active  manager  and  cashier. 

This  bank  was  finally  succeeded  by  the  Farmers  State  Bank  of  Windom. 

THE  COTTONWOOD  COUNTY  BANK. 

This  bank  was  established  on  July  1,  1889,  and  its  early  officers  were 
as  follows:  T.  C.  Collins,  president;  A.  E.  Woodruff,  vice-president,  and 
William  A.  Smith,  cashier.  It  had  a  capital  of  one  hundred  thousand  dol- 
lars, of  which  fifty  thousand  dollars  was  paid  up.  The  board  of  directors 
consisted  of  T.  C.  Collins,  A.  E.  Woodruff,  William  A.  Smith,  H.  Traut- 
fether,  L.  J.  Robinson,  S.  Huntington,  M.  T.  De  Wolf,  A.  S.  Collins  and 
C.  W.  Gillam. 

THE    STATE    BANK    OF    JEFFERS. 

The  State  Bank  of  Jeffers  was  established  at  the  village  of  Jeffers  in 
1909  by  J.  J.  Duroe  and  sons,  on  a  capital  of  twenty-five  thousand  dollars. 
The  first,  as  well  as  the  present,  officers  of  this  banking  house  are,  F.  E. 
Duroe,  president;  E.  M.  Duroe  and  L.  A.  Duroe.  vice-presidents;  C.  R.  Duroe, 
cashier,  and  C.  O.  Castledine,  assistant  cashier. 

The  statement  put  out  June  30,  1916,  shows  resources  and  liabilities 
amounting  to  $245,948.32.  Of  this,  there  was  a  surplus  fund  of  $5,000  dol- 
lars and  undivided  profits  of  $5, 135.59-  The  'I*-''";'"1'  deposits  amounted  at 
that  dale  to  $03,324.02  and  the  time  certificates  of  deposit  were  $117,478.71. 
The  latest  figures  given  show  that  this  bank's  deposits  amount  to  about 
$210,000. 

A  tine  brick  and  cement  banking  building  was  constructed  in   191 1,  the 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  2"J1 

cost  of  which  was  seven  thousand  five  hundred  dollars.  It  was  during  that 
year  that  the  old  hank  building  was  burned,  at  a  loss  of  over  two  thousand 
dollars  over  and  above  the  insurance  received.  This  bank  is  doing  a  splendid 
business  and  certainly  merits  the  full  confidence  of  the  wealthy  community 
in  which  it  is  located. 

THE   FARMERS  STATE   BANK  OF   JEFFERS. 

The  Farmers  State  Bank  of  Jeffers  commenced  business,  May  3,  191 5, 
on  a  capital  stock  of  fifteen  thousand  dollars  and  with  the  following  officers, 
which  are  also  the  present  ones:  President,  J.  H.  Dickman;  vice-presidents, 
D.  A.  Lahart  and  A.  W.  Mertens;  cashier,  C.  E.  Perkins;  assistant  cashier, 
F.  J.  ^Yerner. 

In  the  beginning  of  the  bank's  history  a  modern  brick  building  was 
erected  at  a  cost  of  five  thousand  dollars.  A  person  need  only  notice  the 
weekly  statement  issued  June  30,  1916,  to  prove  how  prosperous  the  bank 
has  been.  Their  own  expression,  "We  are  young,  but  we  are  growing,"  is 
certainly  true.  The  resources  and  liabilities  show  a  sum  amounting  to 
SS5.345.83.  Of  this  there  was  a  surplus  fund  of  $3,000,  and  undivided 
profits  amounting  to  $1,731.25.     The  deposits  amounted  to  $58,614.58. 

THE   FIRST   STATE    BANK   OF   STORDEN. 

The  First  State  Bank  of  Storden  was  established,  January  8,  1904,  by 
W.  J.  Clark,  T.  A.  Perkins  and  C.  H.  Huhberg  and  on  a  capital  of  fifteen 
thousand  dollars.  The  first  officers  were  the  following:  President,  \Y.  J. 
Clark;  vice-president,  Dan  Hedman ;  cashier,  C.  H.  Ruhberg.  The  present 
officers  are,  president,  W.  J.  Clark;  vice-president,  H.  H.  Peterson ;  cashier, 
C.  H.  Ruhberg;  assistant  cashier,  Sophus    Anderson;  teller,  George  Ruhberg. 

The  bank  started  business  in  its  own  building,  which  is  a  frame  struc- 
ture, costing  over  four  thousand  dollars.  The  bank,  although  only  a  little 
over  twelve  years  "Id,  has  enjoyed  a  period  -1'  great  prosperity.  The  bank 
statement  issued  at  the  close  of  the  month's  business  for  June,  [916,  -liowed 
resources  and  liabilities  amounting  to  $246,179.  <  >i  tin-,  there  was  a  surplus 
fund  of  $15,000.00  and  undivided  profits  to  the  amount  of  $7 .07 i.y-,. 

The  increased  deposits  from  year  to  year  is  one  of  tin-  strongest  recom- 
mendations a  bank  can  have.     For  instance  on  June    t,    1914,  the  depi 
amounted  to  $156,433.08;  June  1,  1915.  %  6.80;  June  1.  [916,  $198,321. 

This  bank  is  absolutely  controlled  by  home  people  and  home  capital  and 
merits  the  full  confidence  of  business  people. 


272  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

THE    FARMERS   STATE   BANK   OF   STORDEN. 

One  of  the  infant  banks  of  the  county  in  so  far  as  age  is  concerned 
is  the  Farmers  State  Bank  of  Storden.  This  bank  was  organized  December 
10,  1915,  by  P.  G.  Hiebert  and  commenced  business  January  10,  1916,  on  a 
capital  of  ten  thousand  dollars.  The  first  as  well  as  the  present  officers  of 
this  banking  institution  are :  D.  G.  Hiebert,  president ;  A.  H.  Anderson, 
vice-president ;  P.  G.  Hiebert,  cashier.  The  directors  are,  D.  G.  Hiebert. 
A.  H.  Anderson,  H,  P.  Goertz,  J.  E.  Youngck,  J.  E.  Nelson,  A.  O.  Stark 
and  P.  G.  Hiebert. 

The  bank  has  under  construction  a  modern  brick  building  that  is  to 
cost  five  thousand  dollars  and  which,  when  completed,  will  be  a  pride  and 
ornament  to  the  town. 

The  monthly  statement  issued  June  30,  1916,  shows  resources  and  lia- 
bilities amounting  to  $47,659.11.  Of  this  amount,  was  a  surplus  of  $^,000 
and  deposits  amounting  to  $35,659.11.  These  facts  show  that  the  people  of 
the  community  have  great  confidence  in  the  well-known  business  ability  of 
the  men  at  the  head  of  the  institution. 

FIRST  NATIONAL  BANK  OF  MOUNTAIN   LAKE. 

The  First  National  Bank  of  Mountain  Lake  was  organized  in  1908  on 
a  capital  of  twenty-five  thousand  dollars,  with  John  J.  Rupp  as  president  and 
C.  C.  Mertens  as  cashier.  The  present  officers  include  the  following:  John 
J.  Rupp,  president;  John  Jungas,  vice-president;  Abraham  Janzen,  cashier, 
and  F.  F.  Sehroeder,  assistant  cashier.  In  191 1  the  bank  moved  into  its 
new  and  modern  brick  building,  which  cost  in  the  neighborhood  of  seven 
thousand  dollars. 

At  the  end  of  the  month's  business,  June  30,  1916,  the  resources  and 
liabilities  were  $225,000,  ami  the  deposits  Si  05.000.  Concerning  the  fact 
that  the  present  capital  is  only  twenty-five  thousand  dollars,  these  figure- 
indicate  an  excellent  showing  and  unlimited  confidence  in  the  business  abil- 
ity and  integrity  of  the  bank's  officer-. 

1111.   FIRST  STATE   BANK  OF  MOUNTAIN    LAKE. 

The  First  State  Bank  of  .Mountain  Lake  was  established  in  I089,  on 
a  capital   stock   of  SjN.ooo.oo,  with   the    following  officers:     David   Ewert, 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  273 

president;  John  Janzen,  vice-president;  H.  P.  Gortz,  cashier.  In  1907 
this  hank  was  consolidated  with  the  State  Bank  of  Mountain  Lake. 

According  to  the  monthly  statement  issued  June  30,  1916,  the  hank's 
resources  and  liabilities  amounted  to  $460,634.00.  Of  this,  was  a  surplus 
fund  of  $10,000.00,  and  undivided  profits  of  $1,881.94.  The  individual 
deposits  amounted  to  $140,853.68,  and  the  time  deposits  $257,898.38,  mak- 
ing a  total  of  $398,752.06. 

In  1902  the  directors  decided  upon  a  bank  and  office  building,  which 
was  erected  at  a  cost  of  $12,000. 

The  capital  stock  has  been  raised  to  $50,000  and  there  have  been  several 
changes  in  the  personnel  of  the  officers  since  the  beginning.  The  present 
officers  include  the  following:  David  Ewert,  president;  H.  P.  Goertz  and 
Frank  Balzer,  vice-presidents;  J.  H.  Dickman,  cashier;  D.  G.  Hiebert,  assist- 
ant cashier;  D.  J.  Schroeder,  teller.  The  present  board  of  directors  are  as 
follows :  David  Ewert,  C.  Penner,  J.  H.  Dickman,  W.  J.  Janssen,  H.  P. 
Goertz,  Frank  Balzer,  J.  G.  Hiebert.  D.  G.  Hiebert  and  A.  C.  Dick. 

The  bank's  motto,  "Stability  and  Service,"  is  not  an  idle  expression  and 
carries  with  it  everything  the  name  implies.  The  officers  are  accommo- 
dating and  obliging  to  strangers  as  well  as  home  folks  and  certainly  merit  the 
large  amount  of  business  that  they  receive. 

CITIZENS  STATE  BANK  OF  WESTBROOK. 

The  Citizens  State  Bank  of  Westbrook  was  organized  in  1902  by  Dr. 
C.  P.  Nelson,  John  E.  Villa,  W.  B.  Leo,  T.  Torjuson,  W.  C.  Brown  and 
others.  The  first  officers  of  the  bank  were:  President,  T.  Torjuson;  vice- 
president,  C.  P.  Xelson ;  cashier,  C.  A.  Zieske.  The  officers  have  all  changed 
since  the  beginning  and  now  they  are  as  follows:  John  E.  Villa,  president; 
H.  W.  Footh,  vice-president;  A.  O.  Person,  cashier;  L.  L.  Footh,  assistant 
cashier. 

The  statement  put  out  on  June  30,  1916,  shows  resources  and  liabilities 
amounting  to  $188,393.11.  Of  this,  there  was  a  capital  stock  and  surplus 
fund  of  $32,000.00  and  undivided  profits  amounting  to  $1,716.83.  The 
deposits  reached  the  high  mark  of  $154,676.28. 

In  1902  the  directors  saw  fit  to  construct  a  brick  building  for  their  own 
use,  costing  $4,500.00.  The  name  of  John  E.  Villa,  one  of  the  earliest  set- 
tlers in  the  village  of  Westbrook,  connected  with  an  institution  of  this  kind. 
is  alone  enough  to  inspire  confidence  and  warrants  the  growing  business  of 
the  concern. 
(18) 


2/4  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

FIRST  NATIONAL  BANK  OF  WESTBROOK. 

This  banking  concern  was  organized  in  1900  as  a  state  bank,  but  changed 
its  name  to  the  First  National  Bank  in  1902.  It  was  established  by  J.  W. 
Benson,  president,  of  Heron  Lake.  'The  first  capital  stock  was  $25,000,  but 
in  July,  1916,  this  was  increased  to  $30,000,  at  which  time  the  total  deposits 
were  $270,000.  The  total  amount  of  resources  and  corresponding  liabilities 
of  this  bank  is  $350,000.  A  good  two-story,  brick  bank  building  was  built 
in  1900,  at  a  cost  of  $6,500. 

The  original  officers  of  the  bank  were :  J.  W.  Benson,  president ;  John 
E.  Nelson,  vice-president,  Westbrook;  J.  A.  Pearson,  cashier,  Westbrook. 
The  1916  officers  are  as  follows:  J.  W.  Benson,  president;  John  E.  Nelson, 
and  John  J.  Christy,  vice-presidents;  A.  F.  Meyer,  cashier;  Joseph  Budish, 
assistant  cashier. 

FIRST    STATE    BANK    OF    BINGHAM    LAKE. 

The  First  State  Bank  of  Bingham  Lake  was  organized  on  August  5, 
1904,  by  John  Henderson,  P.  K.  McMurtry,  John  J.  Rupp,  S.  L.  Rogers,  A. 
L.  Holt,  D.  U.  Weld,  C.  W.  Gillam,  A.  j.  Wicklund,  E.  J.  Gove,  John  J. 
Goertzen,  C.  K.  Hakes,  F.  L.  Langley,  C.  A.  Liem,  F.  H.  Bland,  A.  J. 
Goertzen,  Henry  Goertzen  and  N.  P.  Minion. 

The  first  capital  was  ten  thousand  dollars,  the  same  as  today.  The  first 
officers  were  as  follow:  Board  of  directors,  John  Henderson,  P.  K.  McMur- 
try, John  J.  Rupp,  E.  J.  Gove,  D.  U.  Weld,  Henry  Goertzen  and  N.  P.  Min- 
ion;  E.  J.  Gove,  president;  John  J.  Rupp,  vice-president,  and  P.  K.  McMur- 
try, cashier.  The  present  (1916)  officers  are:  J.  A.  Redding,  president; 
N.  P.  Minion,  vice-president;  D.  J.  Voth,  cashier.  The  1916  board  of  direct- 
ors are  as  follow:  N.  P.  Minion,  A.  J.  Wicklund.  V.  E.  Rogers,  J.  A.  Red- 
ding, A.  J.  Goertzen,  J.  J.  Rupp  and  Earl  Marshall. 

The  motto  of  this  bank  is  "Active,  Alert,  Alive."  This  concern  owns 
its  own  bank  building.  It  was  robbed  on  June  15,  1907,  by  Chester  and 
White,  who  were  tried  and  sentenced  to  Stillwater  prison  for  nine  and  ten 
years  respectively. 

The  deposits  have  grown  as  follow:  1905,  $10,280.30;  1906.  $15.- 
506.82;  1907,  $19,504.39;  1908,  $20,966.31;  1909,  $27,531.11;  1910,  $29,- 
045.61;  [911,  $36,965.51;  1912,  $36,634.50;  1913,  $40,562.57;  1914,  $46,- 
743.82;  1915,  $65,875.88;  January  1,  1916,  $74,609.93;  August  I,  1916, 
$88,261.34.     On  June  30,   1916,  the  resources  and  liabilities  amounted  to 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  275 

$99,363.77.  On  that  date  the  surplus  was  $1,650;  notes  rediscounted  and 
bills  payable,  $8,000;  deposits,  $79,686.77;  banking  house  and  fixtures, 
$2,792.90,  overdrafts,  $271.43.  The  policy  of  this  bank  is  conservative 
management,   ample   resources,   courteous  treatment  and   superior    facilities. 

STATE   BANK  OF  DELFT. 

This  bank — the  last  established  in  Cottonwood  county — was  given  a 
corporate  existence  on  July  1,  1916,  and  was  chartered  to  continue  for  thir- 
teen years.  The  first  board  of  directors  are  T.  A.  Perkins,  W.  J.  Clark, 
H.  D.  Peters,  Cornelius  Goetzen,  Jacob  Rupp,  Henry  Hokanson,  C.  Blier. 
The  capital  is  ten  thousand  dollars,  fully  paid  up.  The  president  is  T.  A. 
Perkins;  vice-president,  H.  D.  Peters;  cashier,  Henry  Hokanson. 

RECAPITULATION  OF  BANKS. 

The  following  shows  the  number  of  banks,  the  date  of  establishment, 
capital  and  present  deposits  of  each  one  in  Cottonwood  county: 

Bank  of  W'indom — Organized  in  1881 ;  authorized  capital,  $100,000; 
out  of  business. 

First  National  Bank  of  Windom — Organized  in  1897;  capital,  $150,000; 
deposits,  $1,000,000. 

W'indom  National  Bank— Organized  in  1902;  capital,  $35,000;  deposits, 

$507,000. 

Farmers  State  Bank  of  Windom— Organized  in  1907;  capital,  $35,000; 
deposits,  $362,247.83. 

Peoples  Bank  of  W'indom — Organized  in  1892;  out  of  business  now. 

Cottonwood  County  Bank — Organized  in  1889;  capital,  $100,000;  suc- 
ceeded by  the  Farmers  State  Bank  of  W'indom. 

State  Bank  of  Jeffers— Organized  in  1900;  capital,  $25,000;  deposits, 
$210,000. 

Farmers  Bank  of  Jeffers— Organized  in  191 5  ;  capital,  $15,000;  deposits, 

$58,614.58. 

First  State  Bank  of  Storden— Organized  in  1904;  capital,  $15,000;  de- 
posits, $198,321. 

Farmers  State  Bank  of  Storden — Organized  in  1916;  capital,  $10,000; 

deposits,  $35,659.11. 

First  National  Bank  of  Mountain  Lake — Organized  in  1908;  capital, 
$25,000;  deposits,  $165,000. 


276  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

First  State  Bank  of  Mountain  Lake — Organized  in  1889;  capital,  $28,- 
000;  deposits,  $398,752.06. 

Citizens  State  Bank  of  Westbrook — Organized  in  1902;  capital,  $32,000; 
deposits,  $154,676.28. 

First  National  Bank  of  Westbrook — Organized  in  1900;  capital,  $30,- 
000;  deposits,  $270,000. 

First  National  Bank  of  Bingham  Lake — Organized  in  1904;  capital, 
$10,000;  deposits,  $88,261.34. 

The  State  Bank  of  Delft — Organized  July  1,  1916;  capital  and  surplus, 
$12,000. 

Total  amount  of  present  capital  in  all  banks,  $422,000;  total  amount  of 
present  (1916)  deposits,  $3,448,532.20;  total  number  of  banks  in  county, 
August,  19 1 6,  thirteen. 


CHAPTER  XV. 

RAILROADS    AND    TRANSPORTATION. 

Cottonwood  county  was  fortunate  in  one  particular  in  its  settlement  in 
that  it  did  not  have  to  wait  long  for  railroad  facilities  after  the  first  settlers 
made  their  advent.  In  many  localities  the  pioneer  band  went  into  the  wilder- 
ness ten  and  twenty  years  before  the  sound  of  the  locomotive's  shrill  whistle 
was  heard  there.  Hence  they  had  to  haul  supplies  from  fifty  to  one  hundred 
and  more  miles  and  also  had  no  market  where  they  could  dispose  of  the  stock 
and  crops  which  they  raised,  except  at  faraway  cities  on  some  stream  or  rail- 
road line. 

About  1870  the  railway  now  known  as  the  Chicago,  St.  Paul,  Minne- 
apolis &  Omaha  (then  the  Sioux  City  &  St.  Paul)  was  constructed  through 
this  county  en  route  from  Sioux  City  at  the  southwest  to  St.  Paul  at  the 
northeast.  This  was  Cottonwood's  first  steam  rail  thoroughfare.  It  soon 
established  stations  at  the  villages  of  Mountain  Lake,  now  in  Midway  town- 
ship; Bingham  Lake,  in  Lakeside  township,  and  Windom,  the  county  seat,  in 
Great  Bend  township.  Thus  the  first  railway  facilities  were  in  the  extreme 
southeastern  portion  of  the  county.  There  was  but  little  settlement  made  in 
this  county  until  late  in  the  sixties,  so  that  even  the  earliest  band  of  pioneers 
had  to  wait  but  a  very  few  years  for  the  arrival  of  a  railroad.  In  the  re- 
mainder of  the  county — the  real  homestead  and  pre-emption  section — many 
years  longer  elapsed  before  they  had  a  railroad  near  at  hand. 

"the  currie  branch.'" 

What  is  styled  the  Currie  branch  of  the  Chicago,  St.  Paul,  Minneapolis 
&  Omaha  road  extends  from  Bingham  Lake,  Cottonwood  county,  north  and 
west  to  Currie,  in  central  Murray  county,  Minnesota.  It  was  constructed  in 
1900  and  during  that  and  the  succeeding  three  years  the  company  established 
town  plats  and  built  stations  at  the  now  sprightly  villages  of  Delft,  situated 
in  Carson  township;  Jeffers,  in  Amboy  township;  Storden,  in  Storden  town- 
ship, and  Westbrook  in  Westbrook  township,  near  the  western  line  of  this 
county.  This  railroad  line  has  greatly  enhanced  the  value  of  the  central  and 
western  part  of  the  territory,  and  has  caused  these  four  villages  to  spring  up 


2/8  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

as  if  by  magic,  while  the  junction  with  the  main  line  at  Bingham  Lake  has 
added  greatly  to  the  importance  of  that  village. 

THE    CHICAGO    &    NORTHWESTERN    LINE. 

The  extreme  northeastern  corner  of  this  county — sections  3,  11  and 
13,  of  Selma  township,  is  traversed  by  a  branch  of  the  great  Northwestern 
system  extending  from  a  point  in  northern  Redwood  county  to  central  Iowa. 
In  Brown  county,  just  to  the  north  of  Cottonwood  county,  is  a  station  on  this 
road,  on  the  county  line,  known  as  Comfrey,  the  major  part  of  which  is 
situated  in  Brown  county,  while  some  of  the  residences,  etc.,  are  in  Cotton- 
wood county.  This  affords  the  people  of  this  county  who  reside  in  the  north-' 
eastern  portion  an  opportunity  to  trade  and  do  marketing  there.  So,  strictly 
speaking,  there  are  only  eight  out  of  the  eighteen  civil  townships  of  Cotton- 
wood county  which  have  a  railroad  station.  But  there  are  small  villages  in 
the  several  adjoining  counties  to  Cottonwood  which  accommodate  its  citizens. 

By  reason  of  these  railroads  having  been  constructed  through  the  coun- 
ty at  about  the  time  the  heaviest  settlement  was  effected,  a  majority  of  the 
lumber  for  residence  building,  the  wire  for  fencing  and  other  heavy  freight 
did  not  have  to  be  drawn  by  teams  scores  of  miles,  as  was  the  case  in  many 
another  western  county. 

While  the  Chicago,  St.  Paul,  Minneapolis  &  Omaha  road  is  but  a  part 
of  the  Chicago  &  Northwestern  system  and  the  Currie  branch  also  belongs  to 
this  road,  it  may  be  said  that  every  mile  of  railroad  within  the  borders  of 
Cottonwood  county  is  under  the  control  of  the  Chicago  &  Northwestern 
system,  one  of  the  best  railway  properties  in  all  the  great  northwestern 
country. 

HOW    CONSTRUCTED. 

Iii  many  counties  of  the  West  the  people  have  been  obliged  to  put  up 
large  subsidies  in  way  of  taxes  and  subscriptions  in  order  to  obtain  a  road, 
but  the  first  road  here  was  built  under  the  old  land  grant  system,  granted 
by  (  ■  mil; res-;  in  1857  and  later.  By  the  terms  of  this  grant,  every  other  secti<  m 
of  land  within  certain  limits  of  the  road  was  given  to  the  construction  com- 
panies. While,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  it  was  an  expensive  proposition  in  the 
end  and  placed  a  large  amount  of  the  eminent  domain  in  the  hands  of  rail- 
road corporations,  yet  the  actual  settler  was  not  obliged  to  be  taxed  directly 
for  such  internal  improvement  of  the  country. 

Of  more  recent  years  the  railroads  of  the  West  have  had  to  build  their 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  279 

feeders  and  branches  without  public  aid  and  were  glad  to  do  so,  for  it  was 
and  ever  will  be  a  paying  investment,  as  the  vast  harvest  field  products  of  the 
territory  through  which  they  run  are  annually  shipped  over  each  line  to  the 
markets  of  the  East. 

By  these  various  lines  of  steam  railroad  in  Cottonwood  county  the  lum- 
ber of  the  northern  country,  the  coal  from  the  southeast  and  the  general 
merchandise  of  manufactured  goods,  farm  implements,  furniture  and  hard 
coal  from  the  faraway  mines  of  Pennsylvania,  are  brought  hither  to  the  very 
door  of  the  farmer  and  townsmen  of  this  county,  making  it  a  prosperous 
country.  The  "homesteader"  and  the  "steam  horse"  have  made  the  prairie 
wilderness  of  forty-five  years  ago  to  blossom  like  the  rose. 


CHAPTER  XVI. 


MILITARY   MATTERS. 


GRAND  ARMY  OF  THE   REPUBLIC. 

The  great  military  organization,  the  Grand  Army  of  the  Republic,  is 
represented  in  Cottonwood  county  at  only  one  place,  Windom,  where  the 
only  post  the  county  has  ever  had  exists.  The  first  post  here  was  known  as 
Stephen  Miller  Post  No.  38,  organized  December  3,  1874,  and  which  existed 
a  few  years  and  then  disbanded.     It  had  a  membership  of  fifty  soldiers. 

The  present  post  is  LaGrange  Post  No.  79,  organized  March  15,  1884, 
with  a  charter  membership  of  forty-nine  comrades  of  the  Civil  War,  as 
follow:  S.  M.  Espey,  deceased;  Charles  Winzer,  deceased;  W.  W.  Barlow, 
C.  F.  Warren,  deceased;  Freeman  Trowbridge,  deceased;  James  W.  Hayes, 
deceasd;  Thomas  S.  Potter,  deceased;  John  Malmstein,  deceased;  David  P. 
Langley,  W.  B.  Williams,  W.  W.  Frost,  deceased;  A.  J.  Hall,  deceased;  D. 
C.  Ashley,  deceased ;  T.  S.  Brown,  deceased ;  Zed.  Day.  deceased ;  M.  Chase, 
deceased;  Jerome  Cutler,  deceased;  J.  A.  Brown,  C.  A.  Chandler,  deceased; 
William  Copp,  H.  A.  Cone,  deceased ;  Z.  B.  Chatfield,  W.  B.  Fry,  deceased ; 
Allen  Gardner,  deceased;  J.  F.  French,  deceased;  J.  F.  Force,  H.  S.  Ellis,  A. 
J.  Frost,  deceased;  S.  S.  Gillam,  A.  Ingalls.  deceased;  E.  Leonard.  A.  W. 
Johnson,  deceased;  John  Tilford,  deceased;  E.  M.  Peterson.  Orrin  Nason, 
deceased;  J.  E.  Mace,  deceased;  W.  A.  Potter.  A.  A.  Miles,  deceased;  R.  R. 
Janness,  S.  O.  Taggart,  deceased,  A.  A.  Start,  deceased;  J.  M.  Root,  de- 
ceased; C.  W.  Seely.  Paul  Seegar,  deceased;  W.  W.  Zuel,  deceased;  Ezra 
Winslow,  E.  W.  Vanhorn,  deceased;  C.  A.  Wood,  S.  J.  Woodward,  de- 
ceased; J.  W.  Cogley,  deceased. 

The  total  present  membership  of  the  post  is  seventeen.  About  a  year 
ago  it  was  as  low  a-  six  members,  but  the  plucky  commander.  W.  H.  Jones, 
kept  it  alive,  got  members  re-instated  and  new  members  until  the  present 
seventeen  were  secured.  Mr.  Jones  has  been  commander  for  sixteen  years  in 
succession.  The  post  meets  twice  each  month  at  the  post  moms  in  the  court 
house   (the  jury  room  being  allotted  to  the  Grand   Army  1. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  28l 

The  first  commander  was  S.  M.  Espey  and  the  first  adjutant  was  J.  J. 
Kendall.  The  1916  officers  are:  W.  H.  Jones,  commander;  C.  W.  Seely, 
senior  vice-commander;  W.  A.  Potter,  junior  vice-commander;  William  S. 
Skellie,  chaplain ;  J.  A.  Brown,  adjutant  and  quartermaster.  The  post  has 
had  enrolled  on  its  books  one  hundred  and  twenty-two  names. 

woman's  relief  corps. 

As  a  very  helpful  auxiliary  to  the  Grand  Army  post  at  Windom  is  the 
Woman's  Relief  Corps  No.  36,  organized  August  2j,  1887,  with  eighteen 
charter  members.  It  now  has  a  meml)ership  of  only  thirteen.  Its  president 
is  Mrs.  H.  M.  Goss;  secretary,  Mary  Robison ;  treasurer,  Mrs.  A.  P.  Jones, 
wife  of  the  present  commander  of  the  post. 

soldiers'  monument. 

In  the  city  cemetery  stands  a  very  imposing  granite  shaft  about  eighteen 
feet  high,  surmounted  by  a  bronze  American  eagle  with  outstretched  wings. 
This  was  erected  about  1910  and  the  cost  was  twelve  hundred  dollars,  seven 
hundred  dollars  being  donated  by  the  post;  three  hundred  dollars  by  the 
Woman's  Relief  Corps;  one  hundred  dollars  by  the  First  National  Bank  and 
one  hundred  dollars  by  the  Cemetery  Association  of  the  city  of  Windom. 
It  is  situated  in  what  is  known  as  "Soldier's  Square"  at  the  cemetery. 

HELPED    CAPTURE    JEFF    DAVIS. 

In  a  recent  issue  of  the  Westbrook  Sentinel  the  following  article  was 
contributed  by  C.  W.  Seely,  a  Civil  War  veteran,  who  aided  in  the  capture 
of  the  Confederate  president,  Jefferson  C.  Davis: 

On  Sunday,  April  2,  1865,  at  ten  o'clock  in  the  morning,  General  Lee, 
commander  of  the  Rebel  army  around  Petersberg  and  Richmond,  Virginia, 
sent  Davis  a  dispatch  containing  very  nearly  these  words:  "My  lines  are 
broken  in  three  places:  Richmond  must  he  evacuted  this  evening."  That 
message  found  Mr.  Davis  in  church  at  eleven  o'clock  in  the  morning  where  it 
was  handed  to  him  amid  an  awful  hush,  and  he  immediately  went  quietly, 
soberly  out,  never  to  return  as  president  of  the  (  bnfederacy.  No  word  was 
-p. ken.  hut  the  whole  assemblage  felt  that  the  message  he  had  so  hastily 
perused  bore  word-  of  doom.  Though  the  handwriting  was  nol  blazoned  on 
the  wall,  it  needed  no  Daniel  to  declare  its  import,  hut  no  one.  at  this  'late. 
can  understand  what  that  message  meant  to  those  in  the  doomed  city.     Men, 


282  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

women  and  children  rushed  from  the  church,  word  passing  from  lip  to  lip  the 
news  of  the  impending  fall  of  Richmond  and  it  was  difficult  to  believe  it.  It 
was  late  in  the  afternoon  when  signs  of  evacuation  became  apparent  to  the 
incredulous.  Wagons  on  the  streets  were  being  hastily  loaded  at  the  rebel 
capital  with  boxes  and  trunks  and  driven  to  the  Danville  depot.  Vehicles  sud- 
denly rose  to  a  value  that  was  astonishing;  as  high  as  one  hundred  dollars  in 
gold  was  offered  for  a  conveyance  and  all  over  the  city  it  was  the  same.  Night 
came  and  all  was  confusion.  There  was  no  sleep  in  Richmond  that  night. 
Morning  broke  upon  a  scene  such  as  those  who  saw  it  can  never  forget. 
Jefferson  Davis  left  Richmond,  Virginia,  at  ten  o'clock  at  night  for  Danville, 
Virginia,  where  he  halted  and  where  he  hoped  Lee  to  follow  with  the  remnant 
of  his  army  and  form  a  junction  with  General  Johnson.  Mr.  Davis,  with  his 
staff,  halted  at  Danville  and  set  up  government,  issuing  orders  and  so  forth. 
Here  he  waited  several  days  in  hopes  of  Lee's  approach,  but,  instead,  re- 
ceived word  of  the  surrender  of  Lee's  army. 

The  Confederacy  thereupon  took  to  wheels  again  and  retreated  by  rail 
to  Greensborough,  North  Carolina,  where  another  considerable  halt  was 
made,  the  days  and  nights  being  spent  mostly  in  the  cars  by  the  president  and 
his  cabinet  and  followers.  Since  very  few  of  the  citizens  saw  fit  to  throw 
open  the  doors  to  him,  when  Johnson  talked  of  surrendering,  he  was  com- 
pelled to  make  another  flight,  this  time  in  wagons  and  on  horseback  (the  rail- 
roads having  been  torn  up)  by  way  of  Salisbury  to  Charlotte,  North  Carolina. 
where  his  ark  again  rested  for  a  few  days  and  where  he  was  received  with 
great  hospitality.  Reports  of  Stoneman's  cavalry  coming  that  way  caused 
another  flight,  via  Vorkville  and  Abbeyville,  South  Carolina. 

Being  now  compelled  to  take  entirely  to  horse  and  escorted  by  two 
thousand  cavalry,  who,  as  well  as  the  presidential  cortege,  gradually  dwindled 
away,  they  reached  Washington,  Georgia,  where  the  formal  dissolution  of  a 
government  was  dispensed  with,  most  of  the  cabinet  itself  having  by  this 
time  abandoned  the  sinking  craft,  leaving  Davis,  attended  by  Regan,  his  late 
postmaster-general,  and  his  military  staff  and  the  remaining  fugitives,  with 
a  small  but  selected  escort  of  mounted  men  who  took  their  way  southward, 
hoping  to  make  some  small  port  on  the  coast  and  thence  out  of  the  country. 

Mr.  Davis  had  separated  from  his  family  for  greater  safety,  but  on  an 
alarm  of  peril  to  which  they  were  said  to  be  exposed  from  a  conspiracy  to 
rob  them  of  the  gold  they  were  supposed  to  be  carrying,  had  rejoined  them 
over  night  at  Doublin,  Georgia,  this  being  the  place  where  the  First  Wiscon- 
sin Cavalry  struck  his  trail  some  twenty-four  hours  later.  From  here  Davis 
went  to  Hawkinsville,   Georgia,  and  on  the  same  side  of  the  river,  thence 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  283 

south  about  twenty-five  miles  to  Evansville,  Georgia.  There  he  was  cap- 
tured on  May  10,  1865,  and  was  taken  back  to  Macon,  whence  he  was  taken, 
via  Savannah  and  the  ocean,  to  Fortress  Monroe,  where  he  was  long  closely 
and  rigorously  imprisoned,  while  his  family  was  returned  by  water  to  Savan- 
nah and  there  set  at  liberty. 

Davis  was  finally  released  on  bail,  Horace  Greeley  and  others  going  on 
his  bond.  He  then  went  to  England,  finally  returning  to  the  United  States 
for  trial  and  was  let  go  as  a  disfranchised  citizen.  He  then  went  to  Missis- 
sippi and  there  spent  the  remainder  of  his  life. 

WE   ARE    GROWING   OLD,    JOHN. 

The  following  poem  was  written  in  1908  by  J.  S.  McDaniel,  late  first 
lieutenant  of  Company  B,  Second  Wisconsin  Cavalry,  and  dedicated  to  the 
author  of  this  history,  John  A.  Brown,  his  comrade  during  the  days  of  the 
Civil  War.  The  names  used  are  well-known  in  Windom ;  for  example,  the 
name  "Dave"  refers  to  D.  A.  Noble,  who  enlisted  the  same  day  Mr.  Brown 
did  and  fought  on  the  same  fields,  and  is  among  the  few  survivors  of  that 
great  conflict : 

We're  growing  old  and  gray,  John, 

We're   growing  old  and  gray; 
I've  passed  the  three  score  and  ten, 
And  you're  far  on  the  way. 

Some  are  in  advance,  John, 

And   some   are   close   behind ; 
Many  have  fallen  by  the  way — 

Life's   battles   they've    resigned. 

But  still  I  see  you  all,  John, 

As  in  the  long  ago — 
As  in  the  days  of  "sixty-one," 

Ere  we  had  met  the  foe. 

I  see  you  young  and  strong,  John,, 

"With  heart  for  any   fate," 
Resolved,  our  fathers'  Starry  flag 

Shall  wave  o'er  every  state. 

I   see   you   on   the   march,   John, 

Through  swamp  and  through  bayou; 
I  see  you  in  the  Vicksburg  siege, 

And  near  the  dread   Yazoo. 


284  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 


I  see  your  men  at  Big  Black, 

Holding  Johnson  there  at  bay; 

Now  I  see  you  crossing  over, 
And  see  Johnson  run  away. 

Then  you  follow  him  to  Jackson, 

"Here,"  he  says,  "I'll  make  a  stay." 

But  he  did  not  like  the  Yankees, 
So,  he  ■•rights  and  runs  away." 

I  called  the  roll  today,  John, 

As   I   called   it   long  ago, 
But   the  names  forever  silent 

It  would  pain  your  heart  to  know. 

Called  Bishop,  Whytock  and  La  Flesh, 
Called  Reppy,  Stone  and  Scott, 

Called  Tom  and  Sam  and  Brad  and  Lon- 
Called,  but  they  answered  not. 

Of  all  the  four  or  five  score  men 
Who  once  stood  up  in  line; 

Save  you  and  Dave  and  me,  John, 
The  roll  call  shows  but  nine. 

Nor  is  it  strange;  you  know,  John 
Long  years  have  passed  away — 

It  is  not  strange  so  few  are  left, 
Left   till    this   later   day. 

A  few  more  months  or  years,  John, 

A  roll  call  then  will  tell 
That  those  who  answered  "Here"  today, 

Have   said   their  last   "farewell." 

Then  why,  why  shed  a  tear,  John 
O'er  comrades  now  no  more, 

When  we  soon  will  meet  them, 
On  Canaan's  happy  shore. 


Sixty-One. 


SOLDIERS  WHO  PLEDGED  THEIR  VOTE  TO  GRANT  AND  WILSON. 

When  LT.  S.  Grant  ran  for  J 'resident  the  second  time  (1872)  the  follow- 
ing veterans  of  the  Civil  War  pledged  themselves,  by  a  notice  in  the  Window 
Reporter,  to  support  him  for  President  at  the  election  that  fall,  and  as  it  will 
serve  the  double  purpose  of  recording  the  names  of  many  of  the  returned 
veterans  who  had  settled  in  Cottonwood  county,  as  well  as  what  regiment 
they  were  in,  besides  showing  how  they  voted  at  that  day,  it  is  here  inserted 
in  list  form: 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  285 

D.  \Y.  Working,  Fourth  Minnesota  Infantry. 
Samuel  M.  Espey,  First  Ohio  Light  Artillery. 
George  P.  Johnston,  United  States  Reserve  Marines. 

C.  L.  Hubbs,  First  Minnesota  Infantry. 

N.  H.  Manning,  Seventh  Minnesota  Volunteer  Infantry. 

Paul  Seeger,  Ninth  Minnesota  Infantry. 

W.  J.  Leisure,  Twenty-eighth  Vermont  Volunteer  Infantry,  Illinois. 

L.  M.  Wilson,  Second  Vermont  Volunteer  Infantry. 

T.  C.  Richmond.  Third  Wisconsin  Volunteer  Infantry. 

L.  L.  Ordwell,  Thirteenth  Wisconsin  Volunteer  Infantry. 

W.  C.  Banks,  Second  Ohio  Heavy  Artillery. 

J.  W.  Benjamin,  Eleventh  Volunteer  Minnesota  Infantry. 

Addison  Hall,  Ninth  Minnesota  Volunteer  Infantry. 

W.  W.  Frost,  Third  Wisconsin  Volunteer  Infantry. 

D.  M.   Sheldon,  Nineteenth  Wisconsin  Infantry. 

K.  W.  Sheldon,  Nineteenth  Wisconsin  Volunteer  Infantry. 
Asa  A.  Start,  Tenth  Vermont  Volunteer  Infantry. 
J.   Cutler,   Second  Vermont  Volunteer  Infantry. 
J.  K.  McLain,  Sixth  Ohio  Volunteer  Cavalry. 
Frank  Parso,  Twenty-first  Wisconsin  Volunteer  Cavalry. 
Lamont  Gilbert,  First  Minnesota  Heavy  Artillery. 
Joel  A.  Clark,  Fifth  Ohio  Volunteer  Cavalry. 
A.  Anderson,  First  Iowa  Volunteer  ( avalry. 
George  A.  Greenfield,  First  Minnesota  Battery. 
Jacob  Isaacson,  Sixth  Iowa  Volunteer  Cavalry. 
Karl  Oleson,  Thirty-first  Volunteer  Iowa  Infantry. 
J.  H.  Ewing,  Eleventh  Wisconsin  Volunteer  Veteran  Infantry. 
George  L.  Loope,  Ninth  New  York  Volunteer  Cavalry. 
A.  J.  Frost,  Eighteenth  Wisconsin  Volunteer  Infantry. 
C.   Nixon,   First   M.   M.   Brigade. 

Leonard  Aldrich,  Eighth  Minnesota  Volunteer  Infantry. 
F.  M.  Byran,  One  Tundred  and  Twenty-second  Illinois  Volunteer  In- 
fantry. 

0.  C.  Ant' in,  Forty-second  Wisconsin  Volunteer  Infantry. 

1.  H.  Reisdorf.  Eighty-eighth  Illinois  Volunteer  Infantry. 
J.  E.  Mace,  Twelfth  Wisconsin  Volunteer  Infantry. 
Thomas  S.  Brown,  Fifth  Wisconsin   Volunteer   Infantry. 
W.  B.  Williams,  Second  Wisconsin  Volunteer  Infantry. 


286  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

M.  DeWolf,  Tenth  New  York  Volunteer  Cavalry. 

James  C.  Brown,  Eleventh  Wisconsin  Volunteer  Infantry. 

George  Hubbs,  First  Wisconsin  Volunteer  Cavalry. 

Ezra  Winslow,  Second  Maine  Cavalry. 

Peter  W.  Oakley,  Ninth  Iowa  Volunteer  Cavalry. 

SPANISH-AMERICAN    WAR   SOLDIERS. 

At  the  time  of  the  Spanish- American  War  in  1898  there  was  no  regular 
militia  company  organized  in  Cottonwood  county,  and  it  was  from  such  that 
the  troops  were  largely  made  up  for  that  short  but  truly  decisive  conflict, 
hence  those  who  went  from  this  country  enlisted  in  other  Minnesota  com- 
mands. 

The  list  of  soldiers  serving  in  this  war  from  here  was  as  follows:  P.  G. 
Redding,  G.  Redding,  the  former  in  Company  H,  Twelfth  Minnesota  Regi- 
ment, at  New  Ulm,  and  the  latter  in  Company  B;  Ernest  Dow,  Company  PI, 
two  Quiring  brothers,  John  Savage,  son  of  the  late  Reverend  Savage.  All 
but  Dow  were  discharged  from  camps  in  the  South  and  never  saw  service 
out  of  the  United  States,  while  he  re-enlisted  and  was  sent  to  the  Phillipine 
islands.  All  served  in  the  Twelfth  Minnesota  save  Mr.  Savage,  who  was  in 
the  Fifteenth  Minnesota.     He  enlisted  at  Worthington. 


CHAPTER  XVII. 

CITY   OF   WINDOM. 

Windom,  named  in  honor  of  United  States  Senator  William  VVindom,  a 
native  of  Ohio,  but  long  an  honored  resident  of  Minnesota,  is  situated  on  the 
banks  of  the  Des  Moines  river,  one  hundred  and  fifty  miles  southwest  of  St. 
Paul  and  one  hundred  and  twenty-two  miles  northeast  from  Sioux  City, 
Iowa.  Windom  was  declared  the  county  seat  of  Cottonwood  county  in  the 
autumn  of  1872,  the  county  officers  having  maintained  their  offices  at  a  point 
a  few  miles  up  the  river  at  what  was  known  as  Great  Bend,  for  a  short 
period  after  the  county  was  organized. 

The  population  of  Windom,  according  to  the  United  States  reports 
for  1890,  1900  and  1910  was  as  follow:  In  1890  it  was  835;  in  1900  it  had 
reached  1,944,  but  in  1910  had  fallen  to  1,749.  It  is  now  supposed  to  have 
about  two  thousand — possibly  twenty-one  hundred. 

The  first  building  really  worth  mentioning  on  the  plat  was  the  one 
erected  on  lot  8,  block  18,  about  the  middle  of  June,  1871,  by  S.  M.  Espey, 
which  was  used  by  Espey  &  Lukens  as  a  hardware  store.  Among  the  early 
buildings,  one  of  importance  was  the  Windom  hotel,  erected  on  the  corner  of 
Third  avenue  and  Ninth  street  by  (lark  &  Bell.  E.  C.  Huntington  estab- 
lished the  Reporter  as  the  first  newspaper  of  Windom  and  Cottonwood 
county,  issuing  volume  1,  number  1,  on  September  7,  1871. 

Perhaps  the  description  of  Windom  given  by  Editor  Huntington  in  his 
paper  will  give  a  clearer  understanding  of  the  surroundings  and  first  events 
than  any  other  account  that  can  be  now  reproduced. 

WINDOM    AS    VIEWED    IN    1893. 

Editor  Huntington,  of  the  Window.  Reporter,  in  his  paper  in  April,  1893, 
speaks  of  Windom  and  its  prospects  after  the  following  fashion: 

"The  history  of  Windom  is  not  one  of  the  precious  relics  of  the  ancient 
world,  which  the  capricious  centuries  have  let  drift  to  us,  nor  is  it  one  of 
the  precious  treasures  which  lies  buried  beyond  recovery  under  the  'tide  whose 
waves  are  years.'    There  is  no  spirit  of  Attica  breathing  through  the  recoi 
telling  of  the  valor  of  barbarian  founders;  no  pre-historic  ruin>  or  relics  of 


288  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

dead  ages  encumber  the  site  of  the  growing  city.  The  city  and  surrounding 
country  are  but  a  chapter  of  American  life,  with  its  push  and  energy.  The 
pioneers,  many  of  whom  are  still  living  happily  in  the  retrospect  of  labor 
well  done,  were  not  the  'sons  of  holy  gods,  culling  the  fruits  of  illustrious 
wisdom  from  unharried  land,'  but  were  the  sons  of  the  unconquerable  Anglo- 
Saxon,  who  gave  to  the  world  the  Magna  Charta,  political  and  religious 
liberty,  and  whose  onward  march  has  planted  civilization  and  the  Cross 
wherever  its  sturdy  sons  have  gone.  There  is  but  little  romance  connected 
with  the  early  days  of  this  prosperous  town  and  county.  Its  lowly  history 
deals  more  largely  in  the  modest  yet  manly  experiences  of  the  ones  who 
toiled  and  laid  the  foundations  of  a  prosperity  that  has  continued  and 
widened,  and  will  continue  to  grow  until  the  brightest  dreams  of  the  most 
hopeful  have  been  realized. 

"Its  shipping  embraces  grain,  stock  and  flour  and  a  large  local  trade 
has  built  up  an  aggregate  of  many  large,  thriving  establishments  creditable 
to  the  little  city.  Her  school  building  is  a  model  structure  of  modern  con- 
venience and  architecture.  Her  schools  are  on  a  par  with  any  of  the  country, 
being  taught  by  competent  and  skilled  instructors.  She  has  six  churches; 
three  solid  banking  institutions;  a  flour-milling  capacity  of  one  hundred  and 
twenty-five  barrels  daily;  four  large  elevators,  a  tow  mill  and  a  splendid 
stock  market.  Windom  now  has  a  population  of  nearly  fifteen  hundred  as 
cultured  and  refined  people  as  can  be  found  in  our  great  state  of  Minnesota. 
The  streets  are  wide  and  well  kept,  and  the  business  portion  of  the  place  com- 
pletely surrounds  a  beautiful  park  which  is  nicely  grown  up  to  large  shade 
trees  and  is  laid  out  in  beautiful  driveways;  some  of  the  beautiful  dwellings 
are  nestled  beneath  the  side  of  a  towering  hill,  while  others  are  on  the  banks 
of  the  historic  Des  Moines  river,  which  carves  its  way  to  the  great  Missis- 
sippi, thence  to  the  ocean.  Then,  in  closing,  we  may  be  pardoned  for  men- 
tioning the  two  weekly  newspapers." 

It  was  in  the  early  spring  of  1871  that  S.  M.  Espey  first  came  to  Win- 
dom, after  having  traveled  over  the  territories  from  the  Pacific  slope  in 
search  of  a  home.  He  came  to  Windom  before  the  railroad  came  through, 
hauled  lumber  from  St.  James  to  erect  his  store  and,  in  company  with  A.  P. 
Lukens,  set  up  an  establishment  on  the  southeast  corner  of  block  iS.  They 
engaged  in  the  hardware  business  for  a  year  or  two  and  then  the  firm  sold 
to  Stark  &  Williams.  .Mr.  Kspey,  soon  after  the  opening  of  his  store,  was 
appointed  postmaster  and  served  in  that  capacity  for  ten  war-. 

In  1N71  John  Hutton  and  W.  II.  Wilson  began  business  together.  In  a 
short  time  Wilson  sold  bis  interests  and,  moving  to  LuVerne,   engaged  in 


BRIDGE    ACROSS    DES    MOINES    RIVER,    WIXDOM. 


THE  DAM  AT  W1NDOM. 


BUILDING  OF  POSS   MERCANTILE  CO.,    WINDOM. 


HIGH   SCHOOL   BUILDING.   WINDOM. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  289 

business  there.  During  the  several  years  of  grasshopper  devastation,  Mr. 
Hutton  gave  immense  credit  to  the  farmers,  with  little  prospect  of  payment, 
but,  strong  in  the  faith  that  the  country  must  in  the  future  outgrow  its  then 
bad  record,  he  did  much  toward  holding  settlers  on  their  claims,  for  without 
indulgence  on  the  part  of  the-  business  men  depopulation  would  have  become 
complete.  The  country  rallied  from  the  distress,  the  farmers  began  to  pros- 
per, and  Mr.  Hutton,  with  the  rest  of  the  business  men,  were  finally  rewarded 
with  the  payment  of  old  claims. 

FIRST  EVENTS. 

The  village  of  Windom  was  platted  June  20,  1871,  by  A.  L.  Beach,  of 
the  St.  Paul  &  Sioux  City  Railroad  Company.  One  week  before  its  platting, 
A.  P.  Lukens,  S.  C.  Highly  and  others  arrived  with  lumber  and  commenced 
the  erection  of  buildings.  Early  in  June  of  that  year  S.  Hunddleston  & 
Sons  erected  a  bakery  on  lot  No.  8,  of  block  No.  8,  and  dug  the  first  well 
in  the  village  plat.  They  built  an  oven  with  blue  clay  obtained  in  the  digging 
of  the  well.     In  this  oven  was  baked  Windom's  first  loaf  of  bread. 

Among  the  first  events  in  the  young  village  may  be  mentioned  the  fol- 
lowing :  The  first  sermon  in  Windom  was  by  Rev.  J.  E.  Fitch  in  Espey  & 
Lukens'  hardware  building.  The  first  dance  in  town  was  in  the  same 
building.  The  first  attempt  at  organizing  a  lodge  in  Windom  was  in  Octol>er, 
1871,  when  the  Masonic  fraternity  commenced  its  work  here.  The  first  at- 
torney in  the  place  was  Emory  Clark.  The  first  physician  was  Dr.  Allen 
Smith,  who  commenced  his  practice  in  October,  1871.  He  returned  to  Ohio, 
from  which  state  he  had  emigrated,  and  there  died.  The  first  death  was  that 
of  P.  A.  Ruhberg,  on  March  13,  1873.  The  first  school  was  taught  as  a 
"select"  school  by  Miss  Hellen  F.  Lawton,  in  the  winter  of  1871-2.  The  fir>t 
train  of  cars  to  enter  the  village  was  early  in  July,  1871.  The  first  post- 
master was  S.  M.  Espey.  The  Presbyterian  church  was  organized  on 
October  15,  1871,  with  eight  member-  and  Rev.  E.  Savage  as  it-  pastor. 
The  first  Methodist  Episcopal  church  quarterly  conference  was  held  at  Win- 
dom in  December,  1871.  In  September  and  October,  1871,  ten  thousand 
dollars  were  paid  out  in  the  village  for  wheat.  In  1N74  Windom  had  three 
churches — Baptist,  Presbyterian  and  Methodisl  Episcopal.  Prudence 
Masonic  Lodge  was  also  then  in  operation.  In  1S73  a  large  two-story  school 
house  was  erected  at  a  cost  of  four  thousand  dollars.  The  first  term  ol 
school  was  taught  there  in  the  winter  of  1873-4.  In  the  spring  of  1873 
(19) 


29O  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

large  quantities  of  lumber  were  rafted  to  Jackson  and  to  points  in  Iowa,  on 
the  Des  Moines  river.  That  year  the  wagon  bridge  was  constructed  by 
N.  H.  Manning. 

COMMERCIAL  INTERESTS,    lSj2   AND   1882. 

Upon  the  first  anniversary  of  the  village  of  Windom,  the  following 
business  interests  were  represented : 

Attorneys — E.  Clark,  J.  G.  Redding  and  A.  D.  Perkins. 

Furniture  dealer — McMurtrey  &  Freeman. 

Flour  dealer — L.    Clark. 

General  dealers — D.  Patten  &  Co.,  M.  E.  Donohue,  Hutton  &  Wilson. 

Harness  shop — J.  Hoople. 

Hardware  and  implements — Espey  &  Lukens. 

Hotel — The  Windom,  the  Hyatt  House. 

Implement  dealer — Graves  &  Co. 

Jeweler — C.  A.  Ludden. 

Lumber  dealer — G.  L.  Loope,  St.  Paul  Lumber  Co.,  T.  W.  Gilleland, 
agent.  j 

Meat  market — H.  M.  Clark. 

Newspaper — The  Windom  Reporter,  S.  and  E.  C.  Huntington,  editors. 

Xursery — E.  B.  Jordan,  agent. 

Physician — Dr.  A.  Smith. 

Wagonmaker — E.  Morton. 

In  a  period  of  ten  years  the  village  grew  considerably,  as  is  evidenced 
by  the  business  directory  of  1882: 

Attorneys — A.  D.  Perkins,  Redding  &  Laing. 

Agricultural  implements — B.  W.  May,  S.  S.  &  A.  W.  Johnson. 

Blacksmith  shops — P.  A.  Ruhberg,  John  Svenson,  Sherwood  &  Hubbel, 
J.  McCurtrey. 

Bank      I 'auk  of  Windom. 

Druggists— D.  Patten  &  Co.,  Tilford  &  Klock,  A.  Quevli. 

Flour  and  feed  dealers — S.  S.  &  A.  W.  Johnson,  LeTourneau  &  Gillam. 

Furniture  dealers — Mrs.  L.  D.  Smith,  Jenness  Bros. 

I  ,<  mini  dr.ilers — John  Hutton,  R.  R.  Jenness,  P.  Seeger,  A.  Quevli,  E. 
&  S.  Sevaton. 

Harness  shop — J.  A.  Hoople. 

Hotels— The   Clark    House,    owned   by   J.    Clark;   Windom   Hotel,    M. 


COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  291 

Grimes,  proprietor ;  The  Hyatt  House,  W.  W.  Barlow,  proprietor ;  City  Hotel, 
John  Nolan,   proprietor. 

Hardware  dealers — R.  E.  McGregor,  William  Besser. 

Hay  pressers — J.  H.  Clark,  Paul  Seeger,  J.  G.  Redding,  Clark  &  May. 

Jeweler — C.  A.  Ludden. 

Lime  and  fuel  dealer — George  Besser. 

Livery — James  Hanton,  Gabriel  Oleson. 

Lumber  dealer — J.  H.  Clark. 

Meat  Markets— H.  M.  Clark,  Nason  &  Halter. 

Millinery  shops — Mrs.   H.   S.  Ellis,  Mrs.  LeTourneau. 

Mills — Windom  Mill,  owners  Collins  &  Drake;  Seeker's  Custom  Mill. 

Machine  shop — Novelty  works,  owned  by  L.  Clark. 

Physicians — C.  A.  Greene,  J.  H.  Til  ford,  S.  D.  Allen. 

Repair  shop — H.   C.   Gillam. 

Restaurant — Mrs.  A.  H.  Bosworth. 

Real  estate  dealers — Huntington  &  Perkins,  Redding  &  Laing. 

Sorghum  refinery — B.  W.  May. 

Wagon  shop — YV.  B.  Cook. 

In  1882  the  village  had  seven  hundred  inhabitants,  two  neat  little 
churches,  Methodist  and  Episcopal,  and  a  Presbyterian  church  under  con- 
struction. 

WINDOM    POSTOFFICE. 

Windom  postoffice  was  established  in  1871  and  up  to  this  date  there 
have  been  no  irregularities  or  robberies  in  the  postoffice  here.  The  receipts  of 
the  office,  not  including  money  order  transactions,  during  the  last  fiscal  year 
ending  July  1,  19 16,  were  $10,282.27. 

Live  rural  free  delivery  routes  extend  out  from  Windom  into  the  sur- 
rounding country.  The  following  is  a  list  of  the  postmasters  who  have 
served  since  the  establishment  of  the  Windom  postoffice:  S.  M.  Espey,  H.  A. 
Cone,  S.  B.  Stedman,  Joseph  McMurtrey,  George  E.  LeTourneau,  M.  T. 
DeWolf,  A.  J.  DeWolf,  H.  E.  Hanson,  G.  E.  LeTourneau,  present  postmaster. 
These  names  are  given  in  the  order  in  which  the  postmasters  have  served, 
nine  in  all,  making  the  average  term  held  by  the  several  postmasters,  five 
years.  These  men  have  been  fairly  representative  citizens  of  the  place  and 
have  sought  to  serve  the  patrons  faithfully  and  well. 


292  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

MUNICIPAL   HISTORY. 

Windom  was  separated  from  Great  Bend  township  and  incorporated  as 
a  village  in  the  spring  of  1875.  Emory  Clark,  attorney,  was  elected  the  first 
president  and  C.  H.  Smith,  recorder;  the  trustees  were,  M.  Grimes,  L.  D. 
Smith,  J.  N.  McGregor.  The  first  ordinance  was  passed  by  the  council  on 
April  15,  1875,  and  related  to  the  selling  and  bartering  of  intoxicating 
liquors  within  the  village. 

Among  the  presidents  who  have  served  the  village  have  been :  Emory 
Clark,  John  Clark.  S.  M.  Espey,  A.  W.  Annes,  John  Hutton,  M.  T.  DeYYolf, 
C.  W.  Gillam,  W.  A.  Smith,  E.  H.  Klock,  Jens  Anderson,  L.  Sogge  and 
Gustav  Miller. 

RE-INCORPORATION. 

On  September  9,  1884,  an  election  was  held  to  determine  whether  the 
village  should  remain  under  the  original  charter  or  reorganize  under  the 
provisions  of  the  law  of  1883.  The  reasons  for  this  action  on  the  part  of 
the  council  were  the  doubts  in  regard  to  the  construction  of  the  charter, 
which  had  been  amended  and  so  mutilated  by  the  insertion  of  an  amendment 
in  the  wrong  place  as  to  make  it  almost  impossible  to  construe  it  at  all,  thus 
leaving  the  city  with  a  form  of  a  charter  which  might  have  been  good,  but 
under  which  it  was  unsafe  to  proceed  further.  The  trouble  was  discovered 
at  the  time  of  the  YVoolstencroft  prosecution  in  1882,  but  it  was  not  until 
1884  that  the  charter  began  to  show  lack  of  value  in  the  prosecution  then 
pending.  It  was  thought  by  able  counsel  that  the  village  had  no  right  to 
prosecute  for  an  offense  against  the  ordinances  and  the  opinion  involved  so 
much  doubt  that  the  council  thought  it  wise  to  incorporate  under  the  general 
laws  rathei  than  take  a  chance  of  testing  the  old  charter  in  the  courts,  with 
little  hope  of  success.  The  result  of  the  election  uphold  the  opinion  of  the 
council,  the  proposition  carrying  by  a  vote  of  sixty-six  to  thirty-nine.  The 
first  officers  under  the  new  incorporation  were:  A.  D.  Perkins,  president: 
C.  I;.  Warren,  recorder;  trustees.  C.  A.  Ludden,  A.  W.  Johnson  and  John 
Hutton. 

In  mil)  the  town  was  again  re-incorporated  and  this  time  with  the  fol- 
lowing officers:  Gustav  Mullcr,  president;  O.  E.  Elness,  J.  O.  Thompson 
and  T.  A.   Perkins,  trustees;  P.  S.  Redding,  clerk. 

The  present  indebtedness  of  the  town  is  forty-live  thousand  dollars. 
An  electric  light  system  was  installed  in  1915  and  1916  at  a  cost  of  twenty- 


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COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  J.)} 

six  thousand  dollars  and  a  great  amount  of  money  has  been  expended  on 
street  improvement,  for  which  the  town  has  every  reason  to  be  proud.  In  the 
way  of  fire  protection,  the  city  depends  upon  direct  pressure  ami  is  equipped 
with  two  hose  carts,  one  hook  and  ladder  wagon,  one  thousand  feet  of  fire 
hose  and  a  volunteer  fire  company  of  twenty-five  men. 

In  the  way  of  parks,  the  town  has  two,  well  provided  with  shade  trees 
and  nicely  kept. 

THE  WATERWORKS. 

The  water  suply  for  the  town  of  Windom  up  to  early  in  the  year  1913 
was  from  a  well,  generally  supposed  to  be  two  hundred  and  eighty  feet  deep. 
In  addition  to  this  deep  well,  were  a  couple  of  small  points  feeding  into  the 
bottom  of  a  large  pumping  reservoir  from  a  sixty-five-foot  vein. 

The  deep  well  pumping  outfit  had  become  stopped  up  in  some  manner 
and  all  efforts  to  dislodge  the  obstruction  or  get  hold  of  it  failed.  It  was 
decided  to  procure  a  deep  well  drilling  outfit  and  put  down  a  twelve-inch 
pipe  and  point  in  the  reservoir  where  the  small  points  were  feeding  into  the 
bottom.  A  contract  was  entered  into  with  the  J.  F.  McCarthy  Company,  of 
Minneapolis,  to  do  the  work.  A  twelve-inch  pipe  and  a  point  or  strainer  was 
put  down  to  the  sixty-five  foot  vein,  with  the  result  that  an  additional  supply 
"i  water  was  secured,  but  not  enough  to  supply  the  demands. 

While  the  well  outfit  was  still  on  the  grounds,  it  was  decided  to  try  and 
remove  the  obstruction  in  the  deep  well.  When  the  obstruction  was  en- 
countered the  drillers  could  not  drill  through  it  faster  than  six  to  eight  inches 
in  two  days  and  they  could  not  pull  the  old  pipe  and  get  to  the  strainer.  The 
deep  well  was  abandoned. 

The  supposition  prevailed  that  another  twelve-inch  pipe  to  the  sixty-five 
foot  water  vein  might  supply  enough  water  to  make  another  storage  reser- 
voir and  thus  get  a  sufficient  supply  without  going  to  the  expense  of  another 
deep  well.  The  drilling  machine  was  moved  to  the  west  side  of  the  power 
house  and  a  twelve-inch  pipe  put  down.  The  water  vein  was  very  shallow 
and  so  full  of  fine  sand  that  its  use  was  almost  out  of  the  question.  A  test 
was  made  and,  at  the  very  best,  the  flow  was  only  eighty-five  to  ninety  gal- 
lons per  minute.  The  old  deep  well  pump  was  set  up  over  this  well  and 
pumped  occasionally  to  help  out  the  reservoir  supply  on  the  easl  side. 

On  the  8th  of  June,  1914,  the  council  decided  to  put  down  another  deep 
well  and  advertised  for  bids.  The  J.  F.  McCarthy  Company  were  the  suc- 
cessful bidders,  the  price  being  six  dollars  per  foot,  tin-  town  to  furnish  the 
fuel   for  the  engine  and  they  to  pay  all  other  expenses.     Work  was  com- 


294  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

menced  on  July  13,  1914.  The  well  when  completed  consisted  of  a  twelve- 
inch  hole  to  the  depth  of  two  hundred  and  ninety-one  feet  from  the  surface 
of  the  ground. 

The  pipe  used  was  standard  well  pipe,  forty-nine  pounds  to  the  foot. 
The  well  is  equipped  with  twenty  feet  of  No.  12  Johnson  strainer  in  two 
pieces,  six  and  fourteen  feet  long  respectively.  This  screen  sets  in  about  a 
foot  of  clay  on  the  bottom  of  the  well;  a  course  of  gravel  strata  of  nearly 
nine  feet  above  that  and  another  strata  of  gravel  about  six  feet  above  that. 
This  gives  the  well  about  fifteen  feet  of  gravel  on  the  strainer.  As  a  test, 
the  well  was  pumped  twenty-three  hours  continuously,  from  ten  o'clock  in  the 
morning,  September  4,  to  nine  o'clock  in  the  morning,  September  5.  This 
test  developed  over  two  hundred  and  twenty  gallons  per  minute  and  seemed 
to  improve  as  the  pumping  continued. 

WINDOM    LIBRARY. 

The  Windom  Library  Association  was  organized  in  November,  1883. 
At  the  first  meeting,  which  was  held  in  the  school  house,  G.  M.  Laing  was 
chosen  temporary  chairman  and  H.  J.  Keith,  secretary.  The  meeting  pro- 
ceeded to  perfect  an  organization  which  resulted  as  follow:  Doctor  Tilford, 
president;  Mrs.  LeTourneau.  vice-president;  Mrs.  Huntington,  secretary; 
Mr.  Perkins,  treasurer;  Mr.  Espey.  librarian.  The  object  of  the  organization 
was  t<>  advance  the  mental  and  moral,  interests  of  Windom  and  the  surround- 
ing community.  Any  person  could  become  a  member  of  the  organization 
upon  the  payment  of  two  dollars  or  the  contributing  of  five  dollars  worth  of 
books.  A  ticket  of  membership  could  be  used  by  any  member  of  the  family. 
For  non-subscribers  a  nominal  fee  of  ten  cents  was  charged  for  the  use  of  a 
book. 

The  state  of  Minnesota  has  made  it  possible  for  all  towns  and  communi- 
ties that  cannot  support  a  library  to  make  use  of  the  traveling  state  library. 
It  was  really  by  this  means  that  the  present  library  was  started. 

The  Tourist  Club  first  made  it  possible  to  secure  the  traveling  library  of 
fifty  volumes  and  had  their  headquarters  in  the  directors'  room  of  what  is 
now  the  Farmers  State  Bank.  After  two  or  three  years  of  successful  opera- 
tion, it  was  requested  of  the  club  that  they  should  take  over  the  subscription 
library  of  the  town,  consisting  of  three  hundred  and  fifty  volumes.  This 
was  accomplished  and  a  room  was  given  them  in  the  basement  of  the  court 
house. 

At  present  the  library  consists  of  one  thousand  one  hundred  volumes  and 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  295 

two  traveling  state  libraries,  one  of  which  is  the  juvenile.  Seventy-five  books 
of  general  literature  belonging  to  the  state  are  in  the  library  all  the  time. 
Three  thousand  five  hundred  books  are  loaned  annually.  In  the  way  of  maga- 
zines and  papers  nothing  is  taken  but  the  Book  Review. 

The  means  of  support  is  the  one  big  question  in  connection  with  an 
institution  of  this  kind.  As  the  books  are  loaned  free  of  charge  to  anyone 
in  the  county,  little  is  derived  from  this  source  except  in  the  way  of  fines, 
which  amounts  to  about  fifteen  dollars  per  year.  In  order  that  expenses  may 
be  kept  at  a  minimum,  members  of  the  Tourist  Club  act  as  librarian,  serving 
in  alphabetical  order.  The  city  council  appropriates  the  small  sum  of  fifty 
dollars  annually  and  the  club  a  sum  equal  to  about  half  the  amount.  The 
library  is  kept  open  only  on  Saturday  afternoons. 

True,  it  can  readily  be  seen  that  the  library  is  being  kept  alive  with  the 
fond  hope  that  in  the  near  future  it  may  receive  the  support  from  the  town 
and  county  to  which  it  is  rightfully  entitled. 

FERRY. 

In  April.  1881,  rain  and  melting  snow  occasioned  a  rapid  rise  in  all  the 
rivers  with  the  result  that  the  railroad  and  wagon  bridges  in  Windom  were 
washed  out.  The  loss  of  the  wagon  bridge  made  immediate  action  necessary 
for  a  means  of  crossing  the  river  until  a  new  bridge  could  be  built.  Private 
boats  were  put  into  use  for  a  day  or  two  and  twenty-five  cents  charged  for 
the  carrying  of  passengers  across.  The  village  council  deeming  that  suitable 
means  and  safety  should  be  provided  for  the  convenience  of  the  public,  at 
once  decided  to  operate  a  rope  ferry,  together  with  a  small  boat,  first  as  a 
matter  of  convenience  to  the  public  and,  second,  to  protect  them  from  im- 
position. Failing  to  find  private  parties  ready  to  engage  in  the  enterprise, 
council  began  work  upon  the  boats.  In  a  day  or  two  a  skiff  was  put  on  for 
immediate  use,  which  served  well  for  the  removal  of  freight  and  passengers 
until  a  larger  boat  could  be  built.  But  the  large  boat  could  not  be  used  until 
eight  hundred  feet  of  one  and  one-half  inch  rope  was  secured.  About  t\\<> 
hundred  dollars  were  expended,  besides  paying  a  man  two  dollars  per  day 
for  operating  the  ferry. 

To  meet  the  outlay,  the  council  established  the  following  schedule  of 
rates:  Footmen,  ten  cents  for  round  trip:  man  and  horse,  ten  cents  each  way, 
fifteen  cents  a  round  trip;  cattle,  five  cents  each;  teams,  one  way,  twenty 
cent>;  both  ways,  twenty-five  cents;  single  horse  and  carriage,  fifteen  and 
twenty  cents;  school  children,  free;  tickets  for  foot  passengers,  in  pa 
of  twenty-five  and  upwards,  half  price. 


296  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

THE   FIRST   ELEVATOR. 

In  August,  1873,  D.  Patten  &  Co.  began  the  erection  of  a  grain  elevator, 
the  first  one  to  be  built  on  the  Sioux  City  &  St.  Paul  railroad,  with  a  capacity 
of  fifteen  thousand  bushels.  The  firm  commenced  buying  grain  in  1871  in  a 
little  warehouse  on  the  side  track  between  Eighth  and  Ninth  streets.  Soon 
the  capacity  of  this  structure  became  too  small  and  in  1872  the  firm  con- 
structed another  warehouse  between  Ninth  and  Tenth  streets,  and  finally  the 
increased  amount  of  business  led  to  the  construction  of  the  elevator. 

THE    RUSE    HOSPITAL. 

The  Ruse  hospital  was  started  by  Mrs.  A.  Ruse  in  1906  and  has  earned 
quite  a  reputation  as  a  place  of  exact  medical  science  and  courteous  treat- 
ment. All  kinds  of  surgical  operations  and  medical  treatments  are  con- 
ducted by  the  physicians  in  charge,  namely,  Doctors  Sogge,  Dudley  and 
Weiser.  Most  of  the  time  three  nurses  are  employed  who  have  in  their  care 
about  two  hundred  patients  annually. 

CIGAR  FACTORY. 

The  cigar  factory  No.  194,  owned  and  operated  by  O.  S.  Skillingstad, 
was  started  in  1905  by  the  present  owner  and  since  that  time  has  enjoyed  a 
most  profitable  business.  Mr.  Skillingstad  manufactures  several  different 
brands.  The  high  quality  and  satisfaction  of  his  goods  is  evidenced  by  the 
fact  that  the  smokers  of  the  town  of  Windom  consume  nearly  his  entire  out- 
put, which  averages  about  one  hundred  thousand  annually. 

WINDOM    ICE   CREAM    FACTORY. 

Probably  but  few  Windom  people  realize  that  they  have  a  most  flourish- 
ing little  manufacturing  plant  in  their  midst  in  the  Windom  Tee  Cream  Fac- 
tory. 11.  I-'..  Makes,  the  owner  and  proprietor  of  the  ice  cream  factory  and 
the  creamery  in  connection,  removed  here  from  Bingham  Lake  in  the  fall  of 
1915,  and  his  coming  brought  with  it  the  removal  of  the  ice  cream  plant  from 
that  place.  Mr.  Hakes  has  a  most  enviable  reputation  as  a  producer  of  pure 
ice  cream,  and  the  high  quality  of  goods  he  puts  out  keeps  spreading  the 
sale  of  his  products.  He  has  the  most  improved  machinery  for  the  manu- 
facturing of  ice  cream  and  he  is  able  to  turn  out  several  hundred  gallons  of 


NINTH   STREET.   WINDOM. 


SOLDIERS'   MONUMENT,   WINDOM. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  297 

the  cooling  cream  a  day.  Every  train  out  of  Windom  carries  it  in  large 
quantities.  Besides  Windom,  he  supplies  every  town  on  the  Currie  branch, 
as  well  as  supplying  dealers  at  Mountain  Lake,  St.  James.  Heron  Lake, 
Sibley,  Iowa;  Slayton.  Lake  Nelson,  Brewster,  Adrian  and  other  places.  At 
the  present  time  Mr.  Hakes  employs  four  people  in  the  ice  cream  factory 
and  on  the  milk  and  cream  routes  which  he  also  owns. 

THE   FLOURING   MILLS. 

The  flouring  mill  is  one  of  Windom's  prides.  The  mill  was  built  by 
E.  F.  Drake  and  Samuel  Collins  in  1878.  The  first  mill  dam  was  con- 
structed in  1878  just  opposite  the  mill.  For  some  reason  or  other  this  dam 
proved  very  inadequate  and  was  constantly  washing  out  and  in  need  of  re- 
pair. The  present  dam  was  constructed  in  the  summer  and  fall  of  1885.  The 
dam  is  one  hundred  and  twenty-five  feet  long  and  forty  feet  wide  at  the  tup, 
giving  a  fall  of  ten  feet.  It  was  constructed  of  brush,  hay  and  gravel  and  is 
known  as  Bell's  patent.  The  system  was  successfully  used  by  Captain  Eads 
in  his  jetty  work  at  the  mouth  of  the  Mississippi  river.  This  dam  is  located 
about  eighty  rods  below  the  wagon  bridge  and  about  twenty  rods  below  the 
bridge  is  the  mill  race  which  leads  to  the  Hume,  which  is  seventy  feet  long  ami 
fourteen  feet  square. 

Water  power  alone  was  employed  until  1882,  when  steam  power  was 
added,  to  be  used  when  the  water  in  the  Des  Moines  river  was  too  low  to 
furnish  the  power  required.  In  1882  Drake  became  the  sole  owner  and  con- 
tinued to  operate  the  mill  until  1902,  when  T.  C.  Collins  acquired  the  plant 
and  continued  to  run  it  until  his  death,  in  October,  1914.  In  1906  the  firm 
became  known  as  T.  C.  Collins  &  Son  and  since  the  father's  death  the  son 
has  had  control  and  management  of  the  concern.  Thus  three  generations  of 
Collins  have  had  to  do  with  the  flour-making  industry  of  Windom. 

The  daily  capacity  of  the  mill  is  <>ne  hundred  and  fifty  barrels  and  their 
well-known  brands  of  flour  have  ready  sale  within  a  radius  of  one  hundred 
miles.  Another  article  of  merit  that  is  here  manufactured  is  a  breakfast 
food. 

The  Windom  Wagon  Factory  was  organized  January  10,  1899,  with  a 
capital  stock  of  live  thousand  dollars.  The  officers  in  1901  were,  W.  \. 
Smith,  president;  C.  W.  Cillam,  secretary  and  treasurer;  ( ).  S.  Thompson, 
general  manager.  During  the  tir^t  two  year-  <>f  operation  this  company 
built  and  placed  on  the  market  fifty  splendid  wagons. 


298  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 


TILE  FACTORY. 

The  tile  factory  owned  by  Walter  Cowan  lias  been  in  existence  for 
many  years,  but  the  exact  date  of  its  beginning  cannot  be  obtained.  Air. 
Cowan  has  owned  the  factory  for  several  years  and  has  manufactured  many 
thousands  of  tile.  Since  the  farmers  are  beginning  to  realize  the  necessity  of 
tiling,  Mr.  Cowan  can  hardly  supply  the  demand.  During  the  summer 
months  he  gives  employment  to  several  men  and  it  may  be  said  that  through 
the  influence  of  the  factory  much  business  is  brought  to  Windom  that  other- 
wise would  go  elsewhere. 

THE  WINDOM   MANUFACTURING  COMPANY. 

The  Windom  Manufacturing  Company  was  one  of  the  early  industries 
of  Windom.  It  served  well  its  day  of  usefulness,  when  flax  was  raised  on 
the  broad  prairies  of  southwestern  Minnesota.  About  1892-3  W.  A.  Turner 
established  a  large  tow-mill  at  Windom.  He  had  a  large  building  and  dry 
rooms  in  which  the  raw  material  was  dried  before  entering  further  into  the 
mill.  He  had  a  fifty-eight-horse-power  engine  to  propel  his  machinery.  He 
had  to  run  the  flax  straw  through  his  mill  twice  after  it  was  taken  from  the 
dry  room,  which  was  kept  at  a  temperature  of  two  hundred  and  twenty 
degrees,  with  a  drying  capacity  of  one  ton  per  hour.  His  mill  had  a  capacity 
of  six  tons  a  day. 

This  concern  also  started  in  to  manufacture  a  new  kind  of  self-feeders 
for  threshing  machines,  flax  breaks  and  rice  machines.  After  the  growth  of 
flax  was  discontinued  in  this  section  of  the  country,  this  factory  had  to 
abandon  its  enterprise,  but,  while  running,  paid  out  eight  thousand  dollars  a 
year  lor  tlax  straw  to  the  surrounding  farmers. 

LANDMARK    REMOVED. 

The  folowing  item  is  taken  from  the  Window,  Reporter  of  October  28, 
[884:  "One  by  one  the  old  landmarks  are  being  replaced  by  better  and 
more  substantial  buildings.  The  old  house  on  the  corner  of  Third  and  Tenth 
streets,  erected  in  1871  by  A.  Huddleson  and  sou,  and  occupied  as  a  bakery 
and  residence,  was  one  of  the  first  buildings  in  Windom  and  the  one  in  which 
the  first  child  was  born  in  the  village  and  named  William  Wind,  mi  Huddle- 
son.  The  building  soon  after  completion  was  vacated  by  Mr.  Huddleson, 
who  removed  to  Wisconsin,  and  was  occupied  through  the  winter  of  1871- 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  299 

1872  by  E.  Clark.  In  the  spring  of  1872  the  house  and  lot  was  bought  by 
S.  S.  Johnson,  who  resided  there  for  several  years  using  the  lower  tloor  for 
flour,  feed  and  pumps." 

THE  OLD  "LOCK-UP." 

In  1885  the  village  of  Windom  had  a  "lock-up,"  twelve  by  fourteen  feet, 
built  of  two-by-four  dimension  stuff  and  painted  on  the  outside.  It  contained 
two  cells,  seven  by  twelve  feet,  and  two  iron-barred  windows,  twelve  by 
thirty  inches,  six  feet  from  the  floor.  At  that  date  it  was  very  poorly  kept, 
inhabited  by  many  rats  and  mice  and  naturally  very  unsanitary.  For  a  time 
it  was  used  by  both  county  and  village,  but  subsequently  it  was  condemned 
by  the  authorities. 

windom's  commercial  interests  in  1916. 

In  the  summer  of  1916  the  business  and  professional  interests  of  the  city 
of  Windom  were  as  follow  : 

Auto-garage— John  Moore,    Silliman   Brothers,   Frank   Pope. 

Attorneys — Wilson  Borst,   Newton   L.   Glover,   P.   S.   Redding. 

Banks — Farmers  State,  First  National  and  Windom  National  banks. 

Barber  shops — Newell  P.  Freeman,  Ff.  C.  Hamilton  and  Richard  S. 
Reese. 

Blacksmith  shops — John  Loken  &  Son,  Smestad  &  Grotte  and  Ole  S. 
Thompson. 

Bakeries — J.  M.  Eibright  and  the  Wind.. m  Bakery. 

Clothing  stores— Gustav  Mueller  and  <  i.  A.  Peterson. 

Cigar  manufacturer — O.  S.  Skillingstad. 

Creamery — Windom   Creamery  Company. 

Creamery  stations — J.  E.  Jenness  and  E.  E.  Berry  &  Son. 

Confectioneries — John  F.  Hinkley,  Nick  llules,  Thomas  Hules,  Charles 
J.  Koob. 

Draftsman — William  A.  Peterson. 

Druggists — Andrew  A.  Quevli,  Frank  Stedman. 

Ditch  contractors — Samogge  &   Redding. 

Dray  lines— William  Belton,  W.   E.    Bates. 

Dentists— John  A.  Adamson,  Henry  Beise  and  C.  II.  Vroman. 

Elevators — Co-operative  Elevator  <  ompany,  St.  John'-,  Elevator  Com- 
pany and  G.    W.   Gillam. 

Furniture  dealers — James  A.  Crane,   E.   E.   Berry  &  Son. 


300  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

Feed  store — John  Loken. 

Feed  Barns — Thomas  Chatham,  Miller  Brothers. 

Fuel  dealers — Walter  J.  Johnson,  Ole  Grotte  and  the  lumber  companies 

Grocers— J.  M.  Ebright  &  Son,  Headley  &  Miller. 

General  contractors — Christopherson  &  Westgard,   Carl   Peterson. 

General  dealers — Michael  L.  Fisch,  Foss  Mercantile  Company,  A.  Quevli 
&Co. 

Hotels — The  Park,  Commercial. 

Harness  shops — James  Devlin  and  A.  D.  Nelson. 

Hardware  dealers — Earl  Marshall  &  Son,  C.  Nelson  &  Co.,  Albert 
Wynne. 

Implement  dealers — Jens  Anderson,  Ole  Elvrum. 

Ice  dealer — Yerkee  Brothers. 

Jewelers — Arthur  B.   Cone,  Charles  W.  Lowery. 

Lumber  dealers — Grosjean  &  Lampert  Lumber  Company,  Struck-Sher- 
win  Lumber  Company,  and  the  Tuthill  Lumber  Company. 

Liveries  (horse) — L.  T.  Chatham,  J.  C.  Church. 

Mill— Richard   Collins. 

Music  store — Edward  E.  Gillam. 

Moving  picture  show — "The  Wonderland." 

Milliners — T.   Kittleson,  Mrs.  Josephine  Lowery. 

Meat  markets— M.  S.  Potter,  Wieks  &  Burrill. 

Merchant  tailors — Xels  Anderson,  John  Hoffman. 

Newspapers — The  Cottonwood  County  Citizen,  The  Windom  Reporter. 

Notions — Orris  M.  Garrett,  Windom  Variety  Store,  S.  L.   Rogers. 

Physicians — Dr.  William  T.  DeCnater.  Dr.  Joseph  H.  Dudley,  Dr. 
Ludwig  Sogge,  Dr.  Frank  R.  Weiser,  Dr.  F.  C.  Griffith,  Doctor  Tegland. 

Photographer — Jesse  O.  Thompson. 

Produce  dealers — John  F.  Jenness,  Windom  Produce  Company,  T-  F. 
Reide. 

Restaurants — Minute  Cafe,  Frank  R.  Shaub,  J.  G.  Hinkley. 

Real  estate  dealers — Kettlewell  &  Jeffers,  Silliman  Brothers  Land  Com- 
pany, Ringkob-Peterson,  Sanger  Land  Company.  Marshall  Land  Company, 
Benjamin  A.  lone,  Andrew  Cowan,  George  F.  Robison,  Robinson  &  Potter, 
J.  T.  Johnson  Land  Company. 

Shoe  store — Ed.   Larson. 

Stock  buyers—  (bis  Swanholm,  Miller  Brothers,  M.  T.  DeWolf. 

Tile  works — W.  P.  Cowan. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  3OI 

Telephones — Windom  .Mutual,   X<  >rthwestern. 
Veterinaries — F.  E.  Judd.  John  Tyas. 

COMMERCIAL    CLUBS. 

In  February,  1908,  there  was  formed  in  Windom  a  Commercial  Club, 
with  officers  as  follow:  President,  W.  F.  Savage;  vice-president,  C.  W. 
Gillam;  secretary,  F.  G.  Dunnicliff;  treasurer,  John  T.  Johnson;  directors, 
W.  J.  Clark,  T.  C.  Collins,  M.  L.  Fisch.  Rooms  were  kept  open  over  the 
First  National  Bank  until  that  structure  was  burned.  The  membership  fee 
was  thirty  dollars. 

The  present  Commercial  Club  was  organized  on  March  4,  1914.  All 
phases  of  business  were  represented  at  the  meeting,  which  was  held  at  the 
o  >urt  house.  It  started  out  w:ith  seventy  members.  The  first  officers  were : 
President,  C.  W.  Gillam;  vice-president,  J.  O.  Thompson;  secretary.  L.  S. 
Churchill;  treasurer,  M.  L.  Fisch.  The  club  has  already  secured  main-  ad- 
vantages for  the  city  of  Windom.  The  present  month — August,  1916 — it 
has  secured  a  great  band  tournament,  representing  bands  from  St.  James, 
Currie,  Heron  Lake  and  other  neighboring  towns,  six  in  all. 

THE    TOURIST    CLUB. 

The  Tourist  Club  was  organized  in  October,  1896.  with  Mrs.  T.  C. 
Collins  as  president;  Mrs.  Wellington,  vice-president;  Mrs.  C.  A.  Greene, 
secretary;  Mrs.  Force,  treasurer.  The  club  derived  its  name  from  the  fact 
that  the  club  members  took  up  the  study  of  things  beyond  their  own  imme- 
diate realm  for  the  purpose  of  self -improvement.  The  membership  is  limited 
to  twenty-five.  The  club  carries  an  associate  membership,  members  of 
which  are  taken  from  the  active  list.  To  become  an  honorary  member  one 
must  have  been  an  active  member  fur  a  period  of  five  years.  At  present  there 
there  are  eleven  associate  members  and  four  honorary  members.  The  club 
meets  every  Monday  evening.  For  the  coming  year  the  club  begins  the  study 
of  the  "Romance  Cities  of  America"  and  "Problems  of  the  May." 

The  officers  for  the  coming  year  are  as  follows,  among  whom  are  .Mi 
Collins  and  Mrs.  Greene,  who  are  holding  the  same  offices  as  at    the  time 
of  organization:     President,   Mrs.  T.   C.   Collins;  first   vice-president,    Mi 
George  Robison;  second  vice-president,   Mr-,  (iilli.-;  corresponding  secretary. 
Mrs.    Harriet    Hunter;   recording   secretary.    Mis.    Greene;    treasurer,    Mi 
Strunk;  critic,  Mrs.  Chestnut;  assistant  critic.  Mrs.  Emor  Smestad. 


3<d2  cottonwood  and  watonwan  counties,  minn. 

woman's  literary  club. 

The  Woman's  Literary  Club  of  Windom  was  organized  on  June  27, 
1903,  with  Mrs.  C.  W.  Gillam  as  president.  The  club  has  studied  the  works 
and  literature  of  many  of  the  best  writers,  including  Shakespeare,  Marlowe 
and  many  others.  But  the  efforts  of  the  club  are  not  confined  wholly  to 
the  study  of  classic  art  and  literature,  but  also  home  problems  and  home 
economics. 

The  officers  elected  for  the  year  1916  are  as  follow:  Mrs.  Carpenter, 
president;  Mrs.  J.  T.  Johnson,  vice-president;  Mrs.  Scurr,  recording  secre- 
tary; Mrs.  A.  D.  Perkins,  corresponding  secretary;  Marie  Quevli,  treasurer; 
Mrs.  A.  D.  Perkins,  chairman  of  program  committee.  The  Mayview  course 
of  study  has  been  selected  for  the  coming  year's  work. 

WINDOM    PIONEERS. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  the  pioneers  who  helped  to  lay  well  the  founda- 
tion stones  of  the  sprightly  little  city  of  Windom:  W.  A.  Smith,  George 
F.  Robison,  William  Besser,  George  Miller,  O.  Elvrum,  D.  C.  Davis.  C.  A. 
Lowe,  C.  H.  Rupke,  H.  A.  Cone,  John  Hutton,  E.  Gillam,  James  Dolan, 
Frank  Stedman,  W.  B.  Williams,  George  E.  LeTourman,  C.  W.  Gillam, 
L.  J.  Robinson,  J.  F.  French,  Charles  B.  Pierce,  R.  H.  Reese.  W.  A.  Cook, 
E.  L.  Leonard.  M.  T.  De  Wolf,  E.  C.  Huntington,  T.  C.  Collins,  H.  M. 
Clark,  E.  Sevatson,  R.  R.  Jenness,  Will  Gillam,  S.  S.  Gillam,  J.  N.  McGregor, 
H.   Bosworth. 

windom's  greatest  fire. 

A  fifty-thousand-dollar  lire  visited  Windom  in  July,  1900.  It  com- 
menced about  noon,  with  a  high  northwest  wind.  There  was  but  little  water 
in  the  tank  and  the  hose  owned  by  the  town  was  rotten  and  soon  found  to 
be  useless.  Not  an  ax  nor  any  implement  for  lire-lighting  was  to  be  found 
for  the  use  of  the  firemen.  It  was  believed  the  lire  bad  its  origin  in  the 
old  .Mason  barn  hay-loft,  back  of  the  Quevli  store.  When  it  was  known 
that  the  tire  laddies  could  do  nothing,  St.  James  and  1  leron  Lake  were  appealed 
to  for  aid.  The  railroad  gave  special  trains  to  bring  the  tire  companies 
from  these  places.  In  a  short  time  men  and  hose  came  from  St.  James  and 
in  less  than  thirty  minutes  from  the  time  of  call,  the  Heron  Lake  fire  com- 
pany was  landed  in  Windom.  Dick  Gage,  the  engineer  that  hurled  the  com- 
pany up  from  Heron  Lake,  made  the  run  in  an  incredibly  short  time.     On 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  3O3 

authority,  never  disputed,  he  made  the  twelve-mile  run  in  twelve  minutes 
and  unloaded  his  freight  at  the  Windom  depot.  The  St.  James  company 
made  their  run  in  thirty-one  minutes,  including  a  stop  at  Bingham  Lake. 
After  the  water  supply  was  found  giving  out,  the  Heron  Lake  engine  run 
to  the  Des  Moines  river,  but  it  was  found  they  could  not  force  the  water 
up  that  far,  so  when  the  Luverne  company  arrived  a  line  of  hose  was  estab- 
lished between  the  wagon  bridge  and  town,  but  again  it  was  found  that  the 
engines  were  not  making  steam  sufficient.  Then  a  steam  threshing  engine 
belonging  to  Matt  Miller  was  fired  and  run  to  the  scene  and  greatly  aided 
the  other  engines  in  pumping  water  sufficient  to  check  the  flames  somewhat. 
Coal  ran  out  and  a  special  was  sent  to  Heron  Lake  for  a  supply  from  the 
railroad  vards.  A  passenger  train  brought  a  hundred  laboring  railroaders 
from  Bingham  Lake,  and  more  were  tendered  if  needed.  These  were  sta- 
tioned all  over  the  southeast  part  of  Windom  with  pails  of  water  ready  to 
quench  any  fire  that  might  be  set  from  flying  cinders,  etc.  As  a  matter  of 
fact,  had  the  home  fire  company  been  encouraged  and  the  supply  of  water, 
so  near  at  hand,  been  looked  after  before  the  day  of  fire,  nearly  all  this 
heavy  loss  might  have  been  saved  Windom.  The  thanks  of  the  people  of 
the  place  to  the  kindness  of  the  railroad  company,  the  fire  companies  at  St. 
James,  Heron  Lake  and  Luverne,  are  even  to  this  late  day  being  expressed 
by  the  citizens  of  the  place. 

A.  Ouevli  was  the  heaviest  loser,  $17,000;  he  had  $2,000  insurance. 
Thurston  Bros,  had  $8,000  insurance  and  estimated  their  stock  at  $16,000. 
M.  D.  Gates  had  on  stock  about  $1,500  insurance  and,  all  told,  lost  about 
S5,ooo.  Johnson  &  Foss  had  $800  insurance  and  lost  about  as  much  more. 
Fish  Brothers  had  an  insurance  of  $2,500.  and  saved  most  of  their  stock. 
A.  Opperud  lost  the  building  in  which  Arthur  Cone  was  doing  business; 
this  was  worth  about  $2,000.  O.  Nason  had  $1,500  insurance  and  lost 
$2,000.  Olf  Erickson  had  some  loss  in  hi-  restaurant.  Dr.  Moen  lost  his 
library  and  many  valuable  surgical  instruments,  at  a  loss  of  $2,000.  George 
F.  Robison,  L.  J.  Robinson  and  Dr.  De  Coater,  all  occupants  of  the  Robi- 
son  &  Robinson  building,  Inst  about  $2,000.  The  above  named  losses  only 
include  the  business  places  and  there  was,  besides  these  losses,  several  small 
buildings  and  barns,  easily  totalling  a  thousand  dollars  more. 

OTHER   CONFLAGRATIONS. 

On  March  1.  1885,  a  fire  destroyed  the  store  of  R.  R.  Jenness,  occupied 
by  X.  Freeman  as  a  general  store.  Loss,  $8,000;  insured  for  part  of  the 
amount. 


304  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINX. 

On  February  1,  1910,  the  First  National  Bank  building,  with  most  of 
its  contents,  was  destroyed  by  fire,  which  originated  in  the  basement.  The 
first  floor  was  occupied  by  the  bank  and  the  large  store  of  M.  L.  Fisch. 
Mr.  Fisch  was  the  heaviest  loser,  with  a  loss  of  $25,000;  insured  for  $15,000. 
The  bank  lost  $16,000  on  building  and  $3,500  on  fixtures;  insured  for 
$10,000. 

In  November,  1910,  another  fire  burned  the  Farmers'  Elevator,  built 
in  1S85,  at  a  cost  of  $5,000,  and  owned  by  E.  Sevatson.  It  was  insured 
for  $4,000.     Four  thousand  bushels  of  wheat  was  lost. 


CHAPTER  XVIII. 


REMINISCENCES. 


PIONEER    DAYS    IN    GREAT    BEND BLIZZARD    OF    1873. 

By    W.    A.    Peterson. 

During  the  summer  of  1872  the  officers  of  school  district  of  Great 
Bend  township,  erected  a  school  house  at  the  southeast  corner  of  section  6, 
the  second  school  house  built  in  the  county.  It  was  a  wooden  building  con- 
structed of  pine  lumber,  quite  a  pretentious  one  for  those  early  days;  the 
frame,  boards  or  "sheeting"  had  been  nailed;  over  this  was  a  covering  of 
building  paper  and  over  that  the  half  inch  siding;  the  roof  had  been  sheeted, 
papered  and  shingled,  and  there  they  had  stopped  for  want  of  funds  to  pur- 
chase more  material  and  the  building  was  not  finished  on  the  inside  at  all. 
Shutters  had  been  constructed  of  pine  flooring,  but  had  not  yet  been  hung 
nil  the  windows,  but  were  artistically  piled  in  one  corner  of  the  room.  The 
school  house  was  calculated  to  be  located  in  the  geographical  center  of  the 
"district"  and  was.  consequently,  as  is  often  the  case,  just  a  mile  from 
everybody. 

During  the  long  and  memorable  winter  of  1872-3,  the  school  was  being 
taught  by  John  E.  Teed,  one  of  the  young  homesteaders  and  pioneers  of 
the  "far  west."  The  school  consisted  of  about  twenty  scholars  of  all  ages, 
from  the  five-year-old — -just  mastering  the  intricacies  of  A,  B,  C, — to  young- 
men  and  women  of  sixteen  to  eighteen  years  of  age.  They  had  no  patent 
individual  desks  and  seats  fastened  to  the  floor,  no  elegant  blackboard,  smooth 
as  glass,  all  around  the  four  walls  of  the  room;  no  steam  or  furnace  heal  : 
no  elegant  and  comfortable  lavatories,  nor  in  fact  any  of  the  modern  improve- 
ment- and  conveniences  of  even  the  country  school  houses  of  nowadays. 

The  young  seekers  after  knowledge  .if  that  generation  of  a  half  century 
ago  had  to  be,  and  were,  content  with  the  plain  pine  benches  and  desks;  a 
very  small  wood-burning  stove  in  the  ('enter  of  the  room,  around  which  they 
huddled  on  a  cold  day,  burning  one  side  and  freezing  the  other  at  the  same 
time.  They  had  to  walk  at  least  a  mile  in  the  keen,  biting  cold  and  through 
(20) 


306  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

the  deep  snow  to  attend  school,  yet  there  were  very  few  cases  of  tardiness 
or  absence  that  winter  when  the  weather  was  so  that  the  youngsters  could 
get  out  at  all,  and  there  was  no  ironclad  rule  compelling  pupils  to  return 
home  and  lose  a  half  day  in  case  they  were  a  few  minutes  late,  to  act  as  an 
incentive  to  make  them  prompt. 

They  were  away  out  upon  the  wild  prairies  of  the  frontier  and  some  of 
them  were  well  aware  that  they  were  getting  to  an  age  where  if  they  did 
not  improve  the  opportunity  their,  education  would  most  likely  stop  short. 
They  were  very  glad  of  an  opportunity  to  attend  a  school  that,  primitive  as 
the  accommodations  were,  was  as  far  ahead  of  the  opportunities  enjoyed 
by  most  parents  in  their  youth,  as  their  school  house  was  behind  the  modern 
school  building,  with  all  its  paraphernalia,  and  many  of  the  middle  aged 
men  and  women  of  today  "graduated"  from  just  such  a  school  as  is  above 
described,  that  were  among  the  boy  and  girl  pioneers  of  the  great  West. 

The  morning  of  January  7,  1873,  was  a  wild,  warm,  damp,  foggy  morn- 
ing; such  a  mist  hung  over  the  prairie  that  it  was  almost  a  rain.  They 
started  for  school  that  morning  without  any  cold  weather  wraps;  there  was 
but  one  overcoat  in  the  house  that  day;  and  that  belonged  to  the  teacher, 
who  had  brought  it  from  necessity  rather  than  choice,  because  he  was  "board- 
ing around"  and  intended  going  to  a  new  place  that  night. 

The  pupils  assembled  at  the  school  house  as  merry  and  thoughtless  as 
any  children,  who,  if  they  only  knew  it,  are  then  spending  the  happiest  hours 
of  their  lives,  and  went  through  the  usual  routine  of  the  morning  lessons 
and  recitations.  The  lunch  pails  were  emptied  at  noon  and  they  were  play- 
ing some  games  in  the  west  end  of  the  room,  when  a  commotion  was  noted 
about  the  door,  and  that  three  or  four  children  were  apparently  hastily  pre- 
paring to  go  away.  On  inquiry  it  was  found  that  Mr.  I).  \Y.  Working  had 
come  with  his  team  and  was  hurriedly  urging  his  children  to  get  ready  to 
go  home. 

"What   is  the  matter,  Mr.  Working?"  someone  asked. 

"We  are  going  to  have  a  bad  storm  and  1  am  going  to  got  my  children 
home  as  soon  as  possible,"  was  his  reply,  as  he  hustled  them  into  the  sled 
and  drove  rapidly  away. 

Air.  VV.  had  hardly  got  away  from  the  school  house  door  when  there 
came  from  the  northwest  such  a  gale  of  wind  as  none  had  ever  beheld  before, 
and  I'll  take  my  oath  they  never  want  to  see  it  again. 

Il  struck  the  building  with  a  rush  and  roar,  with  such  violence  that  it 
rocked,  shook  and  trembled  like  a  distressed  ship  in  a  hurricane,  and  seemed 
as  though  determined  to  wrench  it  from  its  foundation,  rend  the  slender  frame 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  307 

asunder  and  hurl  the  building  with  its  living  human  freight  into  eternity. 
The  air  was  completely  filled  with  fine,  drifting,  whirling  particles  of  snow,  as 
fine  as  the  minutest  particles  of  sand  in  a  Sahara  desert  sand  storm,  render- 
ing it  impossible  to  see  a  foot  toward  the  storm,  and  only  a  few  feet  in  any 
direction.  Those  who  have  ever  witnessed  a  northwestern  blizzard  can  form 
no  idea  of  it,  and  it  is  not  to  be  wondered  that  they  regard  the  description 
given  by  the  westerners  of  such  storms  as  exaggerations,  as  "fish  stories," 
but  any  old  plainsman  will  sustain  the  statement  that  they  cannot  be  exag- 
gerated; that  the  half  of  the  truth  has  not.  and  never  will,  he  told  regarding 
them. 

The  storm  began  about  half  past  twelve  o'clock  Tuesday  afternoon,  and 
lasted  without  cessation  until  Thursday  night  at  midnight.  Oh.  how  that 
terrible  wind  did  shriek  and  howl,  whistle,  and  roar,  all  day  and  night  Wed- 
nesday and  all  day  and  half  the  night  Thursday,  like  the  unchained  demons 
of  the  bottomless  pit  turned  loose,  howling  in  insane  demonical  rage  upon 
the  bleak  prairie,  and  at  last  moaning  itself  to  sleep — its  fury  spent — as 
though  singing  a  sad  requiem  for  the  victims  of  the  elements  whose  bodies 
lay  stark  and  stiff  at  intervals  over  the  plain,   frozen  to  death. 

The  scholars  huddled  together,  seemingly  stupified  by  the  giant  power 
of  the  fearful  element  raging  without;  gazing  speechless  with  terror  into 
the  blanched  faces  of  their  companions,  whose  bloodless  lips  and  wild  eyes 
told  of  the  thoughts  of  the  older  ones,  inspired  by  the  perilous  predicament 
they  were  in.  The  wind  was  screeching  and  screaming  around  the  building, 
which  creaked  and  groaned  like  a  living  thing,  searching  out  every  little  crack, 
nail  or  knot  hole,  and  sifting  the  fine  particles  of  snow  into  the  room;  on  one 
pane  of  glass,  in  the  northwest  window,  near  the  center  of  the  pane,  a  hunch 
of  snow  formed  in  a  fantastic  wreath,  forced  through  a  hole  made  by  some 
flaw  in  the  glass,  so  tiny  that  it  could  not  be  detected  with  the  naked  eye. 

The  diminutive  stove  had  never  been  large  enough  to  furnish  sufficient 
heat  for  that  great  shell  of  a  room  even  in  fair  and  comparatively  warm 
weather,  and  as  night  approached  the  room  began  to  grow  cold  and  green 
willow  wood,  the  largest  of  the  sticks  being  as  small  as  a  man's  forearm, 
and  now  it  was  discovered  that  there  was  hut  a  quarter  of  a  cord  left;  not 
near  enough  to  last  through  the  night,  even  of  that  miserable  fuel.  There 
was  nothing  within  a  mile  of  the  school  house,  and  the  situation  was  indeed 
perilous;  it  was  fully  realized  by  the  teacher  and  the  older  scholars.  As 
night  approached  and  it  became  colder  it  also  l>ecame  more  lonesome  and 
dreary.  They  took  the  shutters  and  placed  them  on  a  couple  of  benches  as 
near  the  stove  as  possible,  without  setting  fire  to  them;  placed  all  the  coats, 


308  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

shawls  and  wraps  that  were  available  on  them,  and  made  a  bed  in  which 
were  placed  the  ten  or  dozen  little  children,  who,  childlike,  soon  forgot  their 
homesickness  and  fright  in  the  blessed  balm  of  the  sweet  sleep  of  childhood. 

The  older  ones  employed  every  means  that  fertile  minds  could  suggest 
to  keep  sluggish  blood  in  motion  and  bodies  warm,  and  also  to  keep  their 
minds  diverted  from  the  gloomy  contemplation  of  the  peril.  They  were 
huddled  together  around  that  wretched  little  stove  and  sung  songs  and  told 
stories  by  the  twilight  of  the  fire  shining  through  the  open  front  door  of 
the  stove.  This  was  all  the  light,  but  by  its  uncertain  flicker  I  thought  I 
discovered  some  of  the  boys  and  girls  sitting  so  close  together  that  I  sus- 
picioned  that  the  boys  were  gallantly  trying  to  keep  the  girls  warm,  and 
cheer  and  support  them  by  putting  their  arms  around  them. 

The  long,  dismal  night  passed  away  at  last,  and  with  the  coming  of 
daylight  came  renewed  action;  the  youngsters  yawned,  stretched  and  awoke, 
gazing  stupidly  around  the  room  at  first,  trying  to  recall  where  they  were. 
Ellison  D.  Moers,  who  was  the  oldest  and  largest  boy  in  school,  announced 
his  intention  of  trying  to  go  to  the  house  of  Dr.  R.  N.  Sackett,  which  stood 
just  about  a  mile  to  the  northwest  of  the  school  house,  and  right  in  the  teeth 
of  the  gale,  to  get  some  relief  for  the  now  half  famished  little  ones.  It  was 
a  hazardous  undertaking;  one  requiring  a  clear  head,  a  steady  nerve,  and 
physical  endurance,  but  as  Ellison  possessed  these  requisites  and  was  deter- 
mined to  go,  he  was  bundled  up  in  all  the  wraps  they  had,  accompanied  him 
to  the  door  and  bid  him  good-bye  and  God-speed,  doubting  if  he  would  ever 
l>e  seen  alive  again. 

They  whiled  away  the  long,  lonesome,  tedious  hours  until  some  time 
about  noon,  when  they  heard  a  pounding  at  the  door,  and  upon  opening. 
two  "tosled"  snow  images  tumbled  into  the  room.  They  were  so  bundled 
up  and  covered  with  snow  that  it  was  not  known  who  they  were  at  first,  hut 
soon  found  that  they  were  the  schoolmate  returned,  accompanied  by  the 
doctor. 

They  had  brought  a  plentiful  supply  of  fond,  a  buttle  of  strong  tea  and 
a  sharp  ax.  They  fell  ravenously  upon  that  grub  and  slaked  their  thirst  with 
the  strong  tea.  After  resting  and  warming  the  doctor  decided  to  go  back 
home  and  try  to  get  his  team  to  the  school  house  and  take  the  stormbound 
scholar^  over  t<>  his  house;  and  so  he  set  out.  facing  the  terrific  wind,  accom- 
panied by  the  teacher,  and  about  four  o'clock  p.  m.,  they  returned  with  the 
team  and  packed  the  little  ones  in  the  bottom  of  the  sleigh  box  and  covered 
them  up  "head  and  ears"  with  the  blankets  and  robes.  Ellison  1).  Mooers 
and  the  teacher  did  not  go,  but  went  to  Ellison's  home,  which  was  something 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  309 

over  a  mile  southeast  of  the  school  house,  and  as  they  went  with  the  gale 
they  did  not  have  serious  trouble  in  reaching  the  house. 

I  then  lived  about  a  mile  and  a  quarter  to  the  southwest  of  the  school 
house  and  thought  I  could  go  home  all  right,  but  the  teacher  and  the  doctor 
refused  to  let  me  try  it,  and  so  I  went  with  the  other  scholars  to  the  doctor's 
house.  Harvey  Thompson  and  myself,  being  the  two  eldest  boys  in  the 
party,  had  curled  down  in  the  rear  end  of  the  sled  box  to  keep  out  of  the 
drifting  snow  and  cutting  sleet  as  much  as  possible,  as  we  were  both  very 
lightly  clothed  for  braving  such  a  blizzard. 

\\  e  had  gone  but  a  few  rods  when  the  team  was  stopped  and  the  doctor, 
turning  to  us,  said  in  a  frightful  tone:  "My  God,  boys,  I've  lost  the  track." 
Imagine,  if  you  can,  the  feeling  that  came  over  us  at  this  information.  Drop- 
ping ice  down  your  back  on  a  warm  day  is  luxury  compared  to  it.  We 
made  the  doctor  promise  to  keep  just  where  he  was  and  we  got  out  and  went 
down  on  our  knees  on  either  side  of  the  sled,  calling  to  each  other  inces- 
santly, so  as  not  to  lose  each  other  or  the  sled,  for  we  could  not  see  two 
feet  from  our  faces,  and  by  so  doing  one  of  us  found  the  track  and  got  the 
team  into  it.  From  that  time  on  Harvey  and  myself  kept  our  faces  out  over 
the  side  of  the  sled  and  within  eighteen  inches  of  the  ground,  watching  that 
faint  track  as  intensely  as  a  cat  would  watch  a  mouse.  The  team  left  it 
several  times  before  we  finally  reached  the  house,  but  one  of  us  would  imme- 
diately call  in  the  wind. 

We  got  to  the  house  and  as  soon  as  Mrs.  Sacket  could  get  a  warm  meal 
— the  first  we  had  since  Tuesday  morning — we  all  went  to  bed,  "three  in 
the  bed  and  two  in  the  middle,"  and  made  up  for  the  sleeplessness  of  the 
night  before.  On  Thursday  morning  the  wind  was  blowing  a  severe  gale,  but 
it  had  stopped  snowing  and  as  the  doctor  had  t<<  make  a  professional  visit, 
we  started  out  at  about  ten  o'clock  a.  m.  and  I  got  home  all  right.  Just  as 
we  left  the  school  house  I  went  back  to  the  blackboard  and  scribbled  a  message 
on  it,  telling  anyone  who  might  come  to  the  school  house  what  had  become 
of  the  pupils. 

Such  an  emergency  always  called  out  heroes  and  shows  the  stuff  men 
are  made  of.  This  was  no  exception  to  the  rule.  In  addition  to.  tin-  peril- 
ous and  heroic  journeys  of  Ellison  D.  Mooers',  I  >r.  R.  X.  Sackett  and  John  !•'. 
Teed,  one  more  that  was  entirely  disintei  I       d  \\;i     the  -poutancous  act 

of  a  true  man  with  a  heart  as  big  as  an  ox,  who  could  nol  rest  while  he 
knew  that  human  beings  and  especially  children,  were  in  peril,  deserves  more 
than  passing  mention. 

Orrin  Xason,   familiarly  known  to  many  as  "Tip,"  lived    ju  i   about  a 


3IO  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

mile  directly  west  of  the  school  house.  My  brother  and  Tip  had  been  caught 
in  Windom  on  Tuesday  afternoon  when  the  storm  began,  and  as  my  brother's 
wife  lay  almost  at  the  point  of  death  they  knew  that  they  must  go  home  if 
possible.  They  succeeded  after  a  perilous  journey  that  nearly  cost  them 
their  lives,  and  Tip  had  been  up  to  my  house  and  found  that  I  had  not  got 
home.  He,  of  course,  at  once  surmised  that  the  school  children  were  storm- 
bound in  the  school  house  and  had  nothing  to  eat.  This  troubled  his  big 
heart  so  much  that  he  had  his  good  wife  pack  a  pail  of  provisions  and  he 
started  out  and  brought  it  to  the  school  house,  arriving  there  just  about 
half  an  hour  after  we  had  gone.  He  had  not  a  chick  nor  a  child  in  the  world; 
no  one  in  school  nearer  than  his  nephew,  yet  he  risked  his  life  and  braved 
that  awful  storm  to  get  relief  to  us,  when  a  dozen  fathers,  having  children 
in  the  school,  did  not  dare  to  try  to  get  them. 


CHAPTER   XIX. 


MISCELLANEOUS    TOPICS    AND    INCIDENTS. 


IMMIGRATION   ASSOCIATION. 

The  Cottonwood  County  Immigration  Society  was  formed  in  Windom 
in  May,  1882,  with  John  Clark  as  president  and  the  following  men  as  vice- 
presidents,  chosen  according  to  townships :  Lakeside,  S.  O.  Taggart ;  Moun- 
tain Lake,  John  Janzen;  Selma,  H.  M.  Goss;  Delton,  C.  S.  Narmoer;  Carson, 
Fred  Carpenter;  Great  Bend,  C.  Warren;  Dale,  J.  Cutler;  Amboy,  Wilbur 
Potter ;  Germantown,  Chris  Brand ;  Highwater,  Geo.  Quale ;  Sorden,  Chas. 
Reipka;  Amo,  Corlis  Mead;  Springfield,  T.  S.  Brown;  Southbrook,  W.  H. 
Jones;  Rose  Hill,  Henry  Trantfether;  Ann,  C.  H.  Anderson;  secretary,  E.  C. 
Huntington;  treasurer,  J.  N.  McGregor;  executive  committee:  A.  D.  Perkins, 
J.  S.  Redding,  John  Hutton,  E.  C.  Huntington,  Paul  Seeger,  S.  M.  Espy 
and  A.  Ouevli.  The  object  of  the  association  was  the  dissemination  and 
accumulation  of  information  concerning  Cottonwood  county,  its  climate, 
its  resources,  its  prospects,  and  the  promotion  of  its  settlement. 

It  was  the  duty  of  the  vice-presidents  to  collect  information  and  facts 
relating  to  the  character  and  resources  of  townships  represented  by  them; 
also  to  furnish  the  same  to  the  executive  committee  and  to  co-operate  with 
the  officers  of  the  association  in  securing  a  judicious  distribution  of  such 
publications  as  may  be  issued  by  the  organization  and  to  perform  such 
duties  as  may  be  assigned  them  by  the  president.  The  membership  fee 
was  one  dollar. 

POPULATION   STATISTICS. 

The  various  census  reports  of  this  county  show  the  following  facts: 
In  i860  the  county  contained  only  twelve  people — six  men  and  six  women; 
in  1870  it  had  increased  to  534;  in  1875  to  2,870;  in  1880  it  had  reached 
5,553;  in  1885  it  was  5,894;  in  1890  it  was  7,412;  in  1900  it  was  12,00./: 
in  1910  it  was   [2,651. 


31  = 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 


POPULATION  IN    1895   BY   PRECINCTS. 


Amboy 343 

Amo 296 

Ann   402 

Carson 655 

Dale 367 

Delton   350 

Germantown 488 

Great  Bend 320 

Highwater 569 

Lakeside 547 

Midway 528 


Mountain  Lake 612 

Mountain  Lake  Village 595 

Rose  Hill 480 

Selma 405 

Southbrook   318 

Springfield 351 

Storden    439 

Westbrook 599 

Windom  Village T-523 


Total    io.it 


CENSUS  OF  I9OO  AND  I9IO. 


1910 

Amboy    437 

Amo 395 

Ann 433 

Bingham  Lake  Vil- 
lage    285 

Carson    672 

Dale 483 

Delton 371 

Germantown 522 

Great  Bend 444 

Highwater   591 

Jeffers  Village 227 

Lakeside 449 


1900  1910  1900 

489          Midway 658  607 

358         Mountain  Lake 512  561 

500  Mountain  Lake  Mi- 
lage    1,081  959 

311          Rose  Hill 510  535 

623          Selma    530  427 

455          Southbrook 303  350 

360          Springfield    332  361 

512          Storden 659  548 

435          Westbrook   571)  nNS 

627  Westbrook   Village-  429          

Windom   Village 1-749  r.944 

392 

Total 12.651  12,069 


NATIONALITY    OF    rOrl'LATTON. 


According  to  the  United  States  census  in  tqio  the  following  national- 
ities were  lure  represented:  0.7S7  were  native-born  Americans:  Germans. 
624;  Swedes.  185;  Norwegians.  JJ_V.  English  and  Irish,  61;  Danish,  207; 
Austrians,    112:   Russians,  821;  other  countries.    131. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINX.  313 

VILLAGE    PLATS. 

The  following  are  the  village  plats  of  Cottonwood  county  : 

Bingham  Lake,  situated  in  section  9,  township  105,  range  35,  west, 
was  platted  by  the  officers  of  the  St.  Paul  &  Sioux  City  Railroad  Com- 
pany,  July   28,    1S75. 

Delft,  in  the  southeast  quarter  of  the  northwest  quarter  and  the  south- 
west quarter  of  section  18,  township  106,  range  35,  was  platted  by  the 
Inter-State  Land  Company,  June  18,   1902. 

Jeffers  was  platted  by  the   Inter-State  Land  Company,   September   19, 

1899,  in  section  20,  township  107,  range  36,  west. 

Mountain  Lake  was  platted  by  the  officers  of  the  St.  Paul  &  Sioux  City 
Railroad  Company,  May  25,  1872,  in  section  t,^,,  township  106,  range  34, 
west. 

Westbrook   was   platted    by   the    Inter-State    Land    Company,    June    8, 

1900,  in  section  29,  township   107,  range  38. 

Windom  was  platted  by  the  St.  Paul  &  Sioux  City  Railroad  Company, 
May  25,  1872,  in  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  25,  and  parts  of  sec- 
tions 26  and  36,  township  105,  range  36  west.  The  president  of  the  com- 
pany was  then  Elias  Drake. 

Storden  was  platted  by  the  Inter-State  Land  Company,  July  8,  1903, 
comprising  all  of  the  southwest  quarter  of  the  southwest  quarter  of  section 
29,  township  107,  range  37  west. 

PLATTED    CEMETERIES. 

Besides  several  private  or  family  burying  grounds  in  this  county,  there 
are   the    following  public  cemeteries : 

Amo  cemetery,  platted  March  2,  1899,  in  the  northeast  corner  of 
section  21,  town-hip  106,  range  t,~,  west.  This  was  platted  by  the  trus- 
tees of  the  Methodist   Episcopal  church  of  the  township. 

Delton  cemetery,  in  the  north  half  of  the  southeast  quarter  of  section 
22,  township    107,   range  35,   west;  filed   on    November    11,    1 886. 

Windom  cemetery,  platted  by  the  Win-!. in  Cemetery  Association,  by 
\Y.  B.  Cook,  president.  F..  L.  Leonard,  treasurer,  July  20,  [890.  This  is 
situated  on  a  part  of  the  south  half  of  tin-  southeast  quarter  of  the  south- 
east quarter  of  section  25,  town-hip  105.  range  36,  we  I 

St.  Francis  cemetery,  platted.  February  4.  [901,  in  the  southeast  quar- 
ter of  the  northeast  quarter  of  section   36,   town-hip    105,   range  36. 

Carson  church  and  cemetery  grounds,  platted  on  December  8,  1900,  by 


314  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

the  trustees  of  the  Mennonite  church,  in  section  15,  township  106,  range 
35,  west. 

Mountain  Lake  cemetery  was  platted  by  the .  Mountain  Lake  Cemetery 
Association,  David  Ewert,  president ;  John  Janzen,  secretary,  and  Henry 
P.  Goertz,  treasurer,  March  18,  1893,  m  section  33,  township  106,  range 
34,   west. 

Westbrook  cemetery  was  platted  in  the  northeast  quarter  of  the  north- 
east quarter  of  section  29,  township  107,  range  38,  west,  by  the  village 
authorities  of  Westbrook,  February   19,   1913. 

ALTITUDES. 

According  to  the  government  surveys  made  several  years  since,  the 
altitude  above  the  sea  at  Windom  was  thirteen  hundred  and  thirty- four 
feet  and  at  Heron  Lake  it  is  fourteen  hundred  and  six  feet. 

MARKET  QUOTATIONS. 

In  1872  these  prices  obtained  in  Cottonwood  county:  Wheat.  90  cents; 
flour,  per  hundred  weight,  $3.10;  eggs,  12  cents  per  dozen;  butter,  per  pound, 
10  cents;  corn,  per  bushel,  40  cents;  oats,  20  cents;  hay  (wild),  $5.00 
per  ton. 

In  1880  the  prices  ranged  as  follows:  Wheat,  90  cents;  flour,  $3.00; 
oats,  20  cents;  corn,  20  cents;  barley,  25  cents;  potatoes,  25  cents;  butter,  12 
cents;  eggs,  16  cents:  fresh  pork,  per  hundred,  $3.50. 

In  1890  these  prices  are  found  in  the  Windom  Reporter:  Wheat, 
75  cents;  oats,  29  cents;  butter,  10  cents;  eggs,  14  cents. 

In  the  month  of  August,  1916,  the  following  prices  obtained  in  this 
locality  and  at  Mankato :  Wheat,  $1.50;  corn.  86  cents;  oats.  43  cents; 
hugs,  $9.63;  cattle,  top  prices,  $10.95;  eggs,  21  cents;  heavy  hens,  14  cents 
a  pound;  potatoes,  $1.00;  dairy  butter.  30  cents  a  pound;  hand  separated 
butter,  33  cents  per  pound;  creamery  butter,  35  cents  per  pound. 

GRASSHOPPEP.    PLAGUE. 

hi  1873  all  of  southwestern  Minnesota  came  under  the  devastating 
influences  of  the  grasshoppers,  which  continued  until  1878.  In  the  way 
of  relief  to  the  destitute  settlers  may  be  mentioned  the  following: 

Gen.  |.  \Y.  Bishop,  general  manager  of  the  Sioux  City  Railroad,  issued 
an  order  donating  all  the  timber  owned  by  the  road  situated  more  than  a 
mile  from  the  track  to  destitute  settlers.  Besides,  the  eastern  stockholders 
donated  the  sum  of  one  hundred  and  fifty  dollars  each  to  those  whose  only 
dependence  was  in  the  hands  of  charity. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  315 

The  state  Legislature  passed  a  seed  wheat  bill,  to  aid  destitute  settlers 
on  the  frontier,  the  substance  of  which  is  given  as  follows:  "Section  i. 
That  the  sum  of  twenty-five  thousand  dollars  or  so  much  thereof  as  may 
be  necessary  is  hereby  appropriated  out  of  any  money  in  the  state  treasury, 
belonging  to  the  general  revenue  funds,  not  otherwise  appropriated,  for  the 
relief  of  destitute  settlers  on  the  frontier  counties  of  the  state,  for  the  pur- 
chase of  grain. 

"Section  2.  Provided,  that  no  more  than  thirty  dollars  shall  be  paid 
to  one  family." 

As  a  result  of  the  above  bill,  Cottonwood  county  received  about  four 
thousand  five  hundred  bushels  of  grain,  which  cost  one  dollar  and  eight 
cents  a  bushel. 

In  February,  1874,  many  of  the  settlers  held  a  meeting  for  the  purpose 
of  asking  an  extension  of  time  for  the  payment  of  personal  taxes.  The 
state  came  to  their  aid  and  passed  a  bill  extending  the  time  until  the  follow- 
ing November,  provided  no  taxes  were  in  arrears. 

GRASSHOPPER   CONVENTION. 

In  May,  1874,  a  grasshopper  convention  was  held  in  Windom,  about 
two  hundred  attending.  A  general  opinion  prevailed  that  the  destruction 
of  crops  for  the  year  was  inevitable  and  that  aid  was  necessary.  The  con- 
vention passed  a  resolution  requesting  Governor  Davis  to  appoint  ex-Gover- 
nor Miller  as  a  commissioner  to  go  to  Washington  and  lay  facts  before 
Congress  and  ask  relief.  A  motion  also  prevailed  to  grant  settlers  the  right 
to  leave  their  claims  until  the  grasshopper  raid  was  over  and  they  were 
able  to  procure  the  necessary  seed  for  another  year.  A  committee  of  one 
from  each  county  afflicted  was  appointed  to  canvass  their  respective  coun- 
ties and  ascertain  the  amount  of  relief  necessary  and  report  to  the  gov- 
ernor at  once. 

In  July,  1874,  the  county  auditor  received  returns  from  the  townships 
showing  the  per  cent  of  grain  destroyed. 

Wheat.     Oats.        Corn.         Flax. 

Amboy 75  ''5  25            100 

Southbrook 95  60  70             [00 

Springfield i°°  "»  75              95 

Germantown 9°  IO°  55 

Carson   80  7?  55              60 

Amo 85  8o  r,o 

Ann    6°  55  65             100 

Clinton 90  70  43 


316  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

STORM  OF  1873. 

On  January  7,  1873,  in  that  terrible  storm  mentioned  elsewhere  in  this 
volume,  William  Norris  lost  his  life  in  Springfield  township  within  eighty  rods 
of  his  own  house.  The  farm  is  now  owned  by  George  Morley,  in  section  30. 
About  half  of  the  men  were  in  Windom  that  day  trading  and  of  course  stayed 
all  night  there.  This  was  the  same  storm  Mr.  Peterson  writes  about  when 
the  scholars  all  had  to  remain  in  the  Big  Bend  school  house  for  nearly  two 
days. 

THE   CYCLONE  OF    I9O3. 

The  first  severe  cyclone  to  visit  these  parts  after  the  county's  settlement 
was  the  one  which  devastated  things  in  general  early  in  June,  1903.  Eight 
persons  were  killed,  as  follow :  Daniel  Galligher  and  two  daughters,  Mrs. 
Joe  Fritcher  and  baby,  a  daughter  of  Mrs.  Joe  Fritcher,  the  father  of  Mr. 
Fritcher  and  Joseph  Mathias.  Aside  from  two  sons  this  wiped  out  the  Gal- 
ligher family  of  this  county. 

The  local  papers  said  (Windom,  July  1,  1903)  :  "Leaving  death  and 
destruction  in  its  pathway,  a  cyclone  passed  over  this  county  four  miles 
south  of  this  city  last  evening.  It  was  about  seven  o'clock  when  the  storm 
was  at  its  worst.  Many  houses,  barns  and  outbuildings  were  torn  asunder 
and  in  one  of  the  houses  three  people  were  killed.  The  house  of  Daniel 
Galligher  stood  on  the  edge  of  an  embankment  overlooking  String  lake.  The 
storm  swept  the  building  into  the  lake,  killing  Mr.  Galligher  and  his  two 
grown-up  daughters.  At  a  late  hour  this  morning  but  one  of  the  bodies — that 
of  one  of  the  two  daughters — has  been  found.  Her  clothing  was  entirely 
torn  away,  the  bones  of  the  body  were  broken  and  she  presented  an  awful 
appearance.  Mr.  Galligher's  granary  was  blown  away;  his  horses  and  cat- 
tle all  killed  and  a  vast  amount  of  other  damage  done  on  the  premises.  The 
daughters  of  Mr.  Galligher,  Nettie  and  Ella,  were  well  known  in  Windom. 

"In  Windom  a  fearful  gale  blew,  but  no  damage  resulted  further  than 
trees  being  torn  up  by  the  roots  and  signs  dislocated." 

On  the  Crowell  farm  a  piece  of  a  fork  was  found  driven  through  the 
trunk  of  ;i  tree.  Spears  of  straw  and  hay  were  literally  driven  through  the 
bark  of  growing  trees.  On  E.  H.  Klock's  farm  a  most  wonderful  thing 
occurred  and  which  no  one  can  account  for.  Within  a  grove  and  near  his 
holier  stood  a  farm  wagon  with  a  heavy  box  hay  rack  on  it.  There  was  a 
grove  of  willows  and  other  artificial  trees,  many  of  which  were  thirty  feet 
high.     These  at  the  point  named  stood  on  the  highway  and  after  the  storm 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINX.  317 

had  passed  (Mr.  Klock  and  family  being  in  Windom  at  the  time  of  the  storm) 
the  wagon  was  found  headed  as  before,  only  it  had  been  picked  up  and  carried 
over  these  thirty-foot  trees  and  set  down  in  a  direct  line  where  it  had  stood 
in  the  yard  the  hour  of  the  storm.  The  wagon  and  rack  were  not  in  the 
least  broken  and  the  tongue  was  pointed  in  the  same  direction  as  before,  only 
out  in  the  highway  several  rods  from  its  former  position  and  beyond  these 
trees. 

Just  before  the  storm  struck,  all  the  cattle  on  D.  U.  Weld's  farm  seemed 
to  divine  what  was  coming  and  made  a  stampede  for  the  stock  barn. 

It  was  flying  timbers  of  the  destroyed  Hager  school  house  that  killed 
Joseph  Mathias. 

D.  A.  Xoble  was  returning  from  his  farm  near  Windom  and  saw  the 
storm.  Xot  knowing  which  way  it  was  going,  he  halted  a  moment,  watched 
its  course  and  acted  accordingly.  He  was  near  its  edge  and  easily  saw  the 
storm  cross  the  Des  Moines  river  and  on  up  a  slope  to  where  Dr.  Silas  Allen's 
old  landmark,  the  red  granary,  stood.  The  latter  was  picked  up  and  carried 
high  in  the  air.  when,  all  of  a  sudden  it  seemed  to  explode  and  disappeared 
in  splinters;  no  piece  was  ever  found  of  this  building  except  a  door  to  it. 

CYCLONE  OF    1908. 

The  presence  of  cellars  probably  saved  many  lives  of  Cottonwood  county 
citizens  on  Monday  evening,  June  _>_>,  190N,  when  a  terrible  cyclone  swept 
through  to  the  north  and  east  of  Windom.  The  loss  of  property  amounted 
to  hundreds  of  thousands  of  dollars,  but  the  growing  crops  were  practically 
uninjured. 

The  cyclone  formed  somewhere  in  the  lies  Moines  river  valley  three  or 
four  miles  from  Windom,  and  first  struck  the  home  of  Frank  Shottle,  on 
section  15,  in  Great  Bend  township,  destroying  his  barn,  killing  several 
horses  and  other  stock;  then  went  marly  east  t<>  Paul  I  b» ike's,  where  some 
small  buildings  were  destroyed,  but  no  serious  damage  dune.  From  there  the 
storm  -wept  over  section  14,  striking  the  home  of  Ross  Nichols,  the  Mrs. 
Warren  farm,  where  the  barn  was  completely  destroyed  and  the  prairie  for 
half  a  mile  or  more  strewn  with  the  debris.  The  house  was  partially  un- 
shingled,  and  within  about  fifteen  feel  some  large  silver  maples,  nearly  thirty 
years  old,  were  uprooted,  while  south  of  the  house  other  tree-  were  destroyed, 
but  the  house,  otherwise  than  as  mentioned,  was  uninjured.  The  family  saw 
the  storm  coming  and  -tarted  for  the  cellar,  but  the  storm  bad  passed.  Jusl 
east  of  this  place  about  ten  yard-,  the  storm  encountered  the  telephone  v 


318  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MIXX. 

of  the  Northwestern  and  the  Tri-State  and  Windom  Mutual,  tearing  up  poles 
and  entangling  the  wires  badly.  The  telephone  lines  for  forty  or  fifty  rods 
wer  entirely  destroyed. 

The  storm  continued  over  section  15,  striking  the  barn  of  John  Carlson, 
moving:  it  several  feet  from  its  foundation,  and  unroofed  the  house.  Five 
horses  in  the  barn  were  unhurt.  Also  in  the  Nichols  barn  were  three  horses 
and  a  few  cattle  and  all  escaped  injury.  Mr.  Carlson  was  standing  near  the 
house  when  he  first  saw  the  storm  approaching.  He  said  that  there  were  two 
funnel-shaped  clouds  that  came  together,  one  from  the  southeast  and  one 
from  the  northeast  and  that  they  united  just  west  of  Shottle's  grove,  sweep- 
ing down  upon  it  with  utter  destruction.  From  here  it  proceeded  to  the  east 
side  of  section  12,  where  it  demolished  the  barn  belonging  to  a  lady  in  Iowa 
and  badly  damaged  the  house.  Proceeding  to  the  east,  it  struck  the  wind- 
mill of  M.  F.  Frickie,  doing  slight  injury,  but  on  the  northeast  quarter  of 
section  6,  in  Lakeside  township,  just  north  of  the  Frickie  home,  it  struck 
the  home  of  Jacob  Fast,  tearing  off  chimneys,  blowing  in  windows  of  the 
house  and  destroying  several  buildings.  This  was  the  third  cyclone  to  hit 
Mr.  Fast  in  recent  years,  causing  him  great  losses. 

George  Potter's  barn,  on  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  5  in  Lakeside 
township,  was  next  hit  and  was  completely  destroyed.  Isaac  Foth's  home 
was  next  in  the  path  on  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  32.  Here  peculiar 
freaks  of  the  cyclone  were  noticed.  It  is  customary  for  the  Mennonif.es 
generally  to  build  houses  and  barns  in  conjunction  with  each  other  and  in 
this  case  Mr.  Foth's  house  and  barn  cornered.  The  house  was  practically 
untouched  while  the  barn  was  ruined.  The  beautiful  grove  was  torn  and 
twisted  beyond  recognition,  great  trees  being  uprooted,  while  others  were 
peeled  and  twisted  off  at  different  distances  from  the  ground.  Isaac  Foth 
said  that  when  the  storm  struck  him,  there  were  two  funnel  shaped  clouds 
in  sight,  one  of  which  struck  his  house  and  the  other  he  thought  struck  the 
Fast  and  Peter  places,  from  which  it  would  seem  that  the  two  cyclones  which 
united  at  the  Shottle  place,  separated  between  Carlson's  and   Foth's. 

The  next  place  in  the  path  of  destruction  was  that  of  A.  L.  Thompson, 
in  Carson  township,  where  the  barn  was  moved.  The  barn  contained  five 
horses,  none  of  which  were  injured.  The  machine  shed  and  several  out- 
buildings were  destroyed  and  the  grove  twisted,  uprooted  and  denuded  of 
all   foliage. 

Continuing  northward  from  the  home  of  Mr.  Thompson,  the  dwelling 
of  Henry  Loewen  was  completely  wiped  off  the  earth  and  nothing  but  a  hole 
remained,   together  with  some  debris,  to  mark  the  spot.     This  was  on  the 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  Jig 

northeast  half  of  section  33,  Carson  township.  On  the  section  south  and 
eighty  rods  distant  was  the  home  of  A.  J.  Wiebe,  one  of  the  most  prosperous 
and  wealth}-  of  the  Mennonite  farmers,  and  the  scene  of  the  most  terrible 
solation.  His  grove  was  planted  in  [868  by  George  Robinson  and  was  one 
of  the  first  planted  on  the  prairies  of  Cottonwood  county.  The  place  was  one 
of  the  most  delightful  in  this  part  of  Minnesota,  embracing  a  splendid 
orchard  and  excellent  buildings,  all  of  which  except  a  small  part  of  the  house 
were  completely  destroyed.  One  horse  was  killed  and  two  buried  in  the 
debris  of  the  barn,  but  taken  out  alive.  On  the  prairie  east  of  the  house 
several  cattle  were  killed.  Here  trees  forty  years  old  were  uprooted,  broken 
off  and  twisted  into  all  shapes  and  the  grove  practically  ruined.  The  farm 
was  hedged  with  long  rows  of  willows  and  these  were  twisted  into  an  almost 
solid  mass  and  interwoven  with  wire  fencing.  No  one  was  at  home  except 
the  children,  who  sought  safety  in  the  cellar,  but  they  were  so  frightened 
that  they  were  unable  to  give  any  definite  account  of  what  happened.  When 
asked  how  long  the  storm  lasted  one  replied,  "long  time."  but  in  reality  it  was 
not  longer  than  one  minute.  Mr.  Wiebe's  buildings  were  all  new  ami  modern. 
But  after  the  storm  had  passed  nothing  remained  except  a  few  jars  of  fruit 
in  the  cellar  and  a  yard  covered  with  boards  and  building  material.  ft  was 
here  that  they  were  trying  to  get  into  the  cellar.  All  but  John  Eitzen,  a  man 
of  about  seventy  years,  succeeded.  He,  together  witli  a  horse,  was  carried 
a  quarter  of  a  mile  and  dropped  in  a  slough,  where  lie  was  afterwards  found, 
the  old  gentleman  being  somewhat  dazed  but  otherwise  uninjured.  The 
slough  was  covered  with  debris  from  the  ruins,  while  the  prairie  all  the  way 
to  the  pond  was  covered  with  kindling  wood.  On  the  northeast  quarter  of 
the  same  section  were  the  homes  of  Henry  and  Peter  Wiems.  Henry's  barn 
was  completely  destroyed,  with  a  number  of  cattle,  while  the  house  escaped 
injury.  Peter's  home  was  a  few  rods  east  of  the  barn  and  outbuildings, 
which  were  completely  destroyed,  while  the  house  was  somewhat  damaged. 
Two  steel  water  tanks  were  carried  away  and  no  trace  of  them  ever  found. 
A  team  of  horses  was  carried  one  half  a  mile  and  dropped  and  when  found 
were  grazing  as  if  nothing  of  importance  had  happened. 

The  storm  then  jumped  about  two  miles  northea  1  and  struck  the  home 
of  Klaas  Boltd,  killing  a  horse  and  destroying  all  the  buildings.  On  the 
northeast  quarter  of  section  23  in  Carson  township.  George  Klaasin  lost  all  ol 
his  buildings  except  the  house,  those  destroyed  including  barns,  granary  and 
a  number  of  -mall  structures,  such  as  machine  sheds,  etc.  II:  toel 
scattered  over  the  prairie  east  of  the  buildings,  three  cow-  and  one  hoi 
being  among  the  dead. 


.;  '•'  CO         m\.      i  AND  WATONWAN  <  <m  \  riKS,    MINN 

r  G     Ki.i.is,'ii  lived  m  section  i  -  ol  the  same  township     He  lost  .ill  of 
his  building  from  fivi         en  ih.Mi-.uul  dollars     He  was  not  at 

home  at  the  tune,  but  his  \\    -   tried  to  save  hei  children  bj  going  into  the 
cellar      Hie)   were  caught  in  the  wreck  and  .ill  ban  \   i     iped  with  r 
e  child,  who  w.is  killed, 
David  Hamm,  on  section  t8,  Midwaj  township,  lost  .ill  of  bis  buildings, 
J.iv      '  I  -        ei  lost  lii<  home  as  well  .is  .1  large  amount  ol 

I'll,-  i.inuK   sought  safety  in  the  cellar,  in  which  there  was  about 
.1  foot  ol  watei     \\  hen  the  house  left  the  foundation  the  suction  was  so  great 
as  to  drench  the  people  in  the  celUu  bj  drawing  watei  up  and  over  them, 
rhts  seems  to  have  been  the  end  ol  the  storm,  which  was  followed  bj  .1  heavj 
b  Epps  was  ii-imii:;!:;  from  Mountain  Lake  and  was  caught  in 
the  path  ol  tht  cycl     ■       .'■>  neighborhood  of  Quirings,  being  KulK  injured 
and  hen  coop  being  blown  against  him 
tni   1  Q  and  Hamm  pastures  the  stock    n  ented  a  mauled  appeal 

ance      \    v>  •  ■  was  pulled  from  one  ol  Dick's  horses,  as  was 

ek  which  had  ■     1       ed  the  neck  hi    ei   three  inches     Chickens 

wi  1 d  ■  clean  as  though  pn      ed  for  the     ■  1    pot 

Dan  ■    «      »a\  ed  the  Kill  rolling  foi  aid  to  ilu-  destitute,  incli 

.  Henrv  1  avan  family,  \\li>>  lost  all  the}  had  bj  the  fearful  windstorm. 
ri\e\   were  n  n  an  towa  nun's  farm     Immei  wagon 

.  ,m,l  clothes  were  collected  and  Mi    Davis  took 

;  and  othi 
.  ■■  bad  handy,     rhis  was  an  act  of  kindness  not  soon  to 

SNOW 

r\    t,  iSSi.  snow  began  flying  from  the  southeast  and  1 

u  was 

. .      elov    ero      Hiis  storm  \>  e  in  the  1 

e  experience! 

1 
h      \  crew  '  men  were  put  to  w 

ween  M  ..  V  1  until  the  1 

■ 


cotton  woon  '  II  ,i 

III         I'll       i I     in'  n         Cl'l  '  'i  I     ii"     in    I  111      'Ml     IM  .11      I'.iir'li.iin 

I  a!  i   cli  'nr'  i  in    (ii- 1    ol     hi  ii 1 1 1 1 ...  n  •.   I  I.M  I  .in  cngim    and    no 

ii'  ii  .ii  hand  to  aid  in  tin     vorl    wl in        1 1    thai  tin 

■  ii M   Ii.mI  '  ii  'I'  i     i"  1 1 .. 1 1  ■    i  m mi  iiltcmpl  to  ■•'!  through  ih'   'h  1 1 1 

ii"  working  in  ll I     eri    wholly  urn iou    of  an)  dun 

until  thi   '  n  ■  i    uIiuohI  upon  them  and  il i    vo    too  lati    I \n 

I     I  M. n  ■    -.I    .  .iM-hi  I,  \  il •■   | .  t  ■ .  •   and  thrown  quit*  u  distance,  brcal 

ing  in    H'  'i  and  I  Ming  hi lanll)        itgu  i  Bin  mi  i»tei    va    throv  n  undi  i 

Mm  i. ml  .mi. I  go     ■  'I'"  'I  mi  il that  it  tool   il  .ii  i        o  houi    to  dig  him 

..Mi      I :.   hi.     i '.iii in'  i  i>  i ,  i in ■  ■  othci  workmen  wcr<   injured 

ill  ■   

i  h.  .m  .mi. I.  ■  .I  i.  .ii    .  .i  |.i  ,i  n  i>   iii       i  '  ■   I  .hi  mi  .  I  .m  hum  ii  ■,  i . ,  prairii 
in  <     i.i  ,i  i  ii  ii  ni,'  i  ' .  i    . .!  i    ,i  1 1<  i  ih.    ■  n  1 1  mi  mi  ■  .i  i  in    count)      in  1871  A.  A. 

..mI.  1 !    ton   of  1  ph  tidid  hay  and  Mi    I'etci  on  lout  all  hi  had  stacked, 

also  in    grain  and  stabling     Thi    lin    va      een  -< j -j < •  Imm;.  thi  •   "I 

untain  1  al  1 ,  hul  timi  I)  woi  1  prevented  i I  from  getting  into  thi  placi 

a   t»B  MRU    in  1//    I''   1 

1  1.  ml    1  ■■  i'  1  on,  I  >    1  < ,    ...  11  1  ih. .mi  in   '.limn  ota  in  1  hun  h 

ted  in  thi  neighborhod  ol  Worthington  in  tin  early  icvcntie*,  and 

In  m   1    in    ... .  ..i.ni  .,1  thi   gn  ..1   [j  73  blizzard,  10  fr<  qui         1   fcrrcd  to  by 

[inm  ota  piom  •  1       'J  hii  »ton  on  lanuai  /  7,  1873     fori  ,■  threi 

Doctoi   1  '•  1. 1  on    a) 
"'lin  afternoon  ol  that  day  was  mild  and  clcai      Many  had  taken  ad 

vantagi  ol  thi    and  had  gon<   to  1 hljoi  01  to  town  to  do  >! 

trading,  '.1   po    iblj   to  thi    ncai  by  laki     to  fi  h      fn  thi   early  afternoon, 

I di  n  '  hani  ■  notii  •  d  in  thi   atmoi  phi  re  and  in  thi 

All  who  In 1 1 1  ii  .I  to  g<  I  homi ,  and  '  i  aughl 

I,,   the  ■  torm  th  luding  [ai  '■  on  and  <  otton  vood 

counl 

,.  ghtening  roai  wai  heard  in  the  northwc»l  and,  loo  ould 

, ,  a  .... ...  1  the  <  loudi  to  the  1  g  at  th< 

..I   i.ii.  mill     an  houi      il  blizzard,  filling  the  ail   with  fn 

< ) 


322  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

snow  and  driving  it  forward  with  the  fierceness  of  a  gigantic  sandblast.  No 
man  or  beast  can  face  it.  One  turns  instinctively  from  it,  and  once  turned  and 
started  there  is  no  such  thing  as  stopping.  One  is  driven  onward,  while  un- 
mercifully whipped  by  the  frozen  snow  until,  in  sheer  exhaustion,  the  ill- 
fated  traveler  sinks  into  the  drift.  Tired  out,  he  becomes  drowsy,  then  a 
numbness  sets  in,  and  then  a  sleep  fom  which  there  is  no  waking  this  side  of 
the  resurrection  morn.  About  seventy  people  perished  who  were  in  the  path 
of  this  never-to-be-forgotten  storm. 

"A  friend  of  mine,  Mr.  Blixt,  had  gone  out  on  the  lake  to  fish.  He 
had  built  a  small  shanty  on  the  ice  for  protection.  The  storm  coming  on, 
he  did  not  start  for  home,  but  very  prudently  remained  within  his  shelter. 
His  wife,  however,  had  for  some  reason  felt  constrained  to  venture  out.  No 
sooner  had  she  gotten  out  of  the  door  before  she  was  snatched  by  the  grip 
of  the  storm  and  forced  onward  and  onward  until  she  had  gone  seven  miles 
away  from  home,  when  her  strength  failed  her  and  she  sank  down  into  her 
last  sleep.  She  was  not  found  until  spring,  when  the  drifts  of  snow  began 
to  drift  away.  Her  hand  was  seen  sticking  out  of  the  snow  and  her  gold 
ring  glittered  in  the  bright  moonlight.  It  was  discovered  later,  by  tracing 
her  tracks,  that  she  had  passed  the  box  where  her  husband  sat  a  prisoner  in 
the  grip  of  the  cruel  storm. 

"When  her  husband  returned,  two  days  afterward,  he  found  the  door  of 
his  home  blown  open  and  his  little  boy,  three  years  old,  standing  in  the  bed, 
where  he  had  been  alone  two  days  and  nights.  The  little  fellow  had  cried 
so  that  he  could  now  scarcely  sob.  That  boy  is  now  a  man,  a  prosperous 
farmer,  but  the  traces  of  that  terrible  experience  of  two  seeminglv  endless 
days  and  nights  of  loneliness,  of  fear,  of  cold  and  of  suffering  are  left  with 
him.     His  long  crying  brought  on  stuttering. 

"In  the  same  storm  a  mail  carrier,  going  from  Worthington  to  Indian 
Lake,  was  driven  out  of  his  course  to  Okaboji,  Iowa,  twenty-five  miles  away, 
where  later  his  body  was  found. 

"The  lessons  learned  from  such  storms  were  many:  Better  protection 
for  man  and  beast,  a  goodly  supply  of  fuel  and  fodder  near  at  hand,  and 
guide  ropes  from  the  house  to  the  stable  so  that  one  could  pass  safely  be- 
tween the  two  without  losing  their  way. 

"The  winter  bad  passed,  though  never  to  be  forgotten.  The  smiling 
Spring,  with  its  green  verdure  and  lnvely  wild  (lowers,  bad  again  come  to 
give  cheer  and  hope  for  a  better  future." 


COTTONWOOD    AXD    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  323 

A    FIVE-YEAR    GRASSHOPPER    SCOURGE. 

The  same  minister  who  wrote  the  above  on  the  1873  blizzard  also  wrote 
graphically,  as  an  eye  witness,  of  the  grasshopper  days  between  1873  and 
1878,  which  years  devastated  all  southern  Minnesota  and  northwest  Iowa. 
Dr.  Peterson  said : 

"I  had  frequently  read  from  Exodus,  tenth  chapter,  the  following: 
'When  it  was  morning  the  east  wind  brought  the  locusts,  and  the  locusts 
went  up  over  all  the  land  of  Egypt  and  rested  in  all  the  coasts  of  Egypt 
Very  grievous  were  they;  for  they  covered  the  face  of  the  earth  so  that  the 
land  was  darkened;  and  they  did  eat  every  herb  of  the  land,  and  all  the 
fruit  of  the  trees  which  the  hail  had  left;  and  there  remained  not  any  green 
thing  in  the  trees  or  in  the  herbs  of  the  field.'  But  I  never  expected  to  see 
anything  like  it  myself.  Those  who  were  in  southwestern  Minnesota  during 
the  grasshopper  years  find  no  difficulty  in  believing  the  story  of  Moses.  Their 
invasion  of  Egypt  was  but  for  a  season,  but  with  us  they  remained  five 
years. 

"I  remember  quite  distinctly  the  morning  in  June,  1873,  when  the  ad- 
vance troop  arrived.  I  had  just  started  to  go  to  Worthington  and,  crossing 
the  cornfield,  I  was  surprised  at  seeing  what  at  first  seemed  snow  fall.  I 
looked  up  and  saw  millions  of  hoppers,  with  their  outstretched  wings,  sailing 
down  upon  the  field.  As  I  stood  and  looked  the  air  grew  thicker.  I  re- 
turned to  the  house  and  asked  my  mother  and  sister,  who  were  home,  to 
come  out  and  see  what  I  jokingly  called  the  'snow-fall.'  They  were  too 
astonished  to  speak.  We  could  guess  what  this  would  mean.  We  went  out 
to  the  cornfield,  which  only  a  few  minutes  ago  looked  so  fine  and  gave 
promise  of  a  good  crop.  It  was  now  all  bare.  The  succulent  plants  were 
eaten  down  to  the  ground.  The  garden  had  fared  the  same  way.  For  a 
moment  we  stood  dumb.  The  cloud  of  hoppers  increased  in  density.  They 
were  now  lighting  down  on  the  wheat  field.  We  saw  that  the  prospects  of 
the  year's  crop  had  been  snatched  nut  of  our  hands  in  almost  an  hour.  I 
looked  at  poor  mother.  She  wiped  away  a  tear  with  her  apron,  while  she 
quoted  the  words  of  Job.  'The  Lord  gave;  the  Lord  hath  taken  away.' 

"This  was  but  the  beginning  of  a  scourge  which  was  to  last   live  yeai 
It  was  a  blessing  that  we  did  not  know  what  was  ahead.     Our  hopes  soon 
rose,  and  our  courage  was  braced  a-  we  cheered  ourselves  with  the  thought 
that  this  was  but  for  one  year.     We  still  had  our  stock  and  the  hoppers  had 
left  the  grass  untouched.      We  soon   di  ■  ed,    however,   that   after  they 


324  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

had  finished  the  destruction  of  the  crops  they  were  busy  depositing  their 
eggs.     This  boded  no  good  for  the  coming  year. 

"The  following  summer  proved  that  our  suspicions  were  correct.  When 
the  ground  became  sufficiently  warm,  millions  of  little  hoppers  made  their 
appearance,  until  the  ground  was  literally  alive  with  them.  This  army  of 
home-bred  hoppers  received  tremendous  accessions  from  the  mountain  re- 
gions of  the  west  until  they  not  only  covered  the  ground,  but  lay  in  places 
several  inches  deep,  and  as  you  walked  along  they  would  fly  up  and  you 
would  find  yourself  moving  along  in  a  deafening  buzz  of  a  continuous 
swarm.  Trains  were  even  stopped  by  them.  They  would  lie  upon  the  track 
so  thick  that,  when  crushed,  the  wheels  could  not  grip  the  surface  of  the 
rails. 

"Their  voracity  was  quite  remarkable.  Garden  stuff  and  the  growing 
grain  were  their  choicest  diet,  but  they  would  not  spurn  such  things  as 
clothes,  tool-handles,  tobacco,  etc.  We  soon  learned  to  know  that  it  was 
not  safe  to  lay  aside  a  garment  in  the  field  exposed  to  their  attack,  for  in  an 
incredibly  short  time  it  would  be  perforated  with  holes. 

"A  Mr.  Attick  had,  incautiously,  left  his  tobacco  and  pipe  in  the  field, 
while  at  work,  and  on  his  return  for  a  smoke  found  to  his  surprise  that  the 
hoppers  had  devoured  his  tobacco,  but  had  been  gracious  enough  to  leave  the 
paper  pouch  for  him.  In  his  disgust  he  said,  'We  have  now  reached  the 
limit;  it  is  high  time  we  leave;  if  the  hoppers  will  not  stop  at  tobacco  there 
is  no  telling  what  they  will  devour  next.' 

"This  state  of  things  continued  for  five  years.  The  settlers  were 
driven  to  the  last  ditch.  The  governor  of  the  state  was  concerned  about  the 
situation.  He  issued  a  proclamation  setting  aside  April  26,  1877,  as  a  day  of 
prayer  and  fasting.  Some  scoffed,  but  many  observed  the  day.  The  deliv- 
erance came  the  first  week  in  June,  when  the  grasshoppers  arose  in  a  body. 
The  scourge  was  gone,  let  us  hope  never  to  return  again." 

BURNING    HAY    FOR   FUEL. 

The  fuel  question  in  those  early  grasshopper,  poverty-stricken  years  in 
this  section  of  the  country  was  no  small  problem  to  solve.  The  use  of  wood 
ami  coal  was  out  of  the  question.  These  were  entirely  beyond  the  reach  of 
those  living  back  from  the  small  groves  along  the  Des  Moines  river.  \t 
first,  stalks  of  tall  weeds  that  grew  along  the  edges  of  the  sloughs  were 
gathered  and  used,  but  these  did  not  last  long.  When  the  keen  blasts  of  the 
prairie  winter  came   out   of   the  northwest,    something   more   was   needed. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINX.  325 

"Necessity  being  the  mother  of  invention,"  it  was  soon  discovered  that 
prairie  hay  could  be  burned  in  stoves,  by  taking-  a  swab  of  it  and  twisting 
up  in  a  stove-wood  length  and  fastening  its  ends  to  securely  hold  the  wad 
together  until  it  was  needed  in  the  stove.  Of  course  it  was  mussy  and  the 
housewife  did  not  like  it,  as  white  ashes  would  puff  out  every  time  the  stove 
lid  was  lifted  to  replenish  the  fire  with  more  hay.  This  fuel  also  clogged  up 
the  stove-pipe  and  chimney,  so  that  it  would  not  "draw"  and  hence  every 
few  days  the  pipe  had  to  be  cleaned  out,  which  in  a  cold  winter  day  was 
anvthing  but  a  pleasing  task.  But  this  was  better  than  going  cold,  so  many 
were  forced  to  depend  upon  prairie  hay  for  fuel  in  the  heating  of  their  claim 
shack  or  sod  shanty. 

DREADFUL   RAILROAD    WRECK    AT    WINDOM. 

About  the  20th  of  September,  1899,  occurred  a  terrible  wreck  on  the 
Chicago,  St.  Paul,  Minneapolis  &  Omaha  railroad,  at  the  bridge  crossing  die 
Des  Moines  river,  at  the  edge  of  the  town,  coming  from  the  southwest.  To- 
wards midnight  a  rear-end  collision  took  place  on  the  railroad  bridge.  A 
train  of  thirty-five  heavily  loaded  cars,  drawn  by  two  powerful  engines, 
crashed  into  the  rear  of  another  freight  train  standing  on  the  bridge.  Four 
men  were  killed:  Engineer  Carl  Rasmussen;  fireman  T.  M.  Roberts;  fire- 
man Hugh  Stratton;  John  Roberts,  merchant,  St.  James.  Many  more 
were  seriously  injured  in  the  wreck. 

It  was  the  same  old  story  of  wrong  and  not  plainly  understood  orders. 
One  engine  was  standing  on  the  bridge  and  could  not  get  out,  after  seeing 
the  heavy  train  coming  from  the  west.  A  red  light  was  put  out  over  the 
track  by  the  engineer  on  the  bridge,  but  too  late — the  speed  of  the  train  was 
too  great  and  the  awful  crash  very  soon  came.  The  double-header  collided 
with  the  engine  on  the  steel  bridge,  which  could  not  withstand  such  a  shock 
and  went  down,  the  three  engines  and  thirty  cars  going  to  the  bottom  and 
into  the  Des  Moines  river.  The  cars  were  loaded  mostly  with  grain  and  the 
whole  made  a  huge,  unsightly  pile,  reaching  nearly  to  the  top  of  the  bridge. 
The  space  was  almost,  if  not  quite,  one  hundred  and  fifty  feet  between  the 
two  north  piers,  this  being  the  length  of  the  span  that  went  down;  the  other 
span  of  the  railroad  bridge  remained  in  position. 

To  add  to  the  horror  of  the  midnight  scene,  the  derailed,  overturned 
locomotives  set  fire  to  the  wreckage  and  it  burned  fiercely  for  a  long  time. 
Somewhere  between  eighteen  and  twenty-live  thousand  bushels  of  grain  were 
wrecked,  causing  a  loss  to  the  company  of  sixty-five  thousand  dollars.     The 


326  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

damaged  grain  was  sold  by  the  company  to  a  St.  Paul  man  for  four  hundred 
and  fifty  dollars.  The  cars  were  smashed  to  fine  kindling  wood — the  worst 
wreck  ever  seen  by  the  superintendent,  as  he  stated.  It  took  days  to  clear 
away  the  wreckage.  A  huge  derrick  was  sent  from  the  Northwestern  road 
at  Baraboo,  Wisconsin,  its  lifting  power  being  fifty  tons. 

Who  was  guilty?  Superintendent  Spencer  said  "The  accident  was 
caused  by  the  gross  carelessness  of  Williams,  who  in  backing  onto  the  main 
line,  disobeyed  the  first  rule  a  conductor  learns."  At  first  Williams  disap- 
peared, but  finally  returned  and  went  to  his  home  in  St.  James.  He  was 
there  arrested  Friday  following  the  wreck.  He  was  placed  on  trial,  at  which 
County  Attorney  Annes  and  Wilson  Borst  appeared  for  the  state  and  W.  S. 
Hammond,  of  St.  James,  for  Williams,  who  was  acquitted. 

MOUNTAIN    LAKE    WRECK. 

On  March  3,  1916,  occurred  a  disastrous  wreck  at  Mountain  Lake,  in 
which  three  were  instantly  killed  and  many  injured.  A  special  train,  in 
which  were  a  number  of  movables,  was  on  the  track.  The  engine  was  switch- 
ing out  a  couple  of  cars  for  men  who  were  to  move  on  farms  near  Moun- 
tain Lake.  The  engine  had  just  spotted  the  cars  at  the  loading  chute  and 
was  backing  out  to  couple  up  the  train,  when  the  through  train  came  on  at  a 
high  rate  of  speed. 

THE   OLD   OX   TEAM. 

A.  B.  Irving  wrote  the  following  song  and  it  was  recited  or  sung  at  one 

of  the  Old  Settlers'  Association  meetings  in  Windom : 

We're  living  today  in  a  very  fast  age; 

We  go  rushing  along,  to  gain  is  the  rage; 

We  hustle  and  hurry  and  draw  things  by  steam, 

All  forgetting  the  days  when  we  drove  an  ox  team. 

We  live  at   high   pressure  and   cut  a  great  dash, 
Swell  up  like  bubble  and  burst  with  a  crash. 
Never  thinking  of  turning  and   pulling  up   stream, 
As  we  did  in  the  days  we  had  an  ox  team. 

We  labored  together  in  the  days  of  "Lang  Syne"; 
We  stood  by  each  other,  we  cleared  up  the  land; 
We   fallowed   the   ground,  'twas   as  new  as   cream. 
We  dragged  in  the  bright  seed  with  the  ox  team. 

How  often  we  heard  il,  "Buck,"  "Haw   Buck"  and  "Bright," 
The  ox   team  lias  vanished;    it's  auto  and  bike; 
It's  a  forty-mile  gait,  by  trolley  or  steam, 
The   day   has   passed   by  for  tin-  old  ox   train. 

wen-  Hearing  the  border  land,  o'ei   the  way; 

But    nu  ui(ii>    will   linger   'round   tile  days   passed  away, 

w  heii  sleep  drops  Hie  curtain,  in  manj  s  di  1 
We're  hallowing  once  more  to  the  old  ox  team. 


WATONWAN   COUNTS    COURT    HOUSE,   ST.   JAMES. 


WATONWAN  COUNTY 

MINNESOTA 


CHAPTER  I. 


GEOLOGY    OF    WATONWAN    COUNTY. 


Situation  and  'Area.  Watonwan  county  lies  in  the  southern  part  of 
Minnesota,  bordering  on  Iowa.  It  is  a  little  west  of  the  central  meridian 
of  the  state.  St.  James,  the  county  seat,  is  situated  southwest  from  St. 
Paul  and  Minneapolis,  about  one  hundred  and  twenty  miles.  From  the 
west  line  of  this  county  to  the  line  between  Minnesota  and  Dakota  is  eighty 
miles.  The  county  is  a  rectangle,  extending  twenty-four  miles  from  east 
to  west,  and  eighteen  miles  from  north  to  south.  The  area  of  the  county  is 
435.45  square  miles,  or  278,689.92  acres,  of  which  about  sixteen  hundred 
acres  are  covered  by  water. 

SURFACE    FEATURES. 

Natural  Drainage.  Watonwan  county  is  wholly  drained  by  the  river 
of  the  same  name,  which  empties  into  the  Blue  Earth  river  about  three  miles 
below  Garden  City  in  Pine  Earth  county.  The  north  and  south  forks  of 
the  Watonwan  river,  having  their  sources  in  Cottonwood  county,  traverse 
respectively  the  northern  and  southwestern  parts  of  Watonwan  county,  each 
receiving  several  tributary  creeks,  and  are  united  in  one  stream  two  miles 
west  of  Madelia,  and  about  twenty  miles,  following  the  course  of  the  river. 
above  its  mouth.  Antrim,  the  most  southeast  township  of  tin's  county,  is 
drained  by  Perch  creek,  which  has  its  source  a  few  miles  farther  south  in 
Martin  county,  and  flows  northeast  to  the  Watonwan  river. 

Among  the  original  lakes  of  Watonwan  county  the  following  are  worthy 
of  mention:  Emerson  Lake,  at  the  north  side  of  Madelia.  two  miles  long 
from  ea-t  to  west,  and  one  and  a  half  miles  wide,  with  about  half  its  area  in 
Linden  township,  Brown  county;  this  lake  ha  been  drained  and  used  for 
farm  purposes.  Five  or  six  smaller  lakes  in  Madelia  township  within  a  fi 
miles  to  the  southeast  from  Emerson  Lake;  a  dozen  smaller  lakes,  probably 


328  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

some  of  them  dry  in  the  summer  season,  lying  in  Fieldon  and  Antrim  town- 
ships; three  lakes  in  St.  James,  the  largest  a  mile  or  more  in  length,  close 
southwest  of  the  town;  Long  Lake  two  and  a  half  miles  long  from  east  to 
west  and  half  a  mile  wide  and  Kansas  Lake  one  and  one-half  east  and  west 
by  one  mile  in  width,  in  Long  Lake  township;  four  unnamed  lakes  in  Odin 
township,  the  largest  in  sections  5  and  6  being  about  a  mile  long  and  a  half 
mile  wide,  nearly  gone  now  except  in  wet  seasons,  and  Wood  Lake  in 
Antrim  township,  three  and  a  half  miles  long  and  from  a  quarter  to  a  half 
mile  wide. 

Topography.  Watonwan  county  descends  toward  the  east  and  north- 
east, but  in  a  broad  view  its  slightly  undulating  expanse  seems  nearly  level. 
Generally  its  surface  is  in  very  gentle  slopes,  which  soon  conduct  the  sur- 
plus waters  of  rains  and  snow-melting  into  depressions,  which  merge 
into  ravines  and  lead  to  small  water-courses,  and  by  them  to  the  larger 
permanent  streams.  Here  and  there,  however,  are  depressions  which  have 
no  such  free  drainage,  and  contain  sloughs  or  lakes. 

In  Watonwan  county  the  south  fork  of  the  Watonwan  river  lies  in 
a  valley  which  it  has  cut  forty  feet  below  the  general  level  along  all  its 
course  from  Mountain  Lake  to  Madelia ;  and  the  north  fork  and  its  tribu- 
taries have  similarly  channeled  their  part  of  the  drift-sheet.  Below  the 
junction  of  these  branches  the  Watonwan  valley  increases  to  fifty  or  sixty 
feet  in  depth  before  leaving  the  county  at  the  southeast  corner  of  Madelia 
township. 

Adrian,  the  most  northwesterly  township  of  Watonwan  county,  has  the 
only  outcrop  of  the  bed-rock  in  the  county,  this  being  the  eastern  extremity 
of  a  prominent  ridge  of  the  red  Potsdam  quartzyte.  It  is  seen  at  the  sur- 
face in  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  29,  and  gives  to  this  and  the  con- 
tiguous sections  30  and  19  an  elevation  of  fifty  to  one  hundred  feet  above 
the  rest  of  the  township;  but  this  ridge  here,  and  through  its  whole  extent 
of  nearly  twenty-live  miles  westward,  where  it  rises  much  higher,  is  mainly 
covered  by  a  smooth  sheet  of  till. 

Elevations,  taken  from  profiles  in  the  office  of  T.  P.  Gere,  superin- 
tendent of  St.  Paul  &  Sioux  City  division,  Chicago,  St.  Paul,  Minneapolis 
&  Omaha   Railway,  are: 

Madelia 1.021 

Watonwan  river,  water 979 

St.   James   1.073 

Butterfield 1,184 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  329 

The  highest  land  of  Watonwan  county  is  either  the  east  part  of  the 
quartzyte  ridge  in  sections  ig  and  30,  A.Irian  township,  or  the  southwest 
corner  of  the  county,  both  of  which  are  nearly  thirteen  hundred  feet  above 
the  sea.  Its  lowest  land  is  where  the  Watonwan  river  passes  out  from  this 
into  Blue  Earth  count}-,  at  a  height  of  about  nine  hundred  and  sixty  feet 
above  the  sea.  The  mean  heights  of  the  townships  of  this  county  are 
approximately  as  follow :  Madelia,  ten  hundred  and  twenty-five  feet  above 
the  sea;  Fieldon,  ten  hundred  and  fifty;  Antrim,  eleven  hundred  feet;  River 
Dale,  ten  hundred  and  forty;  Rosendale,  ten  hundred  and  si\tv;  South 
Branch,  eleven  hundred  and  twenty;  Nelson,  ten  hundred  and  seventy-five; 
St.  James,  eleven  hundred  and  twenty:  Long  Lake,  eleven  hundred  and  fifty; 
Adrian,  eleven  hundred  and  fifty;  Butterlield,  twelve  hundred;  and  Odin, 
twelve  hundred  and  forty.  From  these  estimates  the  mean  elevation  of 
Watonwan  county  is  found  to  be  eleven  hundred  and  ten  feet. 

Soil  and  Timber.  The  soil  of  Watonwan  county,  like  that  of  a  vast 
region  extending  from  them  on  all  sides,  is  very  fertile,  easily  worked,  and 
well  adapted  for  the  cultivation  of  all  the  staple  agricultural  products  of 
this  latitude.  A  black,  clayey,  and  slightly  sandy  and  gravelly  loam,  from 
one  to  three  feet  thick,  forms  the  surface,  which  is  nearly  every  where 
sufficiently  undulating  to  carry  away  the  waters  of  heavy  rains  and  snow- 
melting.  Boulders  are  scattered  very  sparingly  over  the  entire  area  of  this 
county,  but  scarcely  anywhere  are  objectionably  numerous.  This  soil  and 
the  subsoil  of  yellowish  gravelly  clay  are  the  till,  or  unmodified  drift  of  the 
glacial  period.  They  are  somewhat  porous  on  account  of  the  considerable 
proportion  of  sand  intermixed,  causing  them  to  absorb  much  moisture  from 
rains  and  give  it  up  readily  to  vegetation.  The  principal  crop  of  Watonwan 
county,  at  first,  generally  northward  through  this  state,  was  wheat,  but  corn, 
live   stock,   and   dairying   now   predominate. 

The  county  is  principally  prairie,  being  naturally  grassland,  without 
tree  or  shrub  excepting  narrow  skirt--  of  timber,  which  generally  surround 
the  lakes  and  extend  along  the  principal  streams,  sometimes  widening  to 
form  groves.  Probably  the  aggregate  area  of  these  belts  of  timber  is  less 
than  one  hundredth  part  of  the  county.  The  following  species  of  trees, 
arranged  in  their  estimated  order  of  abundance,  were  noted  as  occurring 
along  the  South  Fork  of  the  Watonwan  river:  American  or  white  elm, 
white  ash,  box-elder,  ironwood,  cottonwood,  bur-oak.  slippery  or  red  elm, 
hackberry,  bass,  soft  maple,  black  walnut,  willows,  the  American  aspen,  or 
poplar,  and  the  wild  plum. 


330  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINX. 

GEOLOGICAL    STRUCTURE. 

The  only  exposure  of  bed-rock  in  Watonwan  county  is  found,  as  already 
stated,  in  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  29,  Adrian  township.  A  smooth 
and  flat  surface  of  the  very  compact  and  hard,  red  Potsdam  quartzyte  is 
seen  here  along  an  extent  of  five  rods  from  northwest  to  southeast,  with  a 
width  varying  from  five  to  twenty  feet.  This  is  on  an  eastward  slope,  in 
a  slight  depression  of  drainage.  The  quartzyte  does  not  project  out  of  the 
drift,  and  cannot  be  seen  at  a  distance.  It  is  undoubtedly  the  bed-rock 
beneath  all  the  southwest  quarter  of  Adrian  township,  but  is  elsewhere  cov- 
ered within  the  limits  of  this  township  and  county  by  the  smoother  sheet 
of  glacial  drift,  which  rises  in  a  broadly  rounded  ridge  because  of  the  prom- 
inence of  this  underlying  rock.  Through  the  north  half  of  section  30, 
Adrian  township,  it  lies  at  no  great  depth,  and  has  been  encountered  in 
ploughing  and  digging  at  several  places.  This  ridge,  having  here  and  there 
outdrops  of  the  same  red  quartzyte,  continues  more  than  twenty  miles  to  the 
west,  in  northern  Cottonwood  county. 

The  strike  of  the  limestone  and  sandstone  formations  of  the  Lower 
Magnesian  series,  in  their  exposures  along  the  valley  of  the  Minnesota  river 
and  in  Blue  Earth  county,  indicates  that  their  continuation  underlies  the 
greater  part  of  Watonwan  county,  but  here  they  are  doubtless  covered  in 
part  and  perhaps  mainly,  by  Cretaceous  strata. 

DRIFT    AND    CONTOUR. 

Glacial  striae  are  very  distinct  on  the  quartzye  ledge  exposed  in  section 
29.  Adrian  township,  mostly  bearing  south  300  east,  referred  to  the 
true  meridian,  but  in  one  place,  on  its  southeast  portion,  bearing  south  200 
east. 

The  contour  of  Watonwan  county  is  like  that  which  prevails  generally 
in  the  basin  of  the  Minnesota  river,  and  is  formed  by  a  slightly  undulating, 
or  in  some  portions  a  moderately  rolling,  sheet  of  till,  with  massive  swells 
rising  in  long,  smooth  slopes  ten  to  twenty  to  thirty  feet  above  the  depres- 
sions. The  gently  undulating,  smoothed  surface  of  most  of  this  region 
appears  to  mark  areas  over  which  the  ice-sheet  moved  in  a  continuous  cur- 
rent, ami  from  which  it  disappeared  by  melting  that  was  extended  at  the 
same  time  over  a  wide  field.  Compared  with  the  thickness  ,.f  the  drift,  its 
inequalities  of   contour   in   this   county  are  small,   and   in   an   extensive   view 


COTTONWOOD    AXD    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINX.  35 1 

it  seems  approximately  flat.  It  is  a  part  on  the  inclined  plain  which  rises 
by  an  imperceptible  slope  from  the  Minnesota  river  to  the  Coteau  des 
Prairies.  Its  rate  of  ascent  toward  the  southwest,  or  increase  in  average 
height,  varies  from  five  to  fifteen  or  twenty  feet  per  mile.  This  gradual 
change  in  altitude  is  doubtless  produced  by  increase  in  height  of  the  bed- 
rocks upon  which  the  drift  lies  as  a  sheet  of  somewhat  uniform  depth,  prob- 
ably varying  in  this  county  from  fifty  to  one  hundred  and  fifty  feet;  but 
the  numerous  small  elevations  and  depressions  of  the  surface  appear  to  be 
due  to  the  accumulation  of  different  amounts  of  till  by  adjoining  portions  of 
the  moving  ice-sheet,  without  any  corresponding  unevenness  of  the  under- 
lying rocks. 

For  one  or  two  miles  southeast  and  south  of  Madelia,  and  for  one  mile 
southeast  of  St.  James,  the  surface  has  frequent  swells  twenty  to  thirty 
feet  above  the  depressions,  being  more  rolling  than  most  other  parts  of 
Watonwan  county,  which  is  generally  very  gently  undulating  in  smooth 
prolonged  slopes,  with  occasional  lakes  and  here  and  there  sloughs  ten  to 
twenty  feet  below  the  highest  portions  of  the  adjoining  country. 

LAKE  AREA. 

Chains  of  Lakes.  It  has  been  frequently  noted  that  the  lakes  which 
abound  upon  areas  overspread  by  the  glacial  drift,  have  their  prevailing 
trend,  or  average  direction  of  their  longer  axes,  parallel  with  the  course 
that  was  taken  by  the  ice-sheet.  The  swells  and  undulations  of  the  till  have 
their  greatest  extent  in  this  direction,  and  the  lakes  fill  the  hollows  that  are 
formed  by  its  unequal  accumulation.  Among  the  hills  of  the  terminal 
moraines,  however,  the  longer  axes  of  the  lakes  are  apt  to  be  transverses  to 
the  course  in  which  the  ice  came,  but  parallel  with  its  border.  In  each 
case,  such  lakes  are  due  to  variable  glacial  erosion  and  deposition;  and  the 
basins  in  which  they  lie  are  not  mure  remarkable  features  of  the  contour 
than  are  its  swells,  hills  and  areas  of  highland.  The  deepest  lakes  contained 
in  depressions  of  the  till  in  this  state  arc  from  fifty  to  one  hundred  and  fifty 
feet  in  depth,  reaching  as  far  below  the  average  level  of  the  drifl  sheet  as 
its  most  elevated  portions  rise  higher;  but  a  great  majority  of  the  e  la 
especially  upon  regions  of  only  slightly  undulating  surface  withoul  promi- 
nent elevations,  are  shallow,  ranging  from  five  to  twenty  five  feel  in  depth. 

They  mainly  have  very  gently  ascending  shores,  bul    sometime     01 or 

11    ire  sides  are  partially  bounded  bj  five,  twenty  and  thirty  feet 

high,   formed  by  the  wear  of  waves  which  have  eaten  away  projecting  por- 


332  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

tions  of  their  margin  of  till,  leaving  its  boulders,  but  strewing  its  finer 
detritus  over  the  lake-bed. 

In  regions  of  modified  drift,  consisting  of  stratified  gravel  and  sand 
that  were  supplied  from  the  dissolving  ice-sheet,  the  lakes,  from  ten  to  fifty 
feet  or  more  in  depth,  and  often  bordered  by  level  or  undulating  tracts  of 
modified  drift,  from  twenty-five  to  one  hundred  feet  or  more  above  them, 
lie  in  depressions  which  at  the  time  of  the  fluvial  deposition  of  this  drift, 
were  probably  still  occupied  by  unmelted  masses  of  ice,  preventing  sedi- 
mentation where  they  lay  and  consequently  leaving  hollows  enclosed  by 
steep  and  high  banks,  whose  top  is  the  margin  of  plateaus  or  plains  of  gravel 
and  sand.  No  examples  of  lake  basins  thus  surrounded  by  modified  drift 
were  found  in  Watonwan  county,  neither  of  which  have  any  noteworthy 
deposits  of  this  class,  nor  any  such  rough  morainic  areas  as  to  influence 
the  distribution  and  trend  of  their  lakes. 

Most  of  the  lakes-  of  Minnesota,  and  of  all  glacial  regions,  present  only 
such  forms  and  arrangements  as  are  readily  explained  thus  by  the  modes  of 
excavation  and  accumulation,  and  the  diverse  deposits  of  the  ice-sheets. 
The  first  described  and  most  common  type  of  lakes  found  upon  the  surface 
of  the  drift,  trending  in  parallelism  with  the  course  in  which  the  ice  moved, 
finds  illustration  in  Watonwan  county  by  the  lakes  of  Madelia.  Fieldon, 
Long  Lake  and  Adrian.  Here  the  glacial  current  passed  southeastward, 
this  region  being  near  the  axis  of  the  great  lobe  of  the  continental  glacier 
which  stretched  from  the  Leaf  hills  and  the  head  of  the  Coteau  des  Prairies, 
southeast  and  then  south  to  the  center  of  Iowa. 

It  seems  difficult  to  explain  the  origin  of  these  remarkable  lake-basins 
in  the  drift,  for,  so  far  as  they  extend,  they  have  the  aspect  of  eroded  valleys, 
such  as  have  been  commonly  formed  by  the  rivers  of  this  region,  but  they 
sometimes  are  separated  by  divides  of  till  as  high  as  the  country  around. 
Thus  they  no  longer  form  continuous  channels,  which  must  have  been  their 
original  condition,  if  they  are  parts,  as  thus  indicated,  of  ancient  water- 
courses. 

Boulders  and  Gravel,  though  always  present,  are  nowhere  abundant 
in  the  till  of  Watonwan  county,  and  boulders  larger  than  five  feet  in  diameter 
are  very  rare.  The  frequency  of  limestone  fragments  is  nearly  the  same  as 
is  usual  through  all  western  Minnesota.  This  rock  often  makes  one-third 
or  one-half  of  the  gravel  in  the  till  and  on  the  beaches  of  the  lakes;  but  it 
supplies  a  much  less  proportion,  perhaps  not  exceeding  one-twentieth,  of  the 
boulders   larger   than    a    foot   in    diameter.     The   other   large   boulders    are 


C0TTOXWO0D    AXD    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MI  XX.  333 

granite,  syenite,  and  crystalline  schists.  The  red  Potsdam  quartzyte  is 
scantily  represented  in  the  drift  along  the  west  border  of  the  county.  It 
is  almost  entirely  wanting  farther  east;  but  west  of  the  Des  Moines  river, 
in  Jackson  county,  and  through  Dickinson  county  and  southward  in  Iowa, 
this  quartzyte  is  a  principal  ingredient  of  the  drift,  making  from  one-tenth 
to  one  half  of  its  rock-fragments.  At  Clear  Lake  in  Lake  Belt  township. 
thirty-five  miles  south-southeast  from  the  east  end  of  the  ridge  of  Potsdam 
quartzyte  in  Adrian  township,  scarcely  one  pebble  in  a  thousand  is  from 
this  source;  while  a  quarter  of  the  stones  over  three  inches  in  diameter 
and  two-thirds  of  the  smaller  gravel  are  limestone. 

The  fitness  of  Watonwan  county  for  farming  and  herding  is  their 
chief  source  of  wealth;  and  by  this  they  are  capable  of  supporting  a  large 
and  prosperous  population,  mainly  agricultural,  with  towns  and  villages  as 
required  for  manufacturing  and  centers  of  trade.  As  late  as  1885  some 
water-power  mills  in  Watonwan  county,  chief  among  which  is  that  of  the 
Madelia  mill,  on  the  Watonwan  river  about  a  mile  west  of  the  town;  head, 
eleven  feet.  Other  water  powers  could  be  utilized  on  the  main  stream  and 
on  both  its  north  and  south  branches. 

Building  Stone.  No  stone-working  has  been  done  in  these  counties, 
except  the  use  of  boulders,  chiefly  granite,  syenite,  and  gneiss,  with  occa- 
sionally slabs  of  limestone,  and  in  one  instance  a  large  mass  of  probably 
Cretaceous  sandstone.  These  erratics  of  the  drift,  though  dissimilar,  make 
substantial,  rough  foundations,  cellar  walls,  and  curbing  in  wells. 

Peat  occurred  in  numerous  places  in  this  county  at  an  early  date  and  in 
a  few  instances  was  utilized  for  fuel  purposes  by  the  Russians. 


CHAPTER  II. 


INDIAN    HISTORY  AND   TREATIES. 


When  Spain  ceded  the  territory  now  including  Minnesota  to  the  United 
States,  it  was  subject,  of  course,  to  all  the  former  rights  of  the  Indian  tribes 
found  herein.  It  was  left  to  the  United  States  to  subdue,  or  drive  away 
the  Indians,  or  better  still  to  make  treaties  and  purchase  the  lands  from 
them,  as  they  might  from  time  to  time  be  needed.  This  latter  was  carried 
out  in  a  large  degree,  along  legitimate  lines  and  in  a  business  way  which, 
at  least,  was  satisfactory  to  the  tribes  at  the  date  of  making  such  treaties. 

The  treaty  that  mostly  interests  the  citizens  of  Cottonwood  and  Waton- 
wan counties,  was  that  made  at  Traverse  des  Sioux  in  July,  185 1,  with  the 
Sioux  tribes.  This  ceded  to  the  white  man  all  the  Sioux  Indians'  holdings 
except  a  strip  of  ten  miles  in  width  along  either  side  of  the  Minnesota  river. 
This  tract  of  now  very  valuable  land,  running  from  New  Ulm  to  Lake  Tra- 
verse, would  have  been  held  by  the  Indians  had  they  not  made  war  against 
the  whites  in  1862;  by  doing  this  they  lost  all  title  to  such  lands  and  were 
driven  from  the  state  of  Minnesota,  as  a  tribe.  Hence,  this  was  the  first 
and  last  treaty  with  the  Indians  in  this  state  that  has  had  to  do  with  the 
people  of  Cottonwood  and  Watonwan  counties.  The  treaty  is  described 
more  fully  in  Chapter  I,  on  Related  State  History. 

INDIAN   CHARACTERS. 

The  Dakota  or  Sioux  Indians  were  divided  into  four  great  tribes: 
Medawakonton,  Wahpekuta,  Wahpeton  and  Sisseton,  who  held  a  large  ter- 
ritor)  west  of  the  Mississippi;  from  the  borders  of  Iowa  along  the  Missis- 
sippi, up  to  the  Minnesota,  and  stretching  far  into  Dakota.  They  had  great 
bodil)  strength,  a  slim  and  pleasing  stature,  and  were  remarkable  for  their 
shrewdness  and  deceit.  Their  features  are  rather  long,  and  they  have  a 
dark,  though  not  repulsive  complexion.  The  subjoined  account  was  written 
of  them  long  years  before  they  bad  caused  the  pioneers  of  the  Northwesl 
so  much  trouble  in  their  warfare: 

"They  arc  continually  wandering  about  and  consequently  use  for  means 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  335 

of  subsistence  whatever  Nature  affords  them.  Fishing  and  hunting  are 
their  principal  sources  of  support,  hi  the  spring  of  the  year  they  often 
make  sugar  and  syrup  from  the  juice  of  the  maple,  and  during  the  summer 
they  gather  wild  rice  and  berries.  This  work  is  done  by  the  squaws.  The 
Indian  regards  his  wife  as  a  slave,  and  he  thinks  it  below  his  dignity  to  do 
hard  work.  When  they  travel,  the  women  not  only  carry  the  papooses  and 
baggage,  but  also  lead  the  beasts  of  burden,  which  in  the  absence  of  a 
wagon  or  sled,  carry  the  tepee  upon  their  backs.  He  often  compels  her, 
although  weighed  down  under  a  heavy  burden,  to  carry  even  his  gun  so 
that  he  can  trot  along  with  greater  ease.  When  they  find  a  place  where 
fuel  and  water  are  convenient,  or  where  hunting  and  fishing  are  good,  the 
women  will  have  to  go  to  work  and  set  up  the  tepees  and  bring  in  what- 
ever is  necessary,  except  the  game,  which  he  provides.  A  few  so-called 
civilized  Indians  till  the  soil,  but  they  seldom  raise  anything  except  corn  and 
potatoes.  These  dress  like  the  whites,  and  they  were  formerly  supplied  by 
the  government  with  farming  implements,  horses,  cattle,  etc.  They  are 
very  proud  of  their  dress,  which  consists  merely  of  a  high  hat  and  a  shirt. 
These  Indians  are  usually  despised  by  the  real  Indians  who  treat  every  kind 
of  a  head  dress  with  a  contempt,  except  their  own  peculiar  one,  and  whose 
only  covering  consists  of  a  woolen  blanket  or  a  buffalo  robe;  and  they  live 
in  tents  or,  tepees.  These  prefer  to  dress  gaily,  cover  themselves  with  all 
manner  of  trumpery,  and  fold  the  skin  of  an  animal  around  their  body  so 
as  to  look  as  much  as  possible  like  the  animal  itself. 

"In  summer  months  they  appear  mostly  in  the  garb  of  tbe  old  original 
Adam,  witlt  tbe  addition  of  a  gun   and   a   smoking  pipe.     Their  arms  are 
bows  and  arrow-,  guns,  knives,  and  a  sort  of  hatchet  called  a  tomahawk. 
Their  necessaries  of  life  are   few  and  very  simple.     They  never  wash  their 
meat,   and    seem   to   have   a   dislike    fur   water   except    'lire-water'    (whisky). 
Still  they  very  much  like  a  clean  white  shirt.     A  kettle,  a   few  pots  and  the 
skins  of  animals  compose  all  their  furniture,  and  they  eat  their  food,  e 
ciallv    their   meats    half    raw.    and    devour    even    the    entrails    raw.      Their 
appetite  i-   prodigious.     Whenever  they  obtain  anything  palatable   they 
and  cat  without  regard  to  their  real  needs  or  tin-  coming  day.     Hence  ii  nol 
unfrequently  happens  that  they  are  compelled   I"    fasl    for  day-  at   a   time. 
Thev  are  noi   much  troubled  with  any  disease,  excepl    the   small-pox,   and 
their  medicine-men  have  in  vain  tried  by  all  manner  of  sorceries  and  strai 
appliances  to  banish  that  dreaded  complaint.     A   cripple,   lame  or  deaf  and 
dumb,   is  seldom    found.     They   love   their   ponies,    and   keep   as   mar      a 


33*5  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

possible.  But  during  the  winter  they  lose  a  great  many,  because  they  are 
too  lazy  to  provide  hay  for  them.  With  no  barns  and  little  food  they  die 
off  before  spring  comes.  They  believe  in  a  Great  Spirit  Manitou,  think 
much  of  ceremonies  over  their  dead,  but  hang  them  up  on  posts  to  be  ex- 
posed to  the  elements  until  they  are  dried  up.  Their  romantic  life,  their 
fidelity,  their  friendship  and  strength  of  character,  which  some  writers  tell 
us  about,  is  pleasant  sentimental  reading — that's  all. 

"The  Indian  is  always  serious,  seldom  laughs  or  jokes,  and  is  an 
uncomfortable  and  mistrusted  companion.  He  understands  begging  above 
all  things.  He  never  forgets  an  offense,  but  is  quite  apt  to  forget  acts  of 
kindness.  With  the  Indian  revenge  is  a  virtue  and  they  practice  polyganiv. 
Their  hospitality,  however,  is  worthy  of  all  praise.  The  stranger  receives 
the  best  pelts  for  his  bed,  and  the  host  keeps  up  a  warm  fire  with  his  own 
hands  if  the  pale-face  happens  to  remain  in  his  tent  over  night  during  the 
winter.  They  are  skilful  in  the  use  of  arms,  keen  in  the  chase  and  relent- 
less in  pursuing  an  enemy;  they  love  noisy  musical  instruments  and  dance 
after  their  own  peculiar  fashion.  Their  natural  senses  are  sharp  and  more 
fully  developed  than  those  of  the  whites.  They  are  very  cruel  in  war,  and 
prefer  deceit  and  stratagem  to  an  open  battle.  After  a  fight  they  scalp  their 
dead  enemies  before  they  think  of  carrying  off  the  booty;  for  they  take 
great  pride  in  possessing  a  large  number  of  scalps,  because  this  indicates  the 
number  of  enemies  slain  by  them.  They  ornament  their  heads  with  feath- 
ers, which  they  consider  "wakan"  (holy).  They  can  endure  more  hard- 
ships than  the  white  race  and  are  wonderful  runners,  many  of  them  being 
able  to  overtake  a  swift  horse.  In  biding  their  feelings  and  in  self-control 
they  can  do  wonders.  They  suffer  pain  with  stolid  indifference,  and  their 
wounds  heal  quickly.  To  leave  one  of  their  dead  in  the  hands  of  the  enemy 
is  looked  upon  as  a  foreboding  evil  and  the  greatest  ignominy  that  could 
possibly  happen  to  them." 

SEVEN    WEEKS'    CAPTIVITY    OF    BENEDICT    JUNE 

Benedict  Juni,  who  is  now  a  resident  of  New  Ulm,  tells  the  story  of 
bis  capture  by  the  Indians  when  only  eleven  years  of  age.  It  shows  that 
there  were  some  kind  Indians  and  that  the  milk  of  human  kindness  was 
exhibited  For  nearly  two  months  to  a  mere  lad,  and  that  during  the  awful 
outbreak  in  .Minnesota  in  the  summer  of  1862.  At  that  date  his  father  was 
on  a  farm  between  Beaver  Falls  and  Morton,  five  miles  north  of  the  Lower 
Agency.     The  story  is  as  follows: 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  337 

On  August  18,  1862,  while  seated  at  the  breakfast  table,  a  noise  so 
unusual  that  it  caused  comment,  was  at  intervals  heard  by  us  in  the  direction 
of  the  Lower  Agency.  My  father  said  it  was  the  beating  of  drums  an- 
nouncing the  arrival  of  soldiers.  In  reality  it  was  the  first  volleys  fired  by 
the  Indians  at  the  defenseless  whites.  The  previous  day  having  been  a  Sun- 
day, our  working  oxen  had  been  left  out  at  large.  I  mounted  our  only 
horse  and  brought  them  in.  My  father  was  just  hitching  up  to  the  wagon 
when  our  nearest  neighbors,  John  and  Mike  Hayden,  and  the  latter's  wife, 
approached  our  place  in  great  haste  and  told  us  that  the  Indians  were  on 
the  warpath.  My  father  was  disinclined  to  take  it  seriously,  but  yielding 
to  the  pleadings  of  the  women,  took  the  hayrack  off  and  replaced  the  box, 
hurriedly  threw  in  some  clothing,  bedding  and  provisions,  and  put  the 
women  and  children  in  also.  A  Mr.  Zimmerman  and  his  eldest  son  took 
charge  of  the  wagon.  They  had  two  guns  and  an  old  sword  with  which 
Mr.  Zimmerman  declared  he  would  defend  the  occupants.  On  the  way 
down  the  valley  he  picked  up  the  rest  of  the  family,  consisting  of  his  wife 
and  two  sons  and  two  daughters. 

ATTACKED    RV    REDSKINS. 

His  progress  was  unobstructed  until  he  reached  Faribault's  place,  where 
he  and  two  of  his  sons  were  killed  before  they  had  a  chance  to  make  any 
use  of  their  weapons.  The  women  and  children  were  imprisoned  in  the 
house,  and  the  Indians  had  a  hot  debate  about  what  to  do  with  them.  Some 
wanted  to  set  the  house  on  lire,  but  finally  milder  counsel  prevailed  and  the 
women  and  children  were  allowed  to  pursue  their  way  to  Ft.  Ridgely  on 
foot. 

My  father,  about  the  time  the  women  and  children  started  off  from 
our  place  in  the  wagon  with  the  Zimmermans,  ordered  me  to  run  up  our 
milch  cows  and  young  stock  and  take  them  t<>  a  place  now  occupied  by  the 
village  of  Morton.  1  was  then  t<>  proceed  down  the  valley  to  alarm  the 
.settlers,  while  he  and  my  younger  brother  guarded  the  herd.  But  T  was 
not  fated  to  call  on  many  settlers  that  morning.  The  Indians  interfered 
with  our  program.  First  they  came  upon  my  father,  who  was  guarding  the 
cattle,  and  drove  him  off  into  the  open  prairie.  Their  guns  were  significant 
and  he  took  their  advice  to  decamp,  reaching  Ft.  Ridj  ely  l"-fore  any  of  the 
rest  of  the  family. 

I  22) 


33§  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 


WARNS    NEIGHBORS. 

Meanwhile  I  had  taken  the  path  laid  out  for  me.  I  called  at  two  places, 
Mr.  Bureau's  and  Mr.  Kumrows.  Both  families  had  already  been  told  of 
the  danger  and  were  making  ready  to  escape.  They  asked  me  to  go  with 
them  but  I  declined,  as  that  would  have  interfered  with  carrying  out  my 
instructions.  My  road  led  me  through  a  gap  in  the  high  rocks.  I  had 
gotten  within  a  hundred  yards  of  this  spot  when  I  saw  three  Indians  com- 
ing out  of  the  pass.  I  obligingly  turned  my  horse,  intending  to  go  around 
the  bluff  and  avoid  meeting  them.  But  almost  immediately  three  guns  were 
leveled  on  me,  and  just  as  obligingly  I  came  to  a  halt,  having  a  high  regard 
for  the  redmen's  marksmanship. 

DEPRIVED    OF    HIS    HORSE. 

One  of  the  Indians  now  took  the  horse  by  the  bit  and  asked  me  if  I 
intended  to  resist.  I  answered  only  with  a  smile  at  the  thought  of  an 
unarmed  boy  only  eleven  years  old  resisting  three  armed  men.  At  that  he 
turned  the  horse  around  and  started  in  the  direction  I  had  come.  The 
thought  struck  me  that  perhaps  he  thought  more  of  the  horse  than  he  did 
of  me,  so  I  slipped  off.  He  swung  himself  on  and  trotted  away  without 
deigning  to  notice  me  further.  His  companions,  seemingly  well  pleased  with 
the  performance,  followed  their  leader.  I  was  free  again.  Thus  far  I  had 
know  no  fear  at  all.  But  I  thought  it  prudent  to  give  the  road  a  wide 
berth  by  going  around  the  bluff  rather  than  through  it.  Before  again 
reaching  the  road  I  saw  the  first  dead  lying  in  the  grass.  It  was  the  body 
of  a  Frenchman,  one  of  two  brothers  who  were  operating  the  ferry  at 
which  Captain  Marsh  and  his  command  were  annihilated  a  few  hours  later. 

DOG  GUARDS  DEAD   MASTER. 

I  can  never  forget  the  appealing  look  the  murdered  man's  little  dog 
gave  me  as  he  sat  beside  his  master  licking  the  clotted  blood  from  his  face. 
Thenceforth  my  movements  were  guided  by  more  caution.  Indians,  wagons 
and  oxen,  among  them  our  own,  passed  me  while  I  lav  in  the  grass  a  few 
rods  away.  Whenever  the  Indians  had  disappeared  I  would  run  until  I 
saw  new  signs  of  danger,  when  I  would  hide  again.  In  this  manner  I 
reached  Faribault's  place  about  noon. 

I    saw   a   group    of    Indians    outside    the    house,    the    same    group    as    I 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MI XX.  339 

afterwards  learned,  which  was  deciding  the  fate  of  my  people.  One  look 
was  enough.  I  dashed  into  the  cornfield  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  road 
and  made  a  detour  around  the  usual  fording  place  and  thus  missed  seeing 
what  happened  at  Faribault's  place. 

On  the  east  side  of  the  stream  the  road  left  the  valley  and  wound  up 
the  hill  toward  Manger's  place.  The  underbrush  now  impeded  my  progress 
and  I  again  ventured  into  the  road.  When  half  way  up  the  hill  I  was  sud- 
denly confronted  with  two  young  warriors  who  came  round  a  sharp  turn. 
One  carried  a  double  barreled  shotgun  and  the  other  a  bow.  The  one  with 
the  bow  got  ready  instantly  to  send  an  arrow  through  me.  but  his  compan- 
ion quickly  thrust  the  Ixiw  aside  with  the  butt  of  his  gun. 

CAPTURED    BY    FOEMEN. 

"Where  go?"  he  asked  me.  I  answered  that  I  was  bound  for  "Tepee 
tauke,''  or  "Big  House,"  as  the  Indians  called  the  fort.  He  shook  his  head 
to  indicate  that  I  was  mistaken,  and  ordered  me  to  face  about  and  precede 
them  down  the  hill.     This  was  the  beginning  of  my  seven  weeks'  captivity. 

The  trip  down  the  hill  to  the  ford  occupied  but  a  few  minutes.  Here 
we  came  suddenly  on  evidence  of  the  brutal  work  of  the  Indians  that  day. 
The  body  of  John  Zimmerman  lay  by  the  stream.  Tt  was  stretched  as 
naturally  as  though  it  was  taking  a  noonday  nap.  This  was  what  I  thought 
until  I  tried  to  rouse  him.  Then  I  discovered  that  John  would  wake  no 
more.  The  body  of  his  brother,  Gotfried,  lay  in  the  water,  he  having  been 
shot  while  trying  to  escape  on  a  log.  The  father  of  the  boys  lay  on  the 
west  side  of  the  stream.  My  captors  must  have  suspected  that  he  was  still 
living,  for  they  rolled  him  over  and  crushed  his  skull  with  blows  from  the 
butt  of  the  gun.  Scattered  about  were  a  few  household  goods  that  had 
been  thrown  on  the  wagon  at  home.  I  picked  up  some  article  of  clothing, 
but  was  ordered  to  drop  it.  A  couple  of  books  were  there.  We  had  only 
two  at  our  house.  Webster's  speller  and  tin-  Bible.  I  tucked  the  latter  under 
my  arm,  but  was  compelled  to  drop  that,  too. 

WHIPPED    BY    CAPTORS. 

It  appeared  that  my  captors  had  been  on  a  reconnoitering  expedition 
toward  the  fori  and  were  in  a  hurry  to  get  back  and  report.  The  party  in 
the  house,  including  my  mother,  one  brother  and  two  sisters,  must  have 
gone  before  this,  for  all  was  quiet  in  and  about  the  place.     The  Indians  all 


34-0  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES.    MINN. 

had  vanished.  My  captors  and  I  started  on  again.  I  had  my  trousers  rolled 
up  and  one  of  the  Indians  having  a  blacksnake  whip,  gave  me  an  occasional 
cut  across  the  bare  calves.  The  object  was  two-fold.  It  afforded  him  great 
amusement  to  see  me  jump  and  it  considerably  accelerated  my  speed. 

On  arriving  at  the  ferry  I  noticed  a  great  congestion  of  traffic.  Four 
or  five  wagons  drawn  by  oxen  were  awaiting  transfer.  There  was  great 
confusion.  The  Indians  had  managed  pretty  well  so  far,  but  coaxing  the 
oxen  onto  the  ferry  was  another  matter.  I  stepped  up  the  foremost  team 
and  soon  it  followed  me  onto  the  boat.  This  act  brought  hand-clappings 
and  calls  of  "Hocksheta  washtav"   (good  boy). 

It  was  not  long  till  all  had  passed  to  the  south  or  agency  side  of  the 
river.  Here  I  was  allowed  to  rest  a  quarter  of  an  hour  or  more.  Seated 
on  the  high  bank,  I  watched  the  gun  practice  of  the  Indians,  who  had 
many  new  guns  taken  from  the  stores,  and  some  taken  from  their  victims 
but  a  few  hours  before,  and  with  which  they  wanted  to  get  acquainted 
before  Captain  Marsh  and  his  men  should  arrive  on  the  scene.  You  would 
never  guess  the  target.  They  were  moving  targets.  Stacks  of  milk  pans 
had  been  taken  from  the  stores.  Each  marksman  took  one  and  hurled  it 
with  a  spinning  motion  out  into  the  stream,  allowed  it  to  right  itself  and 
float  some  distance  with  the  current,  and  taking  good  aim,  fired.  There  was 
no  need  of  a  scorer.  The  bright  pan  would  tell  the  story.  The  conditions 
in  the  battle  fought  some  hours  later  were  quite  similar.  It  was  an  easy 
change  from  floating  pans  to  the  heads  of  swimming  soldiers. 

MENACED    BY    DRUNKEN    RED. 

One  of  my  captors  remained  at  the  ferry  to  be  on  hand  when  the 
enemy  appeared.  The  others  took  me  up  the  hill  to  the  agency.  Here 
some  of  the  buildings  were  burned,  others  were  just  plundered.  I  saw  the 
Indians  carry  a  man  out  of  one.  Whether  he  was  dead  or  alive  I  could 
not  tell.  Some  of  tbe  Indians  had  taken  too  much  lire-water  and  were 
turned  into  demons.  One  brandished  a  butcher  knife,  made  a  lunge  at  me, 
but  a  thrust  from  the  butt  of  the  gun  of  my  captor  and  protector  sent  him 
reeling.  It  was  my  third  escape  from  death  in  the  day  and  perhaps  tin- 
closest.  When  Hearing  the  edge  of  the  agency,  an  Indian  drove  by  with 
my  father's  wagon  and  oxen.  Delighted  at  seeing  something  from  home.  I 
exclaimed,  "<  Hi.  there  is  our  team." 

My  captor  replied,  "Well,  if  it  is  yours,  let's  take  a  ride."     He  hailed 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  34 1 

the  driver,  who  took  us  on.     I  immediately  assumed  control  of  the  team  of 
oxen. 

UNWILLING    AID    OF    INDIANS. 

On  arriving-  at  an  Indian  village  my  captor  left  me  at  the  hut  of  his 
future  mother-in-law.  a  widow  with  two  grown  daughters.  Here  several 
squaws  were  squatted  around  an  open  fire  on  the  ground.  They  had  bags 
of  shot  which  they  poured  into  a  ladle  and  then  melted  over  the  fire  and 
poured  into  bullet  molds.  There  was  a  heap  of  bullets  on  the  ground,  with 
the  nipple  made  by  the  hole  in  the  mold  still  on  them.  One  of  the  squaws 
ordered  me  to  get  busy  with  a  knife  cutting  off  these  projecting  nipples. 
The  bullets  were  then  placed  in  the  empty  shot  bags  and  sent  to  the  ferry 
by  Indians  lads.  Thus  I  became  unwillingly  an  instrument  in  killing  some 
of  Captain  Marsh's  men. 

Like  most  boys,  I  had  great  faith  in  the  prowess  of  soldiers  and  be- 
lieved them  invincible  if  pitted  against  Indians.  Repeatedly  I  told  the 
squaws  that  they  would  "get  their  pay,"  meaning  their  punishment,  for 
what  they  had  done,  but  conveyed  no  meaning  thus,  so  that  if  they  showed 
displeasure  I  could  explain  that  I  meant  their  annual  payment  from  the 
government. 

WHEN    HOPE   ALMOST   DIED. 

About  four  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  a  flag  came  in  view  in  the  direc- 
tion of  the  agency.  Soon  after  was  seen  the  glitter  of  bayonets  and  swords. 
What  I  had  firmly  believed  all  day  was  now  to  come  true.  The  soldiers 
were  coming  to  mete  out  punishment  and  release  the  captives.  I  could 
contain  myself  no  longer,  and  having  no  hat  T  picked  up  an  old  rag.  clam- 
bered on  the  roof  of  an  old  hut.  waved  it  and  shouted  several  lusty  hur- 
rahs. Then  I  jumped  down  and  ran  toward  the  procession.  Alas,  the  ap- 
proaching parade  was  a  mob  of  wild  Indians  arrayed  in  the  garb  of  soldiers 
they  had  slain  at  the  ferry.  This  disillusionment  was  the  worsl  shock  of 
the  day  for  me.  \  then  and  there  gave  up  all  hope  of  seeing  white  people 
again.     Had  not  the  invincible  soldiers  been  annihilated? 

DRESSED    \S   I XI il AN. 

On  the  second  or  third  day  of  my  captivity  several  squaws  assisted  my 
mistress  in  making  a  regular  Indian  outfit  for  me.  It  consisted  of  a  pair 
of  leggings,  a  calico  shirt,  a  breechcloth  and  a  belt.     In  dress  I   was  now 


342  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

like  an  Indian,  but  my  complexion  was  fair  and  my  hair  silvery  white.  This 
naturally  made  me  conspicuous  in  a  group  of  Indian  boys  and  I  was  soon 
known  all  over  the  camp  as  "Paw  Skaw"  (whitehead).  At  first  I  did  not 
mind  it.  but  it  finally  affected  my  temper  to  a  point  where  the  squaw  de- 
manded to  know  what  was  the  matter.  I  told  her.  She  found  a  remedy. 
Thereafter  when  she  had  mopped  my  face  with  a  wet  rag  as  she  did  every 
morning,  she  scattered  dried  powder  over  my  head,  smeared  my  face  with 
paint,  made  a  few  streaks  and  dots  in  it  with  her  finger  nails.  This  worked 
like  a  charm  and  I  was  no  longer  annoyed. 

CHANGES    EMPLOYERS. 

The  Indian  who  had  captured  our  teams  and  wagons  remembered  how 
well  the  oxen  had  obeyed  me.  He  soon  found  me  again  and  asked  me  to 
help*  him  haul  some  forage.  Having  accompanied  him  two  or  three  times, 
the  squaw,  on  my  last  return,  said  to  me  that  if  I  worked  for  others  I  must 
board  and  lodge  there  too.  The  next  time  my  Indian  friend  came  I  told 
him  what  the  squaw  had  said.  "So  much  the  better,"  he  replied,  "come 
right  along.     Hereafter  you  are  a  member  of  my  family." 

In  my  new  home  I  found  a  trunk  that  had  belonged  to  an  uncle  of 
mine  who  was  a  soldier  in  the  federal  army  in  the  South.  In  it  I  found  a 
few  copies  of  Harper's  Weekly  with  pictures,  mostly  war  scenes,  and  these 
interested  me  much.  My  master  had  two  sons  and  one  daughter.  The 
eldest  boy  was  of  my  age  and  proved  to  be  a  good  companion  and  true 
friend  to  me.  Nor  was  I  entirely  forgotten  by  the  family  that  had  first 
sheltered  me. 

WELL    LIKED    BY    CAPTORS. 

The  two  daughters  called  one  afternoon  and  got  permission  to  take  me 
back  with  them  for  a  day.  Every  attention  was  paid  me.  I  was  feasted 
and   entertained  with  pleasant  chat  by   the  two  girls. 

For  fear  I  may  be  considered  a  pampered  drone  in  the  hive  I  ought  to 
make  mention  of  the  duties  I  was  expected  to  perform.  I  had  to  provide 
all  the  wood  and  water  for  the  cooking,  whether  the  supply  was  far  or 
near.  I  had  to  see  to  the  feeding  of  the  oxen  and  horses.  I  had  to  assist 
in  pitching  cam]),  loading  and  unloading  and  when  on  the  move  had  charge 
of  the  ox-team. 

The  food  of  the  Indians  was  good.  Our  rations  were  liberal.  Green 
corn,  potatoes  and   beans,    fresh   mutton  or  beef   were  the   staple  articles. 


COTTONWOOD    AXD    WATONWAN    COUXTIES,    MINX.  343 

Vegetables  and  meats  were  served  without  salt  and  the  coffee  was  black 
and  very  sweet.  I  protested  a  little  and  to  please  me  a  little  bag  of  sugar 
and  salt  was  put  to  my  place  and  T  was  told  to  use  both  to  suit  my  taste. 
Sometimes  when  strolling  through  the  camp  after  a  meal  I  would  be  invited 
to  partake  and  never  refused.  One  time  it  was  the  white  porcelain  dishes 
and  at  another  the  regular  plantation  molasses  that  attracted  me. 

REGARDED  AS   A    PRODIGY. 

Sometimes  when  visitors  came  I  was  the  subject  of  conversation.  I 
had  learned  to  read  but  not  to  use  a  pen,  but  my  master  would  point  to  me 
as  a  prodigy  who  could  read  and  write.  T  was  able  to  understand  and 
answer  questions  about  ordinary  affairs.  But  at  times  I  was  asked  ques- 
tions by  my  Indian  captors  and  their  friends  touching  astronomy  and  relig- 
ion, which  were,  of  course,  beyond  my  depth. 

At  the  time  the  battle  of  Birch  Coulee  was  raging  there  was  great 
excitement  in  the  camp.  My  mistress  feared  for  my  safety.  Toward  even- 
ing she  took  me  into  the  woods  skirting  the  bluffs  south  of  the  Minnesota 
river,  placed  me  in  a  hollow  basswood  tree  and  told  me  to  remain  until  she 
came  the  next  morning.  The  position  was  cramped  and  uncomfortable  and 
when  it  was  dark  I  crept  out  and  ran  home  to  camp  where  I  went  to  sleep 
in  my  usual  place.  On  seeing  me  the  next  morning  she  was  greatly  sur- 
prised, but  did  not  seem  displeased.  There  were  disturbances  at  other  times 
wdien  my  master  was  at  home.  On  these  occasions  he  was  accustomed  to 
roll  me  in  a  buffalo  robe  and  sit  on  me,  calmly  smoking  until  the  danger, 
whatever  it  was.  was  over. 

On  the  night  that  the  Indians  lay  around  General  Sibley's  camp  at 
Wood  lake.  1  slept  in  the  powder  tent  on  a  heap  of  powder,  which  made  a 
better  mattress  than  one  would  suppose.     I  slept   soundly. 

SURRENDERED  To   S0UDIERS. 

On  his  return  from  the  Wood  lake  battle,  my  master  told  me  to  get 
ready  to  return  to  my  parents,  as  arrangements  had  been  made  for  a  sur- 
render. On  the  next  morning  I  put  on  my  white  man'-  garb,  such  as  could 
be  found.  It  consisted  of  a  pair  of  man's  trousers  with  the  legs  cut  off  at 
the  knee,  a  long  linen  duster  and  a  stove-pipe  hat. 

In  this  garb  I  was  surrendered  to  the  soldiers,  and  confined  in  a  sort 
of  enclosure  with  other  surrendered  prisoners  whose  names  were  taken  and 


344  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

sent  to  the  Pioneer  at  St.  Paul.  In  this  way  my  father  came  to  learn  that 
his  boy  was  still  in  the  land  of  the  living.  But  the  end  of  my  adventures 
had  not  yet  come.  Two  other  boys  and  myself — Louis  Kitzmann  and 
August  Gluth — being  tired  of  this  confinement,  escaped  from  the  white 
soldiers,  and  I  was  captured  again  by  the  Indians  and  again  surrendered 
when  some  of  the  Indians  decided  to  quit  the  warpath  and  come  in.  My 
companions  got  away  entirely  and  reached  Ft.  Ridgely  before  I  did.  In 
the  camp  of  the  Indians  I  waited  upon  women  and  messed  with  three  little 
girls.  One  tin  dish  and  one  tin  spoon  constituted  our  outfit  and  rice  and 
sugar  the  only  food  except  some  wormy  crackers.  My  two  companions, 
Kitzmann  and  Gluth,  left  Camp  Release  on  the  first  opportunity  and  reached 
Ft.  Ridgely  on  the  same  day  that  my  father  and  Mr.  Gluth  had  come  to 
look  for  us.  Kitzmann's  father  was  not  there.  He  had  been  killed  at  the 
outbreak  of  the  massacre.  My  experiences  at  the  fort  were  not  of  the  most 
pleasing  character.  I  now  realized  fully  that  to  be  a  captive  among  the 
Sioux  was  not  the  worst  lot  that  could  have  befallen  me.  Within  a  few 
days  of  my  arrival  at  the  fort  my  father  took  me  to  LeSueur,  where  I  had 
a  home  until  the  autumn  of  1865. 


CAUSES    LEADING    TO    THE    INDIAN    MASSACRE,    1862. 

The  chief  cause  for  the  Indian  outbreak  of  1862  was  the  dishonesty  of 
the  "Indian  Agents"  sent  out  by  the  government  to  look  after  the  disburse- 
ments of  funds  due  the  Indians,  who,  in  many  cases,  worked  in  connection 
with  the  traders  at  the  posts  or  agencies,  to  greatly  defraud  the  Indian. 
While  the  general  government  usually  sought  to  live  up  to  its  treaties,  it 
was  thwarted  in  its  attempt  to  fulfill  its  treaty  promises  by  its  agents. 

In  1858  the  government  purchased  that  portion  of  the  reservation  lying 
north  of  the  Minnesota  river,  so  that  the  Indians  retained  only  a  strip  of 
land  ten  miles  wide  and  one  hundred  and  fifty  miles  long.  For  the  portion 
thus  ceded,  costing  the  government  about  one  cent  an  acre,  two  hundred  and 
seventy-five  thousand  dollars  were  to  be  paid  annually  to  the  chiefs  of  the 
Sissetons  and  Waphetons,  and  also  thirty  thousand  dollars  for  the  education 
of  their  tribes.  The  Medawakontons  and  Wahpekutas  were  also  to  receive 
two  hundred  thousand  dollars  annually,  payable  to  their  chiefs,  and  thirty 
thousand  dollars  for  their  education,  the  government  promising  the  Indians 
at  that  time  to  do  all  in  its  power  for  their  education,  elevation  and  civiliza- 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  345 

tion.  The  whole  sum  was  to  be  paid  annually  for  fifty  years;  about  live 
hundred  and  fifty-five  thousand  dollars. 

This  honest  debt  contracted  by  the  government,  was,  with  the  excep- 
tion of  an  insignificant  portion  of  it,  never  paid:  and  this  was  the  principal 
cause  of  the  dissatisfaction  and  revolt  of  the  Indians.  The  government  did, 
indeed,  pay  the  stipulated  sum  regularly,  but  the  superintendents,  agents, 
etc.,  to  whom  the  money  was  entrusted  for  distribution  and  payment,  man- 
aged to  keep  the  greater  portion  of  it  for  themselves. 

The  following  extracts,  which,  alas,  contain  neither  slander  nor  exag- 
geration, nor  misrepresentation  of  the  real  facts,  will  give  the  reader  an 
idea  of  how  the  Indians  were  treated.  A  prominent  officer.  Major  Kitzing 
Pritchette,  being  sent  from  Washington  to  investigate  the  numerous  com- 
plaints of  gigantic  swindles  raised  by  the  Indians,  in  his  official  report  says: 

"The  complaints  which  are  made  at  all  their  meetings  refer  to  the  im- 
perfect  fulfillment  or  non-compliance  with  the  conditions  of  the  treaty." 

Tag-ma-na,  a  chief  of  the  assembled   Indians,  said  in  his  presence: 

"'The  Indians  sold  their  land  in  Traverse  des  Sioux.  I  say  what  they 
tell  us.  For  fifty  years  we  were  to  receive  fifty  thousand  dollars  annually, 
and  we  were  promised  three  hundred  thousand  dollars.  We  have  seen 
nothing  of  it." 

At  the  same  meeting,  Mahpya  Wicasta  (  Man-of-the-Ooud ),  the  sec- 
ond chief  of  the  assembled  Indians,  said: 

"In  the  treaty  of  Traverse  des  Sioux  we  were  to  receive  two  hundred 
and  seventy-five  thousand  dollars  as  soon  as  we  had  entered  upon  the  land 
pointed  out  by  the  government.  Tell  us  what  was  done  with  it?  Every 
paleface  knows  that  we  are  for  the  past  live  year-,  on  the  territory  named 
in  the  treat}',  and  as  yet  we  have  received   none  of  the  money." 

A  principal  cause  of  these  swindles  was  the  acts  of  the  so  called  trad- 
ers, who  were  consequently  also  the  cause  of  tin-  dissatisfaction  of  the 
Indians.  These  trader-  were  merchants  licensed  to  sell  goods  to  the  In- 
dians, or  to  trade  with  them.  Since,  a-  a  rule,  the  Indians  had  110  money 
to  pay  for  goods  they  bought,  the  trader  would  bring  his  bills  to  the  pay- 
master at  the  time  payment  was  to  be  made  to  the  Indians,  if  such  a  time 
ever  came,  and  the  Indians,  being  neither  able  to  read  or  write,  these  hills 
were  shamefully  and  unmercifully  changed  and  increased.  The  sums  thus 
deducted  from  the  amounts  due  the  Indians  was  a  transaction  as  cruel  as 
it  was  unjust,  but  the  poor  red  man  was  helpless.  His  complainl  could  be 
lodged    only   through   the   powerful   influence  of  the  traders   t.i   conceal   the 


346  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

truth  as  much  as  possible.  Others,  though  commanding  both  languages, 
were  not  listened  to  by  the  agents.  The  Indians  were  often  so  much 
cheated  that  they  had  as  little  pay  after  a  payment  which  would  amount  to 
hundreds  of  thousands  of  dollars  as  they  had  before. 

COMPLAINTS    AGAINST    THE   AGENTS. 

Judge  Young,  sent  from  Washington  to  investigate  the  complaints 
against  Alexander  Ramsey,  at  that  time  superintendent  of  Indian  affairs, 
and  later  governor  of  Minnesota,  says  in  his  report : 

"Alexander  Ramsey  was  principally  accused  of  having,  in  spite  of  the 
protests  of  the  Indians,  in  violation  of  the  laws  of  the  treaties,  and  in  utter 
disregard  of  the  solemn  promises  upon  the  part  of  the  government,  paid  the 
greater  portion  of  the  money  to  a  man  named  Hugh  Tyler  for  payment  or 
distribution  among  the  Indians  or  half-breeds.  According  to  the  treaties  the 
money  was  to  be  paid  to  the  chiefs." 

And  thus  of  the  two  hundred  and  seventy-rive  thousand  dollars  which 
should  have  been  paid  to  the  Indians,  according  to  article  IV  of  the  treaty 
of  Traverse  des  Sioux,  Ramsey  gave  two  hundred  and  fifty  thousand  to 
Hugh  Tyler  under  the  pretext  that  the  money  belonged  to  traders  and  half- 
breeds.  Mr.  Tyler  also  received  seventy  thousand  of  the  one  hundred  and 
ten  thousand  dollars,  which,  according  to  the  treaty  of  August  5,  185 1, 
should  have  been  paid  to  the  Medawakontons.  Altogether,  of  the  three 
hundred  and  eighty-five  thousand  dollars  belonging  to  the  Indians,  Tyler 
received  three  hundred  and  twenty  thousand  as  a  recompense  for  his  labors 
in  the  Senate  in  behalf  of  the  treaties,  and  also  to  reimburse  him  for  his 
expenses  in  securing  the  consent  of  the  chiefs.     Such  were  his  claims. 

During  the  year  1857  a  number  of  Indians  were  induced  by  a  trader 
to  sign  a  paper,  the  object  of  which,  he  said,  was  to  cause  a  portion  of  the 
money  they  owed  to  the  traders  to  be  returned  to  them.  But  it  was  in 
reality  a  simple  order  in  his  favor,  and  the  Indians  were  again  cheated  out 
of  twelve  thousand  dollars.  Wherever  there  was  stealing  the  Indians  had 
to  pay  for  it,  the  amount  being  simply  deducted  from  money  due  them. 
'I  1ms  a  trader  received  four  thousand  five  hundred  dollars  for  goods  which 
he  claimed  had  been  stolen  from  him,  and  a  man  in  Sioux  City,  Iowa,  re- 
ceived  live  thousand  dollars  for  horses,  also  claimed  to  have  been  stolen  by 
the  Indians,  although  it  was  known  that  the  Indian  seldom  steals  anything 
of  which  he  is  not  in  need.  When  at  peace  with  the  whites  it  was  ever 
their  rule,  if  they    found  any  property  belonging  to  the  whites  to  at  once 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  347 

return  the  same  to  its  owner.  Such  actions  on  the  part  of  the  white  men  had 
a  tendency  to  fill  the  minds  of  the  sons  of  the  wilderness  with  a  loathing 
and  disregard  for  "civilization."  The  government  had  also  promised  the 
Indians  to  confer  upon  them  the  true  blessings  of  civilized  life,  for  which 
purpose  there  were  at  the  agencies  crowds  of  employees  who  were  to  teach 
them  the  principles  of  agriculture,  mechanics,  architecture,  etc.  As  a  rule. 
the  United  States  government  intended  to  do  well  ami  lie  honorable  with 
the  Indians,  and  provided  them  with  horses  and  cattle,  farming  tools,  seed, 
etc..  and  sent  teachers  and  missionaries  among  them  to  educate  them. 

But  the  officers  appointed  by  the  government  to  deal  with  the  Indians 
managed  to  secure  the  benefits  of  the  treaties  for  themselves.  From  the 
first  to  the  last  they  were  united  for  the  one  purpose  of  deceiving  the  In- 
dians. How  the  Indians  received  their  stipulated  provisions,  clothing,  etc., 
may  be  illustrated  by  one  example.  It  was  in  the  year  1865.  A  large 
number  of  barrels  of  flour  and  meat  were  to  be  sent  from  1  lenderson, 
Sibley  county,  Minnesota,  to  Ft.  Abercrombie.  The  contractors,  in  order 
to  obtain  the  necessary  conveyances  at  the  lowest  possible  figure,  deferred 
the  delivery  of  these  provisions  so  long  that  the  whole  train  was  snowed 
in  over  a  hundred  miles  from  the  fort.  The  barrels  were  simply  put  "ii 
the  open  prairie  and  the  teamsters  came  back.  When  the  poor,  half-starved 
Sioux  were  informed  of  this  some  time  after,  they  started  out  to  get  the 
provisions,  but,  instead  of  good  flour  they  found  bran  and  shorts,  and  flour 
made  from  spoiled  wheat,  which  could  not  hr  used  for  bread;  and  yet  the 
contractors  received  nearly  fifteen  dollars  a  barrel  for  the  lot. 

SCHEMES  OF   THE   TRADERS. 

The  principal  agent  divided  the  money  allotted  to  the  Indian-  among 
sub-officers  and  traders,  who.  at  the  time  of  payment,  received  enormous 
sums  of  money  for  pretended  services  rendered  and  good  old  to  the  In- 
dians. Contractors  whose  business  it  was  to  procure  whatever  was  needed 
at  the  agency,  such  as  provisions,  horses,  rattle  farming  implements,  etc.  all 
charged  enormously  for  their  services.  The  Indian-  were  to  be  supplied 
with  good  horses  and  cattle,  but  they  received  the  worst  and  poorest,  for 
which  they  had  to  pay  five  times  the  ordinary  value.  Not  knowing  the  real 
value  of  such  articles  the  Indian  was  constantly  swindled.  \  valuabli 
buffalo  hide  was  frequently  given  for  a  pound  of  sugar.  Many  paid  from 
three  to  live  dollars  for  a  single  drink  of  whisky.  A  certain  quantity  of 
fuel  was  to  be  delivered  to  them  annually.     This  was.  despite  their  protests, 


34-8  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

cut  from  their  own  lands,  after  which  they  had  to  pay  half  price  for  it.  A 
large  mill  was  built  of  funds  belonging  to  the  Indians,  and  still  they  had  to 
pay  a  high  price  for  what  milling  products  they  bought  there.  House  after 
house  was  erected  for  the  Indians  solely  to  give  some  contractor  a  chance 
to  do  the  work.  Many  Indians  had  fine  large  brick  residences  erected  but 
lived  in  tepees,  and  the  agents  knew  they  preferred  the  wild  way  of  living, 
but  built  the  structures  to  give  men  work  who  spent  the  money  received 
at  the  traders'  stores — a  real  graft  game.  One  very  interesting  feature  was 
how  they  were  taught  the  different  arts  and  sciences.  Some  employees  were 
continually  building  fences  only  to  be  used  for  fuel  by  the  Indians.  They 
would  plow  and  sow  at  all  seasons  of  the  year  simply  to  show  the  Indian 
how  it  was  done.  One  Randall,  employed  as  a  teacher,  used  to  drive  his 
pupils  away  from  the  school  with  a  whip,  but  drew  his  salary  amounting 
to  several  thousand  dollars  regularly." 

THE  INDIAN   PROTEST. 

Every  question,  it  is  said,  has  two  sides,  and  before  passing  on  to  a 
description  of  the  massacre  of  1862,  let  the  reader  hear  what  was  contended 
by  old  chief  Red  Iron,  as  early  as  1S52 — ten  years  before  this  outbreak. 
It  was  in  December,  1852,  that  the  chief  of  the  Sisseton,  Ma-zas-ha  (Red 
Iron),  was,  on  account  of  his  bad  behavior,  to  be  deprived  of  his  dignity 
as  chief  by  Ramsey,  the  superintendent  of  Indian  affairs. 

Red  Iron  was  the  real  type  of  an  Indian  chief,  some  six  feet  high, 
strongly  built,  had  a  finely  shaped  head,  a  prominent  nose  and  piercing  eyes. 
He  was  clad  in  the  costume  of  a  Dakota  chief;  about  forty  years  old,  shrewd, 
proud  and  determined,  and  answered  boldly  and  promptly  the  questions  and 
objections  raised  by  Ramsey.  As  an  orator  he  had  much  talent.  When 
Ramsey  insisted  upon  getting  his  signature  for  the  purpose  of  retaining  a 
considerable  sum  of  money  from  funds  belonging  to  the  Indians  in  order 
to  pay  some  old  debts  due  the  traders,  Red  [ron,  raising  himself  to  his  full 
height,  pressing  his  hand  firmly  upon  his  scalping  knife,  with  a  firm  deter- 
mined look  at  the  agent,  said : 

"We  want  our  pay,  and  we  will  sign  no  paper  except  a  receipt  for  the 
money.  The  snow  covers  the  ground,  and  we  are  still  waiting  for  our 
money.  We  are  very  poor;  you  have  plenty.  Your  fires  burn  well;  your 
tents  are  well  closed  against  the  cold.  We  have  nothing  to  eat.  We  wait 
a  long  time  for  our  money.  Many  of  our  people  are  sick  from  hunger. 
\\  e  will  have  to  die,  because  you  do  not  pay  us.     We  may  die,  and  if  so  we 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  349 

will  leave  onr  bones  unburied,  so  that  our  Great  Father  may  see  how  his 
Dakota  children  died.  We  have  sold  our  hunting  grounds  and  no  less  the 
graves  of  our  lathers.  We  also  sold  our  own  graves.  We  do  not  know 
where  we  shall  bury  our  dead,  and  you  will  not  pay  the  money  for  that 
land." 

After  this  well-delivered  speech  was  made  he  was  taken  a  prisoner. 
The  air  began  to  tremble  before  the  hideous  yells  of  the  Dakota  warriors, 
and  armed  Indians  hurried  from  all  sides  to  a  place  upon  which  the  bones 
of  dead  warriors  were  strewn  about.  Lean  Bear,  a  favorite  among  the 
warriors  of  Red  Iron's  hand,  a  determined  and  powerful  Indian,  dropped 
his  blanket  and  grasped  the  scalping  knife  with  his  right  band  and  re- 
counted all  the  great  deeds  of  their  imprisoned  chief,  whereupon  they  cried 
"Ho!  ho!"     After  that  he  said  to  them: 

"Dakotas!  the  great  men  are  among  us;  they  hold  Ma-zas-ha  impris- 
oned like  a  wolf;  they  want  to  kill  him  because  he  prevents  the  white  men 
to  cheat  us  of  our  land  and  the  money  which  the  Great  Father  has  sent  us." 

He  was  interrupted  by  a  thundering  "Ho!  ho!"  but  continued: 

"Dakotas!  shall  we  starve  in  the  snow  like  buffaloes?  Shall  we  permit 
our  blood  to  freeze  like  the  waters  of  a  brook,  or  shall  we  paint  the  snow 
with  the  blood  of  white  warriors?" 

"Ho!  ho!"  answered  the  savages,  and  the  war  cry  resounded  in  the 
whole  assembly. 

"Dakotas !"  he  continued,  "the  blood  of  your  fathers  cries  to  you  from 
their  graves;  their  spirits  embrace  us  and  make  us  strong.  I  am  glad  of  it. 
Even  this  very  night  shall  the  blood  of  the  pale-faces  flow  like  water  in  a 
shower,  and  Ma-zas-ha  shall  fight  with  his  people.  Dakotas!  as  soon  as  the 
moon  hides  behind  the  hills  prepare  yourselves,  and  I  will  lead  you  against 
the  long  knives  (bayonets  and  swords  1  of  the  white  men  who  have  come  to 
swindle  us,  to  rob  us  of  our  land,  and  to  imprison  us.  because  we  do  not 
assist  them  to  rob  our  wives  and  children.  Dakotas!  be  without  fear;  we 
have  more  warrior-  than  the  whites.  Bi  n  idy!  When  the  moon  sinks  I 
will  lead  you  to  their  tents." 

ORGANIZATION    OF   YOUNG    WARRIO 

Time  went  on  and  December.  [861,  the  Indians,  some  fifteen  hun- 
dred of  them,  had  to  he  cared  for  in  order  to  keep  them  from  starvation. 
Crops  had  been  poor  several  years,  bugs  had  ruined  the  crops  only  the 
summer  before.     A   fearful  snow  storm  came  during  the  month  of    Febru- 


350  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

ary.  1862,  and  this  frustrated  their  hopes  of  soon  being  able  to  supply  them- 
selves with  game.  Under  these  circumstances  they  anxiously  waited  for 
the  payday  of  1862.  They  knew  all  about  the  great  Civil  War  which  was 
then  in  progress,  and  this  increased  their  fears  that  the  government  might 
not  be  able  to  pay  them.  They  also  desired  to  see  the  North  whipped,  so 
that  they  might  be  enabled  to  complete  the  work.  There  are  those  who 
think  that  some  who  were  in  sympathy  with  the  South  did  all  they  could  to 
induce  the  Indians  into  mischief.  Misled  by  unfavorable  reports  the  In- 
dians imagined  that  they  had  to  fight  only  with  old  men,  women  and  chil- 
dren, and  that  they  had  reason  to  fear  that  they  never  would  receive  any 
more  money. 

The  different  tribes  went  to  the  agency  early  to  demand  their  pay. 
The  agents  told  them  they  would  receive  their  money,  but  did  not  know 
when,  which  caused  great  dissatisfaction  among  the  Indians.  In  the  course 
of  time  from  five  to  six  thousand  were  gathered  there.  All  were  full  of 
fear  and  mistrust  lest  they  might  not  receive  their  money.  Their  want  was 
so  great  that  many  died  of  hunger,  others  lived  on  roots  and  raw  corn. 
Reports  were  circulated  by  some  of  the  whites  that  the  government  was 
becoming  weaker  day  by  day,  and  messengers  began  to  go  from  one  tribe 
to  another  planning  the  possibility  and  success  of  a  revolt.  The  older  and 
nn  ire  intelligent  among  them  were  opposed  to  it ;  but  the  hot-headed,  and 
especially  the  younger  warriors,  formed  themselves  into  a  secret  society 
called  "Soldiers'  Lodge." 

This  secret  society,  established  early  in  July,  had  for  its  object  to 
oppose  the  traders  and  to  prevent  them  from  getting  their  money,  and  in 
case  of  necessity  to  defend  their  rights  by  force.  The  chiefs,  although 
informed  of  this  organization,  did  not  dare  oppose  it.  They  well  under- 
stood the  dangers  connected  with  it,  since  these  young  warriors  numbered 
from  live  to  six  thousand;  and  the  chiefs  were  even  suspected  of  being  in 
league  with  the  officers  of  the  government  for  suppressing  and  swindling 
their  people.  The  traders  soon  learned  about  the  Soldiers'  Lodge  and  its 
object,  and  when  the  Indians  wanted  to  buy  something  from  them  on  credit, 
they  were  told  to  go  to  the  Soldiers'  Lodge.  The  Indians,  compelled  to  ask 
for  credit  on  account  of  their  extreme  need,  would  answer  the  traders:  "If 
we  could,  like  our  women,  give  ourselves  up  to  you,  we  could  get  all  the 
credit  we  ask  fur;  but  since  we  are  men  we  cannot." 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  351 

FIRST    ACT    OF    VIOLENCE. 

And  thus  did  bitterness  increase  during  1862;  Those  who  were  sus- 
pected of  informing  the  traders  and  others  of  the  doings  of  the  society  were 
severely  persecuted,  and  some  of  them  killed.  Their  first  act  of  violence 
was  committed  on  August  4,  1862.  The  time  for  payment  was  up  in  July. 
The  want  among  the  assembled  tribes  was  alarmingly  on  the  increase.  Some 
of  them  had  already  devoured  their  own  ponies  and  dogs.  Six  children 
had  died  of  starvation  within  three  days.  Agent  Galbraith  traveled  from 
one  agency  to  another  in  order  to  pacify  them;  and  sometimes  distributed 
provisions,  tobacco,  powder  and  lead.  But  that  was  not  sufficient  to  quiet 
the  uneasiness  caused  by  the  delay  of  their  pay.  Early  in  the  morning  of  the 
4th  of  August,  some  five  hundred  and  fifty  young  warriors,  mostly  mem- 
bers of  Soldiers'  Lodge,  forced  an  entrance  into  the  warehouse,  tore  down 
the  American  flag  and  took  over  one  hundred  and  fifty  sacks  of  flour  before 
any  resistance  was  offered,  which  could  have  been  done,  since  there  were 
one  hundred  well-armed  soldiers  with  two  heavy  cannons  near  by.  The 
soldiers  entered  the  warehouse  and  took  possession  of  it  whilst  the  Indians 
stood  around  with  loaded  rifles.  But  when  the  agent  promised  to  furnish 
them  with  pork,  rice  and  flour  the  following  day.  they  did  not  attempt  any 
further  disturbance. 

The  fact  that  not  one  of  the  warriors  was  punished  for  this  serious 
breach  of  the  peace  made  them  bold  and  daring;  and  the  more  so  when 
they  saw  the  able  men  among  the  whiles  leave  fur  the  South  at  their  coun- 
try's call  on  the  13th.  14th  and  15th  of  August.  On  the  18th  of  August, 
at  eight  "'clock  a.  m..  they  left  New  Ulm  under  Lieutenant  Culver  and  Ser- 
geant McGrew,  as  "Keyville  Rangers."  and  on  the  same  day  the  Indians 
broke  out. 

The  time  was  now  at  hand  which  was  to  give  the  two  German-  who 
had  been  murdered  some  time  before  numerous  companions.     A  man  named 

Brand  had  been  put  to  death  on   the  banks  of  the  Little  Cottonw 1.   six 

miles  south  of  Xew  Ulm,  in  the  spring  of  1857,  and  his  body  was  found 
in  the  brush  near  seme  Indian  tepees.  John  I'..  Schmitz  wanted  to  settle  on 
the  reservation  ten  miles  west  of  New  Ulm,  but  on  the  27th  of  April.  1860, 
while  digging  a  cellar,  he  was  treacherously  shot  and  killed. 

The  murderer,  a  Sioux,  was  imprisoned  at  Xew  Ulm.  During  the  trial 
in  the  curt  room  a  heavy  chain  was  attached  to  his  feet,  and  he  was  well 
guarded.      At   a   necessary   call   he    desired   to   leave   the   room.      Constable 


352  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

Charles  Seeler  obtained  the  assistance  of  his  deputy.  Doctor  Blecken,  a  re- 
nowned physician,  who  was  at  one  time  a  Lutheran  minister,  but  later  a 
preacher  at  a  free  church ;  he  was  also  one  of  the  founders  of  New  Ulm. 
To  guard  against  any  possible  accident,  a  third  deputy  was  called  into  serv- 
ice. But  man  proposed,  and,  in  this  instance,  the  Indian  disposed.  So  soon 
as  he  was  in  the  open  air  he  managed  to  shake  off  his  fetters,  and  with  the 
swiftness  of  a  deer  the  stalwart  form  of  the  Indian  disappeared  from  before 
their  astonished  gaze.  The  three  officers  of  the  law,  on  account  of  the 
sudden  and  unexpected  disappearance  of  their  prisoner,  were  so  stunned 
that  they  did  not  as  much  as  remember  their  revolvers,  which  were  left 
untouched  in  the  official  pockets.  It  was  just  at  dusk  and  the  Indian  did.  not 
return.  The  trial  was  over.  Such  murders  and  the  escape  of  the  guilty 
ones  caused  much  alarm  in  the  country. 

About  the  middle  of  August,  1862,  Mail-carrier  Miles  was  met  by  the 
Indians  some  two  miles  south  of  the  Lower  Agency  and  led  out  of  his  way 
across  the  prairie,  because  they  were  holding  a  secret  meeting  in  a  ravine  on 
the  bank  of  the  river,  where  he  would  have  observed  them.  A  few  days 
previous  to  this  Miles  noticed  some  newly-cut  signs  on  the  trees,  apparently 
of  great  importance.  About  the  same  time  friendly  Indians  warned  the 
settlers  of  the  approaching  dangers,  saying:  "Pakat-shif"  (go  away)  and 
"Nippo"  (to  kill).  They  also  made  signs  with  their  hands  which  the  whites 
did  not  want  to  understand  or  believe.  A  week  or  so  before  the  outbreak,  a 
number  of  gaudily  dressed  and  decorated  Indians  held  in  the  town  of  New 
Ulm  those  wild  dances,  which  are  always  forebodings  of  evil.  Their  toma- 
hawks and  scalping  knives  were  sharpened.  The  cause  of  the  outbreak  was 
c\  idently  the  neglect  of  a  prompt  fulfillment  of  duty  on  the  part  of  the  gov- 
ernment officials,  the  extreme  need  of  the  Indians  and  delay  of  their  annual 
pay.  They  were  to  receive  their  money  in  gold  coin.  The  government  sent 
the  money  promptly  to  St.  Paul,  where  it  remained  for  a  long  time;  but  the 
officials  in  whose  hands  it  had  been  placed,  exchanged  it  for  paper  money 
at  a  great  premium,  in  opposition  to  the  loud  protests  of  the  chiefs  of  the 
Sioux  tribe.  The  Indians,  not  being  accustomed  to  handle  paper  money, 
became  greatly  enraged  so  that  the  agents  finally  concluded  to  re-exchange 
it  for  gold.  This,  of  course,  caused  a  great  loss,  the  premium  being  then 
very  high,  lint  they  were  little  concerned  about  this,  for  they  intended  to 
make  tlie  Indians  pay  the  discount.  They  soon  found  out.  however,  that 
fliev  had  been  calculating  without  consulting  the  party  most  deeply  interested 
in  the  transaction. 


COTTOXWOOD    AND    WATONWAN"  COUNTIES,    MINN.  353 

REMINISCENCES    OF    Till'.    LITTLE    CROW    UPRISING. 

[By  Dr.  Asa  W.  Daniels,  in  a  paper  read  before  the  .executive  council. 
Novmeber  14.  1910,  and  now  forming  a  part  of  the  records  of  the  Minne- 
sota Historical  Society  Collections,  volume  XV,  1915.] 

Considering  the  two  thousand  lives  involved,  largely  women  and  chil- 
dren, the  successful  defense  of  New  Ulm  was  the  most  momentous  event 
in  the  Indian  War  of  1862-63.  From  that  defeat  the  Indians  turned  west- 
ward and  abandoned  further  combined  raids  upon  the  settlements.  The 
active  part  taken  by  the  people  of  St.  Peter  will  ever  be  an  impressive  chap- 
ter in  the  eventful  history  of  that  city.  Her  immediate  and  generous  re- 
sponse with  volunteers,  and  their  long  and  hurried  march,  enabled  them  to 
join  in  defending  New  Ulm  in  the  afternoon,  and  later  to  participate  in  the 
uncertain  issue  of  battle  that  held  the  besieged  in  its  grasp  for  a  whole  day. 
The  command  of  General  Sibley  would  have  reached  the  city  too  late  to 
save  it  from  savage  fury,  and  had  not  the  response  been  immediate  from 
St.  Peter  LeSueur  and  Mankato,  its  fate  must  have  been  horrible  to  con- 
template. 

Some  of  the  events  of  that  battle  have  never  been  fully  stated  in  the 
official  reports,  and  others  not  mentioned  came  under  the  observation  of  the 
writer.  Therefore  it  will  be  of  interest  to  learn,  from  one  who  had  superior 
opportunities,  the  particulars  of  the  battle  as  seen  by  him. 

The  news  of  the  Indian  outbreak  reached  St.  Peter  during  the  night 
of  Monday,  the  [8th  of  August,  1862,  it  having  commenced  at  the  lower 
Sioux  agency  at  seven  o'clock  that  morning.  Major  Galbraith,  who  had 
reached  St.  Peter  in  the  evening  before,  on  his  way  to  Ft.  Snclling  with  a 
company  of  recruits,  learning  of  the  situation,  at  daylight  started  on  his 
return  to  Ft.  Ridgely,  which  he  reached  in  time  to  participate  in  its  defense. 

At  four  o'clock  in  the  morning  of  Tuesday  the  writer  was  notified  of 
the  outbreak  and  was  asked  by  Captain  Dodd  to  go  to  Rounsevillc  and 
Briggs  neighborhood,  six  miles  to  the  northwest,  and  notify  the  settlers, 
and  he  informed   me  at  that  time   thai  <  >  -    had    already    been   dis- 

patched in  other  directions.     I  was  soon  on  the  way,  going   from  house  to 
house,  spreading  the  alarm,  and  sending  others    to   more   di-tant    locations. 
On  my  return  the  refugees  were  already  pouring  in,  and  by  noon  the  villi 
became  crowded  with  men,  women  and  children.      Some  had  I 
the  way,  and  bore  their  wounded   with  them.      All   were   in  a  most   pitiable 

'(23) 


354  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

condition,  having  in  their  fright  and  haste  taken  little  clothing  and  no  pro- 
visions, reaching  their  destination  completely  destitute.  Every  house  was 
sympathetically  thrown  open  to  the  refugees,  and  was  soon  filled  from  cellar 
to  garret.  The  vacant  Ewing  House,  a  hotel  of  fifty  rooms  or  more,  and 
an  unoccupied  store  building,  were  soon  filled,  and  being  of  stone  afforded 
safety  and  comparative  comfort;  but  man}-  were  compelled  to  resort  to 
sheds  and  barns,  or  to  remain  unsheltered  for  some  nights,  until  better  pro- 
vided. 

A   YEAR   BEFORE  THE   OUTBREAK. 

A  little  more  than  a  year  before  the  outbreak  I  had  located  in  St. 
Peter,  having  left  the  government  service  at  the  Lower  Agencv,  as  phvsician 
and  surgeon  to  the  Sioux  Indians,  after  a  service  of  more  than  seven  years. 
I  had  visited  them  a  month  before  and  heard  from  them  many  complaints, 
principally  against  their  physician,  Doctor  Humphrey.  My  long  service 
among  them  had  been  satisfactory  to  myself  and  the  Indians,  and  I  had 
many  warm  friends  in  every  band,  among  them  being  Little  Crow,  and  I 
may  say  most  of  the  chiefs.  Therefore,  when  the  news  of  the  outbreak 
came,  I  was  in  great  doubt  in  regard  to  its  being  general,  but  I  thought  it 
confined  to  a  single  band,  and  that  the  outrages  had  occurred  when  they 
were  under  the  influence  of  whisky  sold  them  by  the  whites.  But  within 
twenty-four  hours  my  confidence  in  my  old  friends  was  rudely  shattered, 
and  I  came  to  realize,  on  seeing  the  dead  and  wounded,  that  the  outbreak 
was  general  and  of  the  most  barbarous  character. 

As  a  government  officer,  I  had  observed  for  more  than  two  years  the 
close  intimacy  that  was  growing  up  between  the  Sioux  and  Winnehagoes. 
This  was  apparent  from  frequent  visits  of  large  parties  of  Winnehagoes  to 
the  agency,  intermarriages  that  took  place,  uniting  in  games,  and  tribal 
pledges  of  friendship.  No  doubt  some  of  the  Winnebagoes  participated  in 
the  battle  that  took  place,  but  were  too  discreet  to  have  it  known.  Had 
success  attended  the  Sioux  at  Ft.  Ridgely  and  New  Ulm,  there  is  little  doubt 
there  would  have  been  a  union  of  the  tribes  against  the  whites. 

At  St.  Peter,  to  which  we  return  after  a  slight  digression.  Captain 
Dodd  and  Major  Flandrau  had  enlisted  about  one  hundred  and  forty  men 
to  march  at  once  in  defense  of  New  Ulm.  Many  of  these  volunteers  fled 
from  their  country  homes  in  the  morning,  hurriedly  disposed  of  their  famil- 
ies, and  bravely  responded  to  the  call  for  a  thirty-mile  march  before  the 
close  of  their  eventful  day. 


COTTONWOOD    AXD    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MTXX.  355 

I  joined  them  as  a  surgeon  of  the  command,  and  we  were  on  our  way 
about  midday.  The  men  were  armed  with  double-barreled  .shotguns,  a  few 
rifles,  and  some  other  arms  of  uncertain  efficiency.  Some  were  on  horse- 
back and  a  few  in  buggies;  having  to  carry  my  surgical  and  medical  cases, 
1  availed  myself  of  the  latter  conveyance.  On  reaching  Courtland,  twenty 
miles,  a  heavy  shower  drenched  the  command,  but  the  march  was  continued, 
all  being  enthusiastic  to  reach  New  [Jim,  where  refugees  informed  me, 
there  was  a  little  battle  going  on  and  much  of  the  town  burned.  We 
reached  Redstone,  two  miles  from  the  village,  just  as  it  was  getting  dark,  and 
from  that  distance  it  did  look  as  if  the  whole  town  was  on  fire;  but  crossing 
the  ferry,  we  rushed  on  and  reached  the  vicinity  of  the  Dakota  House  about 
ten  o'clock  at  night. 

As  we  were  leaving  St.  Peter  we  were  joined  by  the  command  under 
Captain  Tousley,  of  LeSueur,  of  nearly  one  hundred  men,  who  continued 
with  us  on  the  march  to  Xew  Ulm.  With  them,  as  surgeons,  were  Dr.  Otis 
Avers  and  Dr.  William  W.  Mayo,  father  of  the  two  distinguished  surgeons 
of  Rochester.  It  was  midnight  before  we  found  quarters  for  the  night,  and 
then  I  shared  my  bed  with  Doctor  Avers,  passing  a  comfortable  night  after 
a  long  and  strenuous  day. 

SITUATION'    AT    NEW    ULM. 

Early  in  the  morning  of  Wednesday  we  were  looking  over  the  situa- 
tion as  left  from  the  engagement  the  aftern<»>n  before.  On  a  vacant  lot 
near  the  center  of  the  town  lay  six  dead,  brought  in  from  the  -cine  of  the 
engagement,  and  others  had  been  cared  fur  by  their  families.  The  physi- 
cians then  visited  the  wounded  and  cared  for  them,  and  for  some  of  the 
refugees  who  were  ill  from  fright  and  anxiety. 

During  the  forenoon  of  Wednesday,  Captain  Bierbauer  came  in  with 
nearly  one  hundred  men  from  Mankato,  and  a  few  men  came  from  Nicollet, 
under  the  command  of  Capt.  Samuel  Coffin.  \n  organization  was  formed 
on  that  day  by  the  military,  who  selected  Major  Flandrau  as  commander, 
Captain  Dodd  as  lieutenant,  and  S.  A.  Buell  as  provost  marshal.  Pickets 
were  established  on  the  outskirts  of  the  town,  and  guard  duty  for  the  night. 
During  the  day  quarters  and  the  commissary  department-  were  established 
for  the  different  commands. 

A  company  of  sixteen  mounted  men  from  Si  Peter,  among  them  Henry 
A.   Swift  and   Horace  Austin,  afterward  governor  of  the  state,   had    started 


356  COTTONWOOD   AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

to  the  front  some  hours  hefore  the  command  of  Flandrau  was  ready  to 
leave,  and  had  reached  New  Ulm  in  time  to  participate  in  the  hattle  of 
Tuesday  afternoon. 

Thursday  morning,  after  guard  mount  and  after  a  company  had  heen 
selected  to  dig  rifle  pits,  a  company  of  a  hundred  men,  under  the  command 
of  Captain  Dodd,  was  ordered  to  go  to  Little  Cottonwood  settlement,  six 
miles  south,  to  bury  the  dead  and  rescue  any  that  might  be  hiding  or 
wounded.  Doctor  Avers  and  myself  were  detailed  to  accompany  the  com- 
mand. The  doctor  invited  me  to  have  a  seat  with  him  in  his  buckboard. 
which  I  thankfully  accepted.  The  command  had  hardly  made  half  the  dis- 
tance to  the  settlement  before  they  were  fired  upon  from  ambush,  but  none 
was  wounded,  and,  after  returning  the  volley,  we  continued  our  march. 
Three  mounted  Indians  soon  showed  themselves,  but  at  a  safe  distance, 
observing  our  course,  and  in  derision  waving  their  blankets,  keeping  in  sight 
most  of  the  time  during  the  march. 

On  reaching  the  settlement,  the  saddest  scene  presented  itself  that 
humanity  is  ever  called  upon  to  witness.  The  massacre  had  probably  taken 
place  on  Monday  before,  and  the  dead  were  lying  in  all  directions  about  the 
farm  houses — in  bed,  in  different  rooms  of  the  house,  in  the  yard,  near  the 
grain  stacks,  and  on  the  lawn.  During  the  three  days  that  the  remains 
had  been  exposed  the  flies  had  done  their  work,  and  as  a  result  the  faces  of 
the  dead  presented  a  revolting  spectacle.  Trenches  were  dug.  and  the  bodies 
were  gathered  together  and  laid  within,  blankets  were  spread  over  them,  and 
a  prayer  was  offered:  then  earth  to  earth,  ashes  to  ashes,  and  the  command 
turned  sadly  away,  having  witnessed  a  burial  scene  that  could  never  be 
forgotten. 

Bv  the  military  the  day  had  been  passed  in  strengthening  the  defenses 
of  the  town,  providing  themselves  with  ammunition,  and  fixing  upon  posi- 
tions of  advantage  in  case  of  an  attack.  News  came  in  during  the  day  of 
righting  at  Ft.  Ridgely,  and  of  Captain  Marsh's  defeat  at  the  agency,  and 
many  other  alarming  accounts   from  refugees 

A    LONG    AND    USELESS    MARCH. 

The  principal  event  of  Friday  was  the  detailing  of  one  hundred  and 
forty  men,  under  command  of  Captain  Tousley,  to  go  to  Leavenworth,  west 
and  south  of  Ft.  Ridgely,  expecting  to  find  persons  there  unable  to  escape 
and  that  might  be  rescued,  but  nothing  definite  was  known  in  regard  to  the 
situation  there.     Doctors  Avers.   Mayo  and  myself  joined   the  command — 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  357 

I  again  having  a  scat  with  Doctor  Avers.  The  route  was  across  an  open 
prairie,  and  we  had  not  proceeded  far  before  we  discovered  three  mounted 
Indian  scouts  to  the  north  keeping  in  line  with  us  and  watching  our  course. 
Late  in  the  afternoon  we  reached  the  vicinity  of  Ft.  Ridgely  and  for  the 
first  time  heard  cannonading  going  on  there,  the  sounds  reaching  us  at 
short  intervals.  After  its  .significance  had  fully  impressed  me.  I  said  to 
Doctor  Ayers  that  the  Indians  had  attacked  the  fort  in  great  force,  and  that 
as  scouts  had  been  watching  onr  course,  in  cast-  we  continued  onr  march  to 
Leavenworth  they  would  certainly  withdraw  from  the  fort  during  the  after- 
noon or  in  the  morning  and  cut  us  off.  We  had  expected  to  remain  at 
Leavenworth  over  night,  returning  the  next  day.  Doctor  Avers  agreed 
with  me  fully,  and  rode  forward  and  consulted  with  Captain  Tousley,  who 
called  a  halt  and  gave  his  reasons  for  so  doing,  asking  of  the  command  to 
express  their  wishes  by  a  showing  of  hands.  It  was  carried  by  those  in 
favor  of  going  forward  by  two  or  three  votes. 

We  continued  our  march  for  another  hour,  the  warning  notes  of  cannon 
coming  to  us  regularly;  the  sun  was  nearly  down,  night  was  coming  on.  and 
fatigue  was  telling  upon  the  command,  when  a  second  halt  was  called  and 
another  vote  was  taken,  which  resulted  in  an  order  to  return  to  New  Uhn. 
We  reached  our  return  destination  after  midnight,  thoroughly  worn  out  and 
disgusted  from  this  long  and  useless  march,  which  might  have  resulted  not 
only  in  the  destruction  of  the  command,  hut  perhaps  in  the  capture  of  Xew 
I'lni. 

The  morning  of  Saturday  was  warm  and  fair,  and  at  first  we  hopefully 
looked  forward  to  an  uneventful  day.  Much  time  had  been  taken  in  pre- 
paring for  an  attack,  by  burning  outer  buildings,  digging  rifle-pits,  and  loop- 
holing  such  walls  as  might  lie  made  serviceable.  On  that  morning  Colonel 
Flandrau  gave  me  a  dozen  men  and  I  barricaded  the  avenue  a  little  wesl  of 
the  Gross  hotel.  From  the  roof  of  the  Erd  building,  a  central  business 
block,  with  a  glass  an  extensive  view  was  had  of  the  surrounding  country, 
and  at  tin-  point  of  observation  a  watchman   was  on   duty  during   the   day. 

THE  ATTACK    BEGINS. 

The  first  surprise  and  alarm  of  the  morning  came  when  at  guard  mount, 
west  of  the  town,  Lieutenant  Edwards  was  instantly  killed  bj  an  Indian  so 
concealed  in  the  grass  that  danger  was  unsuspected.  About  eighl  o'clock 
a.  m.,  the  watchman  from  the  roof  saw  Indian-  collecting  -our-  two  miles 
west  of  town,  and   signal  smokes    from  the  northwest.     II  rvations 


35§  COTTONWOOD    AXD    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

were  confirmed  by  officers  and  others.  The  certainty  of  a  deadly  conflict 
with  a  barbarous  foe,  when  no  quarter  is  expected  is  a  most  trying  test  of 
courage,  but,  with  few  exceptions,  the  situation  was  heroically  accepted. 
The  women  and  children  were  hurried  to  places  of  safety,  the  command  was 
got  under  arms,  and  the  physicians  selected  rooms  for  receiving  the  wounded, 
Doctors  Mayo  and  McMahon  in  the  Dakota  House,  and  Doctor  Avers  and 
myself  in  a  store  room  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  avenue. 

Within  one  hour  the  large  body  of  Indians  who  had  been  forming  on 
the  west,  were  seen  to  be  rapidly  moving  upon  the  town.  The  signals  indi- 
cated a  like  approach  from  the  north.  When  aware  of  this  approach, 
Colonel  Flandrau  posted  his  men  upon  the  slope  of  one  of  the  terraces  on 
the  west  with  a  line  of  skirmishes  in  front.  Little  Crow  was  mounted  and 
led  his  warriors,  who  were  on  foot.  In  a  long  line  with  flanks  curved  for- 
ward, they  approached  in  silence  within  a  quarter  of  a  mile  of  the  defend- 
ers, when  they  gave  a  terrific  war-cry  and  rushed  forward  upon  a  run, 
holding  their  fire  until  they  had  received  that  of  our  men,  and  then  deliver- 
ing an  effective  volley  at  close  range.  The  defenders  fell  back  in  a  panic 
and  the  whole  line  retreated  to  the  barricades.  The  assault  was  well  exe- 
cuted, and  had  it  been  pushed  to  its  limit  might  have  resulted  in  the  capture 
oi  the  town  by  the  Indians.  But  our  men  soon  rallied  behind  the  barricades 
and  buildings,  which  arrested  the  onward  rush  of  the  Indians  and  compelled 
them  to  seek  protection  of  the  outer  buildings. 

I  .ieutenant  !  Kiev,  with  seventy-five  men.  was  ordered  to  the  ferry  to 
prevent  the  Indians  from  crossing  from  the  north  side.  Either  from  a 
misunderstanding  or  over-confidence,  he  crossed  his  command  to  the  north 
side  of  the  river,  there  meeting  a  large  body  of  the  enemy,  retreated  to 
Nicollet,  and  was  not  seen  again  until  the  next  day.  This  unfortunate  event 
was  a  serious  loss  to  the  defense.  The  firing  from  both  sides  became  rapid. 
harp  and  general,  the  Indians  gradually  pushing  their  way  in  surrounding 
the  town,  which  they  accomplished  before  midday.  They  fought  with  the 
utmost  boldness  and  ferocity,  and  with  the  utmost  skill  and  caution  from 
even  hollow  and  grass  patch,  and  from  behind  every  house  and  hillock  or 
log.  The  crisis  came  a1  two  p.  m.,  when  the  Indians  fired  buildings  on  both 
sides  of  the  avenue  in  the  lower  part  of  town.  A  strong  wind  was  blowing 
from  the  east,  and  the  conflagration  threatened  the  destruction  of  our  only 
defense.  Colonel  Flandrau  rallied  a  sufficient  force,  and  charging  down 
the  street,  drove  the  enemy  from  the  avenue.  Bui  just  at  this  critical  time 
the  wind  changed  to  the  opposite  direction,  and  clouds,  which  had  been  gath- 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  359 

ering  for  hours,  shed  upon  our  threatened  locality  a  sufficient  shower  of  rain 
to  prevent  the  further  extending  of  the  flames. 

DEATH    OF    CAPTAIN    DODD. 

The  unfortunate  incident  of  the  day's  battle  that  led  to  the  death  of 
Captain  Dodd  has  never  been  correctly  reported.  In  justice  to  the  brave 
men  that  participated  in  that  critical  movement,  a  correct  understanding 
should  be  had  of  the  reasons  that,  at  the  time,  seemed  to  make  the  under- 
taking imperative. 

It  will  be  remembered  that  Lieutenant  Huey  had  retreated  toward 
Nicollet  in  the  morning,  and  all  through  the  day  we  looked  for  his  return 
with  reinforcements,  which  really  took  place  the  following  day. 

About  five  o'clock  there  appeared  beyond  the  Indian  outer  line,  at  the 
east,  some  forty  or  fifty  men,  marching  in  single  file,  under  the  command 
of  an  officer,  carrying  the  American  Hag.  They  were  dressed  in  citizens' 
clothes,  and  all  had  the  appearance  of  the  reinforcements  so  anxiously 
expected. 

The  Indians  had  again  gained  possession  of  the  buildings  on  the  avenue 
east,  perhaps  five  blocks  from  the  Dakota  House,  and  from  that  position 
were  delivering  a  galling  fire  upon  our  line. 

Immediately,  on  discovering  what  all  thought  to  be  our  reinforcements, 
Captain  Dodd,  in  a  short  speech,  volunteered  to  lead  any  that  would  follow 
to  the  clearing  of  the  avenue  of  the  Indians  and  joining  our  reinforcements 
beyond.  Rev.  Father  Sunrisen  and  Doctor  Mayo  both  made  speeches  urging 
all  to  unite  in  support  of  Dodd.  Some  twenty  men  responded,  Dodd  and 
Shoemaker  being  mounted,  and  proceeded  down  the  avenue.  It  was  a  move- 
ment of  only  a  few  moments  consideration,  and  seemed  to  promise  an 
important  result.  Dodd  rushed  forward  with  a  cheer,  hardly  coming  within 
the  Indian  lines  before  receiving  a  deadly  volley,  which  hurriedly  sent  them 
back  to  positions  of  safety.  Captain  Dodd  wheeled  his  horse  and  reached  a 
log  blacksmith's  shop,  when  the  horse  plunged  forward  and  fell.  Partially 
supporting  himself  and  being  assisted  by  others,  the  fatally-wounded  leader 
was  taken  to  the  building,  a  cot  prepared  and  there  within  an  hour  he  died. 
lie  had  received  three  mortal  wound-,  two  other  slight  wounds,  and  the 
horses  ridden  by  Dodd  and  Shoemaker  were  both  killed.  The  writer  had 
witnessed  from  our  hospital  the  whole  movement,  saw  Dodd  fall  and  hur- 
ried to  bis  assistance.  There  was  little  that  could  be  done,  as  he  was  in  a 
dying   condition.      He   appreciated   his   condition    and   met    it    courageously, 


360  COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN. 

giving  a  message  to  his  wife  and  to  Bishop  Whipple,  with  the  utmost  cool- 
in--  and  consideration. 

AN    INDIAN    STRATAGEM. 

The  party  we  had  supposed  to  be  reinforcements,  upon  the  volley  from 
the  Indian-  and  our  men  falling  hack,  suddenly  disappeared,  and  it  proved 
to  be  a  stratagem  to  draw  out  some  of  our  men  and  cut  them  off.  Had  the 
Indians  in  the  buildings  held  their  lire  until  they  had  advanced  a  half  block 
farther,  it  would  have  been  successful.  Jn  explanation  of  how  the  Indians 
became  possessed  of  so  many  suits  of  citizens'  clothes,  it  may  be  said  that 
twenty-two  months  before  one  hundred  and  fifty  suits  were  issued  to  them 
by  the  government,  under  the  pledge  of  becoming  farmers,  much  of  this 
clothing  having  never  been  worn  more  than  a  few  days. 

The  assault  commencing  in  the  morning  at  9:30,  was  kept  up  without 
interruption  until  dark,  when  the  Indians  withdrew  in  the  direction  of  Ft. 
Ridgely.  During  the  evening  all  buildings  outside  of  our  barricades  were 
burned.  By  ourselves  and  the  Indians  one  hundred  and  ninety  buildings 
were  destroyed.  We  lost  ten  killed  and  forty  wounded,  the  small  loss  being 
accounted  for  by  the  fact  that  we  were  righting  from  the  loop-holes  of  build- 
ings and  barricades.  The  Indians  loss  has  never  been  known.  Both  hos- 
pitals received  and  dressed  the  wounded,  providing  temporary  cots  for  them. 
Some  that  were  only  slightly  wounded  returned  and  continued  in  the  fight 
during  the  day. 

Saturday  night  was  anxious  and  disturbed  with  desultory  firing  by  our 
guards,  and  perhaps  by  the  Indians.  Sunday  morning  it  seemed  from  heavy 
firing  that  the  assault  was  to  be  renewed;  but  it  gradually  lessened  and  by 
noon  ceased  entirely.  About  noon  ("apt.  I'"..  St.  Julien  Cox  arrived  with 
about  liti\  men,  accompanied  by  Lieutenant  Iluey  with  part  of  his  detach- 
ment which  had  been  cut  off  the  day  before.  During  Sunday  afternoon 
search  was  made  for  the  recovery  of  the  dead.  Three  or  four  were  found 
that  had  fallen  so  far  out  as  to  be  exposed  to  any  indignity  that  the  Indians 
might  offer,  but  none  was  scalped  or  otherwise  mutilated.  Jerry  Quane,  a 
St.  Petei  volunteer,  had  the  totem  of  Little  Crow  attached  to  the  clothing 
1  hi-  breast.  The  totem  was  the  skin  of  a  crow,  preserved  in  its  natural 
form,  symbolic  of  the  family  name.  The  parting  with  such  a  treasured 
emblem  was  to  boastfully  inform  us  from  whom  the  brave  defender  had 
met   his  death. 


COTTONWOOD    AND    WATONWAN    COUNTIES,    MINN.  361 

RETREAT    TO    MANKATO. 

Early  on  Monday  morning  the  order  was  issued  for  the  evacuation  of 
the  village.  Colonel  Flandrau  must  have  been  wholly  responsible  for  this 
move,  as  I  am  sure  the  medical  officers  were  not  consulted  and  were  entirely 
ignorant  of  it  until  a  short  time  before  the  movement  was  commenced.  We 
had  received  reinforcements  the  day  before,  our  position  was  stronger  than 
ever,  the  sanitary  conditions  did  not  necessitate  great  urgency  in  moving, 
and  the  volunteers  would  have  loyally  remained.  General  Sibley  was  at 
St.  Peter,  and  would  have  arrived  within  a  few  days,  therefore  it  was  a  mis- 
take to  retreat  from  Xew  Ulm  until  relieved  by  him.  The  route  was  part 
of  the  way  through  a  dense  forest,  and  had  a  few  Indians  attacked  a  panic 
and  massacre  would  have  ensued.  It  is  an  ungracious  and  unwelcome  task 
to  criticise  the  Colonel,  but  a  truthful  statement  seems  to  demand  that  it 
should  be  done,  in  this  respect  at  least.  Nearly  two  thousand  men,  women 
and  children  took  up  the  march  for  Mankato,  thirty  miles  distant,  bearing 
the  wounded  in  conveyances.  Fortunately  the  long  march  was  uneventful, 
and  we  reached  our  destination  late  in  the  evening,  where  we  received  a 
generous  reception. 

On  Tuesday  the  volunteers  from  St.  Peter  reached  home  and  disbanded. 
The  writer  brought  with  him  the  Rev.  Air.  Saunders,  severely  wounded,  who 
had  volunteered  with  the  LeSueur  company.  Some  of  the  wounded  were 
left  at  Mankato,  but  most  of  them  came  to  St.  Peter,  and  their  care  became 
most  urgent.  My  brother,  assistant  surgeon  with  General  Sibley's  com- 
mand, assisting,  we  established  a  hospital  in  the  court  room  at  the  court 
house.  The  room  was  large,  well  ventilated  and  afforded  space  for  twenty 
beds,  sufficient  for  the  most  serious  cases.  The  care  of  the  hospital  devolved 
upon  me,  as  my  brother  left  with  his  command  two  or  three  days  later. 

Of  the  cases  that  came  under  my  care,  the  most  serious  were  as  follows : 
Mr.  Summers,  of  Nicollet,  shot  through  the  spinal  column,  died;  Rufus 
Huggins  was  shot  through  the  mouth,  severing  his  tongue,  recovered;  a 
Sibley  county  volunteer,  with  a  compound  fracture  of  the  arm  bone  near 
the  shoulder  joint,  had  amputation  and  recovered;  Rev.  Mr.  Saunders,  with 
an  abdominal  wound,  recovered;  Mr.  Bean,  a  St.  Peter  volunteer,  w